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'hk Sohveyor and Municipal and County Enginekb, .Iniiuiini li:, 79/',. 



The Surveyor 

Bnb fTDunicipal anb County Engineer. 


JUJ.Y 4 TO DECEMBER 2(), 1913 

Xon&on: ^3^ ,^ 

The ST. BRIDE'S PRESS, Ltd., ^t, M .\C\ 




Thk Surveyor and Municipai, and County Engineer, January 16, 191.',. 


Abittoir, Bftlt'^ist Municipal, 465 
A Belated Inquiry, 343 
Alierc-irn Snrveyor's Protest, 49a 
Aberdare's TrHmwaye, 605 
Accretion at Estuary Harbour?, 7i'.1 
Aeration as an Aid in Sewage Farifica- 

tion, 87, "275 
Air Compressors, 1P4 
Ammonia as a Disinfoetant, 6i 
Animal Growths in Water Pipes, 1. " 

Annual Reports :— 

Auckland, 95 

Belper, a56 

Bristol, 181 

Camberwe'I, 861 


E*st Suffolk, 374 

Essex, 111 

Exeter. 159, 181 

GodalminH, 449 

(iodstone, 668 

Lincoln, 141 

London, Ciry of, 218 

Middlesex, 263 

N .rtPampt'>nshire. 141 

Northumberland, 273 

Newca-tlf-upon-Tyne, 173 

Norfolk, 170 

Ontario, 385 

Sheffield, 634, 667, 730, 760 

Somersetshire, :^10 

Staffordshire, 361 

Surrey, 181 

Warmley, 684 

Warwickshire, 2-52 

Willesden, 2.52, 2.54, 273, 275 

Worcestershire, 414 
Antrim County Surveyorsbip, 247 
Application of K>-inforced Cjnorete, 169 
Architect and Offi^als, 597 
Architects and the Model By-laws, 311 
Architects. Statutory Registration of, 

Architectural <"!ompetitions, 749 
Architectural Shortcomings, 864 
Articles, Period of, 971 
Assistant Surveyor as Parish Councillor, 

Assistants' and Students' Section :— 

Air Compressors, 194 
Brickwork. 677 

Building Construction, 334, 980 
Cement Grout. 300 
Centering for Bridge, 514 
Continuous Beams, 551 
Discharge of Water Main, 476 
EfiBciency of Motor, 745 
Elasticity of Materials, 440 
Foundations, 156 
Geodesv. 404 

House Drainage, 477, 514, 859 
Hydraulic Ram, 63C 
Level, 785 

Plotting a Survey, 264 
Puinpine, 746 
Koadmaking, 21 
Setting Out Tunnel, 594 
Sewaae Disposal, 230, 552 
Sewage Tank Construction, 60 
Sewerage, 20, 110 
Sewer Construction, 366, 404 
Shoring, 824 
Sleatn Kngine, 231 
Steel Plate G'rder, 941. 
Strength of Chain, 195 
Surveying, 60, 110, 156, 900 
Timbering, 823 
Tipwagin, 712 
Twist of Shafts, 300 
Venturi M^ter. 860, 899 
Water Supplv, 980 
Association of Consulting Engineers, 22, 
130, 131, 172, 193, 213 

Association of Managers of Sew- 
age Disposal Works;— 

Annual Dinner, 953 

Annual Meting, 964,992 

Cheltenham M-eting, 561 

Presidential Address, 964 
Association of Somerset Surveyors, 825 
Atmospheric Pollution, Standard Ap- 
paratus and Method for Measuring, 

65'<. 669 
Australian Cities, Thumb Notes of 

Some, 321 
Australian Federal Capital, 463 
Australian Koad Problems, 494, 500 
Automatic Afrlal AVire Ropeways, 60t 
Ayrshire Water Supply, 4S6 

Bacterial Clarification of Sewage. 287 
Basement and Lov-level Drainage. 761 
Baths and Washhoupes, Design of, 339 
Bat.tersea Council, Damages against, 

Ba\ ard Car's Fine Performance, 430 
Bedfordshire, Up-to-date Road Patch- 
ing in, 910 
Belfast Municipal Abattoir, 4fi5 
Belfast, Sewage Disposal at, 556 
Belfast, Street Cleansing in. 3')5 
Belper Surveyor and Road Board 

Grants. 256 
Binnie, Operation on Sir A., 403 
BirrainijhamBuildingSurveyor's Death, 

Birmingham, Public Lighting in, 20.3 
Birmingham Town Planning Schemes, 

322. 350 
Blackburn Fire Station Competition, 

Bolton, Sewflge Disposal at, 909 
Boston. Lines, Town Bridge, 93 
Boulnois' Reminisc^-nces. Mr, 883, 884 
Bradford Corporation Electricity De- 
partment. 185 
Bradford's Trackless Trolley Cars, 403, 

Brickwork, 677 
British Fire Prevention Committee, 

78, 556, 626 
Broad Irrigation at Leicester, 501 
Brussels Road Congress Prize, 75 
Building By-laws, 95 
Building By-laws, Holsworthy Medical 

Otfiot-r and, 254 
Building By-laws, The New, 509 
Building Contract Case 771 
Burn Closes Bridge, Wallsend, 814 
Buying of Two Brooms, The, 479 
By-laws, Administration of, 213 
By-laws, Architect and the Model, 341 
By-laws, Tnmporary Buildings in Rela- 
tion to, 759 

Calendar Oomnetition Result, 523 
Camberwell, Municipal Work in, 861 
Camberwell, Wood Paving in, 34 
Canada, Salaries in, 675 
Canadian Institution of Municipal 

Engineers, 574, 716. 825, 893 
Canadian Public Health Association, 659 
Carnage Work: The Willesden System, 

Cast-iron Pipes for Madras, 896 
Cement, Storage of, 777 
Cement Testing, Some Fallacies in, 962, 

Chadderton, Sanitary Administration 

in, 459 

Chadwiok Lectures: — 

House Drainage Law, 774, 816, 867 
Pri.ctioal Problems of Housing Reform, 
573, 587 
" Charles Jones " Memorial, 807, 825, 977 
Chartered Surveyors' Golfing Society, 

Cheddar Lighting, 485 
Cheltenham Sewage Purification Works, 

Chemical and Bacterial Condition of 
Rivers Above and Below Outfalls, 274 
Chester, Public Health of. 534 
Cliica»o, Public Works of, 574 
Chippenham Surveyor and the Road 

Congress, 363 
Cities Beautiful by the Sen, 471 
City of London Municipal Work, 218 
Clevedon Landing Scage, 289 
Clitheroe Rural Surveyor's Dea'h, 297 
Clogging of Mechanical Filters. 2a7, 318 
Closing Order Inquiries, 283. 615 
Coal Tar, Future Cost of, 909 
Coast Erosion in Cumberland, 428 
Coast Sind Dunes, S-ind Spits, and Sand 
Wastes, 352, 38;j, 424, 460, 496, 537, 576, 
616, 660, 696 
Columbia University, Highway Engi- 
neering at, 898 
Colwyn Bay Housin,' Scheme, 816 
Combined Drainage, Willesden Sur- 

vejor and. 273 
Commercial Motor Road Transport, 968 

Comparative Reports of General 
Practice: — 

Special Water Charges, 228 

Composition of Mortar, 139 

Concentrating Sewage Sludge, New 
Method of, 635 

Concrete Institute, 771, 972 

Concrete Koad Foundations in Man- 
chester, 309 

Contracts with Local Authorities, Un- 
sealed, 85 

"Controlling" the Municipal Engineer, 

Conservation of Water Supplies, 553 

Consulting and Municipal Engineers, 
Relations of, 3. 29 

Contractors and Engineers, 793 

Corporation Official's Invention, 34 

Correspondence : — 

Aeration as an Aid in Sewage Purifi- 
cation, ^75 
Annual Meeting of the Institution of 
1 Municipal and County Engineers, 

Architectural Shortcomings. 861 
Association of (lonsulting Engineers, 

22, 130, 172, 193 
"Controlling" the Municipal Engi- 
j neer, 970 

1 "Creeping" of Tar-Maoadam Roads, 
Direction Posts. 863 
In-ect Life in Sewage Filters, 361 
Institution of Municipal and tounty 
Engineers' " Proceedings," 192 
; Leatherhead Appointment. A, 822, 865 
London Refuse Disposal, 903 
Mr. Boulnois' " Glossary of Road 

Terms," 786, 822. 864, 903 
Mutual Defence, 939 
New Road Critic, A, 437 
Opening and Reinstatement of Roads, 

Puiiping and Distributing Mains, 703, 

749, 787 
Purification of Swimming Baths 

Water, 862 
Eoadamant Company, Limited, The, 

Road Board Grants, 308 
E oad-inakers' Glossary, 309, 335, 361, 

402, 550 
Road-making Contracts and Guaran- 
tees : Are the Demands Fair and 
I Reasonable? 308 


January 16, 1914. 

Correspondence {cmlinued) :— 
Sewage Disposal at Stratford-on-Avon. 

513 , , 

Sewage Works Managers, IW 
Sludge Drjing, 903 „ ^ _, . 
Special Traiomgof the Koad EDeineer 
The Need for some. 862. 903. 939, 9, 1 
Staiut<irT Registration of Aichitects, 

Thp, 822 
Steel-fiamed Cottages, 902 
Supt-ranDuation and Security of 

Tenure, 633 . „ ^ i- 

Surface TarriD« of Eoads : Penetration 

or Absorption, 23 
Surveyors' Institution Examinations, 

59 ^ ,.,. 

Town Planning Institute : Conditions 

of Membership, The, idi 
Town Planning Schemes, The Prepa- 
ration of, 335 
Workman's Cottage for ^250, 224, oio 
Workman's Cottage for iloO. 4''2 
Corrosion and Kusting of Iron. *45, ^ 
Corrosion of Water Mains, 769, "72, 8:SS 
Councillors and Fanciful Senemes, 203 
Councils and Lindowner?, 730 
Country School Sites. 64 
County Sanatoria. 225 
"Creeping" of Tarmacadam Koad", 

247,275 ,, . 

Crojuon Kelief Road, tngineering 
Features of the, 806. 820 , 

Crystal Palace Old Students 
Society : 
Annual Dinner. 779 
Awards. 983 
Cumberland, Coast Erosion in, 428 

Damages for Live Wire Accident, 908 

Damage to Macadamised Eoads by 
Mechanically Propelled Vehicles. 237 

Dawlish Waterworks Arbitration, 703 

■' Day of the Tramway Over," 208 

Decay of Timber, 413 

Dulhi, Improvement of. 967 

Derbyshire County Surveyor's Salary, 
575 . . 

Derbyshire Survevors' Association: 
Annual Meeting, 760 

De Vesian, Mr. and Mrs, 650 

Devon County Surveyor and Direct 
Control of 464 

Devonport Municipal Buildings Com- 
petition, 155 

Dock and Qaay Construction at 
Southampton. 743 

Domestic Architecture, 694 

Drainage as Affecting Highway Traffic, 

Drainage Dotails, Xeed for .Standardisa- 
tion in, 731 

Dulverton Surveyor and the Hustling 
Councillor, 319 

Durham County Housing. 431 

Dustmen, Hours and Wages of, 241 


Kast Suffolk Main Koads, 374 
Edinburgh ElfCtric Lighting-, ll'.l 
Edinbu''gh, Municipal Motor 'Buses 

for, 675 
Edinburgh, Town Planning in, 422 
Effect of Motor 'Bus Traffic in 

Middlesex, 263 
Electricity as a By-product. 775, 781 
Electricity, the Cost of. 922 
Electrolytic Disinfectant, 214 
Engineering Research and its Co- 
ordination, 195 
Engineers and Contractors. 793 
Esher and the Dittons, Surface Tarring 

at, 6So 
Evesham Sewage Works Extensions, 707 
Exe, Reclamation of the River. 327 
Exeter, Refuse Disposal in, 1.59 
Extra Services: Stroud Surveyor's 
Bemuneration, 75 

Kerro-ooncrete Bridge Construction in 

Northumberland, 714 
Filters. Clogging of Mechanical, 297 
Fire Extinguishers, Tests of, 198 
Fire Prevention, L.C C. and, 695 
Flooding. Liability for, 3 
Fluxphalte Roads at Kpping, 450 
Foreign B oks, 170 
Fowey's Revived Charter, 553 
Fresh Water .Vlga on Contact Beds, 255 
Functions of the Non-bacterial Popula- 
tion of the Bacteria Bed, 262 

Gal way County Survejorship, 250 
Gasworks as a Nuisanc, 6<9 
Glasgow Cleansing Department. MJ _ 
Glossary of Road Terms, Mr. Boulnois . 

615 621, 663. 700 
Godalming. Municipal Work at, 449 
(lodstone Rural District Roads, 668 
Goole Council Chamber Scene, 8o8 
Graveley Splashguard, 487. 7l8 
Guildford's New Bridge, 402 

Habitable Houses, Local Government 

Board and, 361 
Halifax Vacancy, A, 393 
Harbour Projections, 488 
Harrogate Mineral Waters, 541 
Harrogate Sewerage and Sewage Dis- 
posal Works, 541 
Haverfordwest, Old Roadmen at, 2 
Havei ford west Rural Council's De- 
fault, 770 
Health Week, 807 

Herefordshire Road Maintenance, 1q4 
Heme Bay Memorial Hall, 310 
Highway Engineering EHucstion, 4S..> 
Highway Finance. 214, 216, 219 
High Wycmbe Town Planning Com- 
petition, 639 
Hollow Ferro-eoncrete Walls, 327 
Hoo's Pooh-Bah, 321 
Horse Owners and the Roads, 828 
House Drainage Law. 774. 815, 867 
House Refuse, 421, 431 
Honsing and Town Planning:— 
Accommodation for Roadmen, 628 
Bath Conference, 943 
Beckenham, 7uS 

Birmingham and Procedure, 523 
Birmingham, 322 
Canada, 871 

Closing Order Inquiries, 283, 015 
Colwjn Bay Housing Scheme, 816 
Councils and Landowners. 730 
County Councils and Rural Housing, 

Demand for Workmen's Cottages, 540 
Devizes, 679 
Dunfermline, 403 
Durham, 431 
Easington, 747 

Eistern Counties Conference, 9 01 
Edinburgh. 422 

Factors Causing Unsatisfactory Hous- 
ing, 422, 432 
Government Housing Scheme, 708 
Hazel Grove, 339, 350 
High Wycombe Town Planning Com- 
petition, 639 
Housing in Rural Districts, 60, 203, 

218, 227, 734. 905 
Housing Problem and its Solution, 395 
Legal Aspects of Town Planning, 282, 

Liverpool Housing, 299 
Local Government Board and Habit- 
able Houses. 361 
Local Government Board President 

and Rural Housing, 905 
Local Government Board Report, 320, 

London Workers' Housing, 651 
Newcastle-on-Tyne Scheme, 403 
Pembrokeshire, 614 
Practical Problems of Housing Re- 
form, M7 
Preparation of Town Planning Schemes, 

248, 295, 335 
Provision of Honses by Local Authori- 
ties, 513 
Richmond, 681 
Royal Sanitary Institute Discussion, 

Ruislip-Northwood Town Planning 

Scheme, 545 
Rural Labourers' Cottages, 614 
Scottish Local Government Board's 

" Hints," 513 
Small Dwellings Acquisition, 351, 375 
South Birmingham. 137 
Steel Framed Cottage.'^, 902 
Taunton Workmen's Dwellings, 702 
The .£110 Cottage, 871.902,911 
The iElSO Cottage, 614 
Town Planning Difficulties, 730 
Town Planning Institute, 815 
Venice, 224 

W estern Counties Conference, 902 
Wirral, 72 

Workman's Cottage for XloO, 88, 224, 
Hydraulic Ram, 637 

Improvements in Road Machinery, 447 
Insect Life in Sewage Filters, 361, 387 

Institnte of Sanitary Engineers : — 

Sessional Meetings. 519, 884 
Institution of Civil Engineers, 650, 717 

Institutioa of Unnicipal and 
County Eng'ineers:— 

Annual Dinner, 154 

Aoinual Meeting and Town Planning 

Conference at Yarmouth. 96, 142, 

153, 187,237, 295, 322, 375, 395, 432, 471, 

Annual Report, 96 
Council Meetings. 72, 192, 436 
Eastern District Meetings, 475, 9i6 
Harrogate Meeting, 541 
Journal, 137, 172. 192, 215, 239. 261, 297 

327, 378 436, 457, 495, 510, 930, 971 
Leek Meeting. 44 

Metropolitan District Meeting. 704 887 
Mutual Detence, 833. 923, 926. 939 
Orphan Fund Meeting, 107 
Presentation to President, 154 
Presidential Address, 104 
Eesianation of Secretaiy, 931 
Scottish District Meeting, 924 
South Eastern District Meeting, 620 
South Wales District Meeting, 509 
South Western District Meeting, 929, 

Tiverton Meeting, 502 
West Midland District Meeting, 833 

Inatitation of Municipal Engi- 
neers :— 
Annual Meeting in London, 731, 735, 

759, 775, 780 
Conversazione, 742 
Council Meetings, 527, 852, 974 
Mutual Aid and Defence, 628 
Northern District Meetings, 185, 3tw, 

569, 836, 850 
Presidential Address, 740 
Southern District Meeting, i>43 
Special General Meeting, 738 

Institution of Water Engineers :— 

Council Meeting, 679 
Election of Council. 934 
Summer Meeting at Wakefield, 7 
Winter Meeting in London. 934, 987 
Intercepting Traps. Advantages and 
Disadvantages of, 647, 726, 731 

International Koad Congress in 
Loudon :— 

Chippenham Surveyor and the Con- 
gress, 363 

Communications, 447, 483, 524, 601, 
683, 755, 795, 855. 894 

Excursion to Midlands, 17 

Excursion to Sutton, 56 

Inspection of Berkshire Goads, 17 

Inspection of Surrey Roads. 56 

Inspection of Tarmac Works, 57 

Meetings of Sections, 52, 90, 165, 204 
219, 257, 290 

Points from the Reports, 41 

Reports, 362 

Resolutions, 13, 329 

Staines Surveyor and the Congress, 
92, 159 

Suggestion for the Future, 1 

Visit to Enderby Quarries. 19 

Visit to Hadfields, Ltd , 17 

Visit to Penmaonmawr, 92 

Visit to Sonthport, 57 
Irish County Surveyors, A Plea for, 4oS 
Irish County Surveyors' .Vssociation, 925 
Irish County Suryeyorships, 336 
Irish Grievances and the Municipal 

Conference, 615 
Irish Road Contract System. 540 
Iron, Corrosion and Rusting of, 845, 848 

Jersey Water Supply, 1" 

Jones, The Lite Mr. Charles, 159, 319, 

Junior Institution of Engineers, 706, 789 

Kent County Surveyorahip, 675, 785 
Kimberley, Sanitary Work in, 446 

January 16, 1914. 


LandiDg Stage ConstructioD, 289 
Law Notes :— 
Building Line: Xkw Building Erected 
on Site of Old Building: Public 
Health Act, 1875, sec. 155, 113 
Building: Party Wall : London Build- 
ing Act, 1891, Part VIII.: Past Hia- 
toiy of Wall, .37(1 
Contract with Local Authority : Ab- 
sence of Seal, 60 
Highway : Telegraph Posts and 
Wires: Body "Having Control "of 
Streets not Repairable by the In- 
habitants at Large, 370 
Sewage Disposal : Nuisance : " Sewer 

made for Profit," 332 
Sewage Works : Faulty Culvert : 
Damage to Land : Liability of Local 
Authority, 470 
Streets: Fencing \'acant Land, 897 
Water Supply : " Domestic Purposes " : 
Public-house, 332 
Breaking up Street : Subsidence : 
Compensation, 470 . 

Law Queries :— 

Admission of Liquid Kefu.^e from 

Tannery and Fellmongery, 897 
Adoption of Road, 299 
Building Bv-laws: Portable Studio, 
Timber - framed Building on 

Wheels, 751 
Warehouse Class : Addition : 
Thickness of Walls : Piers, 788 
Building Line. loS 
By-laws : Air Space, 370 
By-laws; Building on Open Space at 

Rear of House, 470 
By-laws: "Building": "Workshop," 

By-laws: Cesspool, 299 
By-laws: Exempted Buildings, 979: 

" Human Habitation," 370 
By-laws : Water-closets, 333 
Cavity v. Solid Walls : Model By-laws 

as to New Buildings, 826 
Comoined Drainage, 592 
Compensation for Loss of Office, 333 
Contract : Clerk of Works, 06 
Conver;iion of Privies into Water- 
closets, 60 
Disapproval of Plan, 978 
Ditches on Side of Rural District 

Roads, 470 
Electric Lighting, 158 
Highway : Dedication, 66, 298 
Overhanging Trees, 978 
Repair : Intersecting Roads, 979 
Surface Water, 978 
AVater Dripping from Railway 
Bridges, 751 
House Drainage, 113 
Injury to Manhole, 751 
Laying Out a New Street, 940, 979 
Main Roads : Liability for Accident, 

Nettles and Weeds by the Side of the 

Public Highway, 333 
New Streets, 593 

Officer of Urban District Council : 
Extra Services : Pier Construction, 
Portable Dustbins, 158 
Private Street, Repairs to, 332 
Private Street Works, 298, 333 
Abutting Street, 940 
Adoption of Street, 751, 826 
Part of a Street : Degree of Bene- 
fit, 826 
Resewering, 788 
Privies, 332 

Public Health Act, 1875, sec. 193, 158 
Public Health Acts: Water bupply, 

Public Health i Buildings in Streets) 

Act, 1888 
Rates on Unoccupied Premises, 789 
Receipt Stamps, 405 
Road Construction, 113 
Scavenging Private Streets, 405 
Seats on Highway, 298 
Sewer Constrxiction, 897 
Specification of Works : Best Mate- 
rials : Lead Paint. 897 
Stopcock Boxes in Streets, 158 
Surface-water Drain, 592 
Watercourse, 370 I 

Water Rights : Abandonment, 826 
Water Supply, 158, 298, 405, 470, 592 
Workmen's Dwellings, 333 
Valuation of Site-, 751 
Yard Paving, &c. : Sec. 25, Public 
Health Acts Amendment Act, 1907, 
Leek and its Municipal Works, 4.5, 119 
Legal Aspects of Town Planning, 282, 

Legal Decisions of Interest to Muni- 
cipal Engineers, 887 

Leicester, Street Cleansing and Refuse 
Collection in, 048 

Leyton, Public Liyhting in, 605 

Leyton, Reconstruction of Carriage- 
ways at, 539 

Leyton, Sewage Disposal at, 603 

Liability for Flooding, 3 

Lighting of Highways and Vehicles, 179 

Lime Treatment of Water, Advantages 
of, 013, 027 

Liverpool Housing, 299 

Llangollen Council and Surveyor, 568 

Local Government Board and Housing 
and Town Planning, 320, 350 

Local Oovernment Board In- 
quiries :— 

Accrington, 590; Banbury, 789; Bath, 
478; Beeston, 515; Belfast, 400; 
Bentley, 301 ; Berwick, 1 15 ; Bewdley, 
441; Bexhill, 038; Birmingham, 406; 
Bishop Auckland, 515; Blackburn, 
301; Blackpool, 555; Bognor, 038; 
Bootle,710; Bradford, 827: Brampton, 
078; Bredbury and Romiley, 441; 
Bridlington , 100, 478 ; Brighouse, b27 ; 
Brighton, 115; Bristol, .590; Bud- 
leigh Salterton, 710; Burton-on- 
Trent, 115; Camelford, 596; Cardiff, 
942; Carlisle, 478, 5.55 ; Chadderton, 
07; Chelmsford, 371 : Cheltenham, 
100; Chesham, 555; Chester, 904; 
Chesterfield, 904; Chirbury, 441; 
Chiswick, 800; Chorley, 555; Clay 
Cross, 904; Clevedon, 078; Clogher, 
806; Coalville, 232; Colne, 078; Col- 
wyn. 827; Cork, 904; Coventry, 800; 
Croston, 860; Croydon, 266; Dar- 
laston. 942; Darlington, 710; Daw- 
lish, 301; Devonport,i7S; Doncaster 
160,266; Dorchester, 24; Dudley, 24, 
866; Dumfries, 866; Dongannon, 
827; Durham, 478, 904; Earby, 301, 
141; East and West Molesey, 904; 
Eastbourne, 336; Edmonton, 749; 
EUand, 749; EUesmere Port and 
Whitby, 07; Evesham, 515; Farn- 
ham,67; Formby, 555; Fylde, Pres- 
ton, and Garstang Joint Hospital 
Board, 232; Gloucester, 596; 
Golcar, 789 ; Goole, 67 ; Grimsby, 
596, 983; Gwrfai, 555; Hailsham, 
67; Hale, 942; Halifax, 301, 827, 
942; Ham, 441 ; Hambledon, 336; 
Hampton, 866; Harrogate, 749; 
Hartlepool, 371 ; Hastings, 206 ; 
Haydock, 860 ; Hebden Bridge, 371 ; 
Hemsworth, 07; Hillsborough, 199; 
Holmfirth, 942; Honiton, 942; HorE- 
forth, 710; Ilkley, 904; Kettering, 
24; Kidderminster, 199; Kidsgrove, 
515; Kingswinford, 942; Kinsale, 
806; Kirkby-iu-Ashfield, 983 ; Kive- 
ton Park, 302 ; Lampeter, 904. 942 ; 
Larne, 827 ; Leicester, 555, 678 ; Leigh, 
983; Leyton, 478; Lincoln 590; Lin- 
thwaite, 371, 789; Liverpool, 983; 
Llandudno, 827; Long Eaton, 199; 
Loughborough, 441, 038; Macdes- 
field, 478; Maidenhead, 67; Maidens 
and Coombe, 115, 478; Maldon, 710; 
Manchester, 199; Mansfield, 330, 078; 
Middlesbrough, 555 ; Morley, 67 ; 
Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, 24; New- 
castle-under-Lyme, 515; Newport 
(Mon ), 371; Newtownards, 827; 
Nortbam, 302; Northwich, 749; 
Norton (Yorks), 07; Norwich, 638; 
Nottingham, 330; Oldham, 07, 441; 
Omagh, 100 ; Orsett, 983 ; Ossett, 68, 
678; Paddington, 160 ; Padiham,478; 
Pebwortb, 515; Pembroke, 710; 
Peterborough. 160; Petersfield, 327; 
Phillack, 596; Plymouth, 478; 
Poole, 749 ; Preesall, 789 ; Preston, 
406; Rawtenstall, 596; Redditch, 
827; Rochford, .337; Rotherham, 
200, 678; St. Annes-on-the-Sea, 115; 
St. Helens (Lanes), 337, 827; Sal- 
ford, 199; Shaftesbury, 406; Shef- 
field, 406, 710; Shipley, 638; Skip- 
ton, 678; Sleaf ord, 038 ; Southamp- 
ton, 510; Southport, 749; South 
Shields, 711 ; Stourbridge, ■tl2 ; 
Stratford-on-Avon, 711; Stretford, 
639; Sunderland, 983; Surbiton,68; 
Sutton-in-Ashfield, 08; Swansea, 68, 
337, 789, 827; Swindon, 904; Thurns- 
coe, 711; Torpoint, 596; Torquay, 
596; Totnes, 639; Tredegar, 866; 
Twickenham, 596; Ulverstoo, 943; 
Uttoxe:er, 711; Wallasey, 115, 749; 
Walsall, 678; Wal3ingham,943, 983; 
Wandsworth. 749; Warrington. 266; 
Wath, 790; Westbury, 750; West 
Hartlepool, 24 ; Whitstable, 442 ; 
Widnes, 266; Wigan, 478; Wigton, 
.5.55; Wimbledon, 302; Wincanton, 

Iiocal Ooveinment Board In- 
quiries (continoed) : — 
678; Winchcombe, 904; Wirral, 516; 
Withnell, 790; Wiveliscombe, 866; 
Wolverhampton, 596; Worcester, 
904; Wrexham. 943; York, 199; 
Ystradgjnlais, 904 

Location of Underground Pipes, 43 

London Arterial Roads Conference, 806, 

London District Surveyors' Fees, 860 

London Water Supply, 349, 3.59 

Los Angeles Viaduct, 854 

Lower Thames Valley District Sur- 
veyors' Association, 886 


Macadamised Roads, Construction of, 204 
Macadam Road Construction, Part 

Played by Water in, 805, 808, 951 
Manhole Covers for Madras. 925 
Manhole Covers, Peril of. 358 
Manchester Appointments, 865 
Manchester Engineers' Club, 513 
Manchester School of Technology, 423 
Manchester, Sewage Disposal at, 331 
Manchester Street Pavings, 309 
Marine Baths, 203 
Marylebone, Public Health in, 138 
Metals for Structure, 479 
Middlesex, Effect of Motor 'Bus Traffic 

in, 263 
Middlesex Guildhall Opened, 977 
Middlesex, Motor Traffic in, 533, 573 
Midland Association of Local Govern- 
ment Officers, 168 
Milton Regis Surveyorship, 218 
Miningand Quarrying of Road Materials, 

niinates of Proceedings : — 

Abercarn Surveyor's Protest, The, 495 
Aeration as an Aid in Sewage Purifi- 
cation, 87 
.Esop Modernised, Fable 1 ,215; Fable 

II., 319; Fable III , 423; Fable IV., 

495; Fable V., 535; Fable VI., 575; 

Fable VII, 695; Fable VIII., 883; 

Fable IX , 923; Fable X., 963 
Amenities of the Foreshore, 458 
An Honourable Career. 883 
Animal Growths in Water Pipes, 2 
Antrim County Surveyorship, 247 
Asphaltic Crust on the Bath Road, 

An, 921 
Association of Consulting Engineers, 

Atmospheric Pollution, 658 
Australian Highways: Work of the 

Victorian Road Board, 658 
Broken Stone and Chippings, Sizes of, 

Building Contract Case, A, 771 
By Hook and Shovel, 963 
Bj-Laws, The Administration of, 213 
By-Laws and Temporary Buildings, 

Chadwick Public Lectures, The, 534 
" Charles Jones " Memorial, A, 807 
" Cheap " Cottage-building, 318 
Cheap Electricity, 771 
Closing Order Inquiries, 283, 615 
Coast Sand Dunes, 386 
" Combined " System of Sewering 

Towns, The, 840 
Comparisons of Different Types of 

Road Crusts, 493 
Composition of Mortar, 139 
Concerning Words Relating to Roads, 

Concrete Institute, The, 771 
Corrosion of Water Mains, The, 769 
Cost of Electricity, 922 
Curious Case, A, 727 
Curious Proceeding, A, 575 
Data for the Water Engineer. 921 
Death of Mr. Charles Jones, 319 
Defence Fund, The, 922 
Department of Roads for the United 

Kingdom, 770 
Derbyshire Appointment, A, 
Derbyshire County Surveyor's Salary, 

Design of the Edges of Road Crusts, 

Direction and Distance Signposts on 

Roads, 657 
Domestic Architecture, 694 
Dulverton Surveyor and the Hustling 

Councillor, 319 
Electrolytic Disinfectant, 214 
Engineering Features of Croydon Re- 
lief Road, 800 
Engineer's Responsibility, The, 318 
I'oreign Measures, 847 


January 16, 191-1. 

Minutes of Proceedings (con (intted).— • Minutes of Proceedings {continued) 

Gloseaiv of K'-ad Terms, A, 015 
Half-Million Western Koad Scheme, 

The, t)!i5 
Haverfordwest Kural Council's De- 
fault, 770 
Health Consress at Regina, l>51> 
Health Week, 8(17 

Higher Kerbs and Motor Traffic, 351 
Hijthwaj- Administration in Warwick- 
shire, 28,? 
llitlhway Authorities, "231 
Highway Developments in Illinois, 

80: in West Virginia, 6.59 
Highway Economics and the Times 

Critic, 69 1 
Highway Finance, 21i 
Highway Improvement in Ontario, 

Highway Statistics: And Other Mat- 
ters, 840 
Highway Terminology, f 81 
Horee and Motor Traflio in London ; 

Two Misleading Ideas, 700 
Horse iShoe Competition, 387 
Housing,' Difficulties, -122 
Housing in Pembrokeshire, 61 1 
Housing Problem, The. 3S0, 573 
How the Glaslyn Council may Win, 535 
Important Keport, An, 3.">'J 
Insect Life in Sewage B^ilters, 3S7 
Institution of Civil Engineers, The, 

Institution of Municipal and County 
Engineers, j;}, 137, 423; at Great 
Yarmouth. 86; at Leek. 80; new 
'■ Journal," 137, 215, 457, 495 
Institution of Municipal Engineers, 

351, 727 
Intercepting Trap, Tho, 720 
International Road Congress : Points 
from the Reports, 41 ; Some of the 
Meetings, 1 ; Suggestion for the 
Future, 1 
Irish County Surveyors, A Plea for, 

Irish Grievances and the Municipal 

Conference. 015 
Irish Roads. 7;7 
Iron i: Steel Pipes, 845 
"Lazy and Swanking" Officials: A 

Lincolnshire View, 2S3 
Leatherhead Appointment, The, 922 
Liability tor Flooding, 3 
Lighting of Highways and Vehicles, 

Lime Treatment of Water, The Ad- 
vantages of, 013 
Location of Underground Pipes, 43 
London County Council and Fire Pre- 
vention, The, G95 
Lindon Ketuse Problem, The, 337 
London Traffic Problem, 42 
London Water Supply, 349 
Main Roads in Greater London, 800 
Mechanical Filters and Micro-organ- 
ism Trouble?. 313 
Medical Officer and the National 

Water Supply, 720 
Motor Mud-splashing. 459 
Motor Trnffic in Middlesex: The Cost 
of Koad Maintenance, 533; Some 
Further Correspondence, 573 
Motor Transport and Road Crusts: 
Colonel i-'rompton's Investigations, 
Motor Vehicle Transport: The De- 
velopment of Public Services, 725 
Municipal Engineer of the Future, 

The, 210 
Municipal Engineers and Consultants, 

Municipal Engineers and Legal Mat- 
ters, 847 
Municipal Engineers and the Law,8S2 
Municipal Eneineering in Canada. .574 
Municipal Liliel Action, A, 179 
Mational Water Supplies, The, 422 
Old Roadmen at Haverfordwest, 2 
Petrol in Sewers, t07 
Physics of the Road Crust: Nature 

and Properties of Slags, 902 
Pinpricks, 139 

Pollution iiy Sewage of Water Sup- 
plies in Canada, 3 
Practical Housing Problems, 573 
I'rivate Street Works : an Objection, 

Professional Qualifications, 1.59 
Profits from Municipal Undertakings, 

Prophet without Honour, A, 847 
Protection of Koad^ide Wastes, 139 
Public Health in Marvlebone, 138 
Puhlic Health in StHflfordshire, 882 
Public Health of Chester, .534 
Public Works in I'hicngo, .571 
Purification of Wat'-r by Means of 
Ultra-Violet Rays, 421 

Qualifications of those in Charge of 
Roads, The, 770 

Rating of Sewers. 139 

Recent Developments in Street 
Watering, 85 

Reclamation of Sand Wastes, 351 

Refuse Removal, 421 

Reinforced Concrete, 659 

Rivers Pollution and the Protection 
of Water Supplies, 42 

Road Board. The; Criticism in Parlia- 
ment, 177; Third Annual Report. 177 

Road Machinery, Improvements in, 

Road Maintenance in Ireland, 122 

Road Materials: the Engineering 
Standards Committee, 178 

Road Problems in Australasia, 494 

Road Surfaces : Points in British and 
A merican Practice, 3 

Roads and Rates: A Critic's Views, 

Roads' Organisation : Views of the 
Organisation Society, 317 

Royal Commission on Sewage Dis- 
posal : Appendix to Eighth Report. 

Roval Sanitary Institute Congress, 42, 

Rural Labourer's Cottage, The, 614 

Sanitary Administration in Chadder- 

ton, 459 
Separate v. (Combined Sewers, 613 
Sewage and Pisciculture, 43 
Sewsg.3 Disposal by Dilution, 245 
Sewage Disposal ot the Future, 245 
Sewage Works Managers in Con- 
ference, 807 
Signposting and Highway Authori- 
ties, 693 
Slum Property and Public Improve- 
ments, 179 
Small Dwellings Acquisition, 351 
Softening and Hardening of Water, 

The, 901 
Soft Waters, The Treatment of, 385 
Solution of the Sewage Problem, The, 

Special Remuneration, 535 
Special Training for Road Engineers, 

Special Waterworks ;Construction at 

San Francisco, 453 
Superior Authority, The, 8u0 
Surveyors' Institution. The, 727 
Swimming Baths and Infection, 770 

Technical Education. 423 

Testing of Cement, The, 962 

Third Koad Congress, The Resolutions 

of the. 319 
Town Planning in Birmingham, 350 
Town Planning in Edinburgh, 422 
1'own Planning, Legal Aspects of, 282 
Tramwavs and Motor Omnibuses, 534 
Types of Surfacing on Bridges and 

Viadui^ts, 138 
Vnaceepted Tender, The, 922 
Unsealed Contracts with Urban 

Authorities, 35 
Various Types of Stone Paving, 574 

Water-bound Road Crusts, 457 

Water in Macadam Roads, The Part 
Played by, 805 

Water in the Road Crust, Some Points 
as regards, 805 

Water Sterilisation by Chemical 
Methods. 493; by Electricity, 574 

Western Approach to London, The, 

Wharfedals Councillors and a Motor 
Car, 847 

'■ Wire-'bus ■' and Koad Maintenance, 
Modern Koad Maintenance, 151 
Mortar, The Composition of, 139 
Motor 'Bus Traffic and the Roads, 159 
Motor Driven Road P-nilder, 861 
Motor, Efficiency of, 745 
Motor Fire Appliances, London County 

Council and, 912 
Motor Fire Engines, 501 
Motor Omnibuses, Tramways and. 534 
Motor Traffic and Koad Maintenance in 

Middlese.x, 533. 573 
Municipal and Sanitary Engineering at 

Hime and Abroad, 831 
Municipal Engineer of the Future, 246, 

Municipal Engineers and the Law, 882, 

Municipal Engineers. Relations of, 329 
Municipal Tramw.nTs Association: 

Annual C<infereni'e. 409 
JIiiiiici.Kil Indertakings Profits from, 87 
Muuicipil Waterworks Association: 

Annual Meeting at Glasgow, 553 

Municipal Work in Progress and 
Projected : — 

Administration : — 
Gloucester. 714; Loughborough, 714 j 
St. Austell. 791 

Buildings : — 
Aberdeen, 25, 372 ; Abingdon, 7.52; Ac- 
ton, 868 ; Aldershot. 829 ; Arbroath, 
303 ; Ardrossan, 829 ; Arundel, 630 ; 
Avr. 946; Barnes, 116; Barnsley, 25, 
207, 517, 900; Barrow-in-Furness, 
080,906; Basingstoke 010; Bath. 829, 
9(ii;. 946; Batley, 714; Beckenham, 
200; Belfast, 267, 557; Berkhamp- 
sted, 101 : Bethnal-green, 200. 640 ; 
Bexhill, 09. 598; Bingley, 101 ; Bir- 
kenhead, .557 ; Birmingham, 030, 7.52, 
863; Blackburn, 517, 59i; Bolton, 
030; Bolton - upon - Dearne, 3t3; 
Bootle. 69 ; Bournemouth, 69. 407, 
640, 714; Bradford, 200, 407, 557, 598, 
863; Bridlington, 338; Brighton, 69, 
«3, 517, 680, 829, 863. 906: Bristol, 
200, 517, 640, 791 ; Bucks, 906 • Camp- 
beltown, 25; Cardiff, 25, 2O0; Car- 
diganshire, 110; Carlisle, 9U6; Chad- 
dorton, 829; Chelsea, 630; Chester, 
200, 630; Chesterfield, 267, 303; 
Chorlev, 407, 906; Cork, 303; Coven- 
try, 200,517, 557, 829; Ciamlington, 
940; Croydon, 116, 443; Cumberland, 
303; Darlington, 407 ; Dartf ord, 407 j 
Derby, 161, 267; Derbyshire, 116; 
Devon, 598, 946: Devonport, 2.33; 
Doncaster, 267; Droylsden. 116, 338; 
Dublin; 2.5, 443; Dumfries, 372; 
Dundee, 161; Dunfermline, 593; 
Durham C.C, 233. 752; Ealing, 116. 
517, 640; East Cowes. 233; East 
Preston, 110; East Riding, 200; 
EUesmere Port, 868 ; Esher and the 
Dittoes. 829 ; Essex. 517. 640 ; Exeter, 
480, 829; Exmouth. 407; Falkirk, 
517; Farnham, 791: Felixstowe, 267, 
557; Fife, 407; Finchlev, 09; Folke- 
stone, 557; Forehoe, 69; G.^iashiel8, 
116, 303: Glasgow, 303, 443; Glou- 
cester, 101; Goole, 4?0, 598; Grant- 
ham, 752; Grimsby, 233, 829; Guild- 
ford, 714; Hampshire, 829; Hamp- 
ton, 598, 752, 906; Harrogate, 407; 
Harwich, 161; Hastings, 640; 
Hendon, 680; Herts, 233. 791 ; Honi- 
ton, 630 ; Hove, 752, 791 ; Hull, 267 ; 
Huthwaite. 267: Ilford, 161, 443; 
Ipswich, 557; Kent, 829: Kincar- 
dineshire, 161, 557; Kingston-on- 
Thames, 200 480, 630; Lancaster, 
714, 984; Lanes, .598; Leeds, 69, 
200, 233, 407; Lewi.-=ham. 25, 480, 791; 
Leicestershire, 868; Ley ton, 200; 
Lincoln, 25 ; Linton, 906 ; Little- 
hampton,900; Liverpool, 233; Llan- 
dudno, 714: Londonderry, 946; 
Loughborough, 480; Lowestoft,, 791; 
946; Ludlciw, 303: Luton, 517: Mac- 
clesfield, 040; Maidens and Coombe, 
443 ; Manchester, SOS, 984 ; Mans- 
field, 110; Margate, 407; Middlesex, 
752 ; Midlothian, 200 : Molesey. 267 ; 
Montrose, 517,949; Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, 480, 863, 906; Newport (Mon.), 
161,267, 303; Newquay, 946; North- 
ampton, 593, 752; Nottingham, 863; 
Okehampton, 161; Oldbury, 752; 
Oldham, 443; Omigh, 752: Padding- 
ton, 640, 868; Paignton. 946; Pem- 
broke (Co. Dublin). 829; Penrith, 
(UO; Perth. 4S0 ; Plymouth, 906; 
Portsmouth. 200. 940; Pudsey, 20ft; 
Redditch, 372; Renfrew, 829; Ret- 
ford, 25: Rhyl, 116, 333. 557. 598, 714; 
Richmond (Surrey), 868; Romford, 
752 ; Roxburgh, 984; St. Pancras, 
984; Salcombe, 934; Scarboroufh, 
161, 030; Sedgefie'd, 200: Selby. 25, 
233; Sevenoaks, 25: Sheffield, 752- 
Shoreham, 116,267; Shropshire, 161; 
Slough, 338; Somerset, 640; South- 
end, 116, 338, 630; Stafford, 200; 
Statfs, 233; Stalybridge. 640; Stir- 
ling. 946; Stockport, 680; Stoke 
Newington, 808; Sunderland, 69, 
791; Surbitou, 752; Surrey, 116,267. 
829; Swansea. 303; Taunton, 906; 
Teignmouth, 33S; Thirsk, 161; Tor- 
quay, 233. 714, 946 ; Tottenham, 557 ; 
'l'roon.946: Turton,598: Twickenham, 
5(7; Uttoxeter, 69; Wakefield, 791; 
Wallasey. SOS ; Walsall, 69 ; Wands- 
worth, 180; Warrington, 480, 598; 
Watford, 900: Westminster, 69; 
West Riding. 233: West Sussex, 200, 
233; Wexford, 940; Widnes, 267; 
W'illesden 557; Wilts, 80S; Win- 
chester, 110, 207. 714; Windermere, 
900; Wood Green, 517; Worcester, 
868 ; Worcestershire, 906 ; Worthing, 
303; Wortley, 116,407; York, 598 

January 16, 1914. 


Municipal Work in Progress and 

Projected {rontinuetl) : — 
Housing and Town Planning ;— 
Aberoarn, 829; Aspatria, 6i0; Ayr. 
946; Balljcastle, 2G7; Banbridge, 
829; Barro"/, 557; Beaconsfield, 
868; Bedwellty, 6S0; Belfast, 680, 
906, 984; Bexbill, 714; Billericay, 
714; Birmingham, 200, 233; Black- 
roct, 161; Blaenavon, 868; Blofield, 
480; Bolton-upon-Dearne, 791, 946; 
Bradford, 116, 407; Braintree, 906; 
Bridlington, 303, 517, 714; Brig- 
house, 69; Bury, 640; Bushey, 480; 
Caistor. 372; Cardiff, 116, 640, 829; 
Chard. 303, 680; Chelmsford. 233, 
267,372, 4«0; Chertsey, 407; Clithe- 
roe, 640; Clones, 407; Colwyn Ba.y, 
443, 791; Conway, 906; Criccieth, 
200,338; Crook, 443; Daventry, 946; 
Derby, 116; Derbyshire, 161; Dover, 
303; Downpatrick, 906; Diogheda, 
338; Dublin, 517; Dumbarton, 407; 
Dumfries, 267; Dundee, 443, 868; 
Dunfermline. 598; Dunganaon, 752; , 
Durham, 267; East Cowes, 233; 
Edinburgh, 868; Enniskillpn, 598; 
Evesham. 200, 598. 680, 752, 906; 
Exeter. 267, 640, 829, 946; Farnham, 
791; Featherstone, 372; Fermoy, 
480; Finchley, 69; Priern Barnet, 
161; Frioiley, 303; Gelligaer, 69; 
Glasgow, 714, 984; Gloucester, 868; 
Greenock, 791; Guildford, 25, 714; 
Ham, 752, 829; Hants, 338, 372; 
Hartlepool, 267 ; Hay, 69; Hereford, 
868; Holborn, 116; Huddersfield, 
161; Hunslet, 338; Invergordon, 
557; Irvine, 906; Kenilwortb, 984; 
Kilsy th, 946 ; Kingstown, 598,640,906 ; 
Lanark, 791 ; Lanarkshire, 200, 557 ; 
Leamington, 598 ; Limavady, 868 ; 
Lincoln, 557; Liskeard, 267, 407; 
Lisburn, 9U6; Llandudno, 25, 829; 
Llanelly, 69; LosCwithiel, 407; Mal- 
don, 557; Market Bos worth, 2-5, 200, 
.598; Merthyr, 791; Midhurst, 829; 
Mid-Lothian, 69; Monaghan, 267; 
Nailsworth, 267 ; Narberth, 161, 946; 
Neath. 69; Mewcastle-upon -Tyne, 
407,791; Newport (Mon.), 407; New 
Koss, 984; Nowry, 680 ; Norfolk, 752; ; 
North Walsham, 829; Northwich, 
.598; Oldham, 680; I'eDworth, 630, 
868 ; Perabore, 1 16, 338 ; Pickuring, 640 ; 
Pontypool, 200; Poplar, 984; Ports- 
mouth, 714; Prestatyn, 2.5, 116,267; 
Radcliffe, 9l6 ; Redditch, 372; Kooh- 
ford, 116 ; Rugby, 752 ; St. Asaph, 598 ; 
St. Aust^l, 161; St. Helens, 906; 
Scarborough, 116, 829 ; Seaham Har- 
bour, 14:3; 3eaton,267; Shtffield,338; 
Sheringham, 69; Snipley, 7.52; Sid- 
moutb, 116; Southend, 303; South 
Molton, 640; Stafford, 200, 906; 
Surbiton,752;Swaft'ham,267; Swan- 
sea, 116, 680,714; Tewkesbury, 233; 
Tilbury, 101, 557; Wallasey, 407; 
Walsall, 598; Wantage, 946; Way- 
land, 946; Wellington (Salop), 30.3, 
480 ; West Dean, 407 ; West Hartle- 
pool, 557; Whitehaven, 116, 598; 
Wolverhampton, 116 ; Wrexham, 
161. 557, 829 ; Yarmouth, 69 
Parks and Open Spaces :— 
Aocrington, 517; Bath, 200; Belfast, 
680,868,906; Berwick, 233; BexhiU, 
829; Birmingham, 69; Bridlington, 
25,161: Bristol, 680; Brixham, 200; 
Burnley, 407, 714, 946; Cardiff, 868; 
Droylsden, 791, 946 ; Edinburgh, 69 ; 
Falmouth, 752; Felling, 557; Glas- 
gow, 640; Grange, 200; Hove, 593; 
Keighley,752 ; Kingston (Surrey), 480 ; 
Knaresborough, 233; Lincoln, 714; 
Linlithgow, 598; Littlehampton, 44:3, 
791; Liverpool, 480; Llanelly. 480, 
.517; Lower Bebington, 906; Luton, 
200; Manchester. 267; Margate, 
443, 598 ; Molesey, 267 ; Newburn, 69 ; 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 640; Newquay. 
916; Nuneaton, 946; Ogmore and 
Garw,829; Oldham, 640; Plymouth, 
517, 557; Pontypool, 517; Scar- 
borough, -598; Selby, 430; Sheffield, 
69, 714: Southend, 161; Surbiton, 
640; Swindoil, 161; Tavistock, 714; 
Ventnor, 180; Warrington, 906; 
Wimbledon, 984; Wrexham, 680; 
Yarmouth, 443 ; York, 598 
Refuse Collection and Disposal : — 
Aberdeen, 267 ; Barnes, 268 ; Camber- 
well, 116, 480, 829; Chelmsford, 906; 
Clown, 940; oolwyn Bay, 946; 
Cramlington. 517; Dumfries, 44:3; 
East Grinstead, 714, 984 ; Edinburgh, 
69; Exeter, 830; Hackney, 233; 
Haverfordwest, 70; Horsham, 25; 

Municipal Work iu Progress and 
Projected (continued): — 

Refuse Collection and Disposal (con- 
tinued) : — 

Hull, 200; Ilford, 557; Lambeth, 70, 
517; Lewisham, 25, 599 ; Maidens and 
Coombe, 946; Marsden, 143; Maryle- 
bone, 791; Melton Mowbray, 557; 
Newport (Mon), 610; Portsmouth, 
25; St. Pancras. .5.57 ; Stoke-on-Trent, 
161 ; Wigan, .599 

Roads and Materials ;— 

Aberdeen, 101, 830; Alton, 70, 984; ! 
Altrincham, 906; Anglesey, 268; 
Antrim, 714, 946; Appleby, 338; 
Arbroath, 117; Argyll, 161, 830; 
Armasjh C.C, 443, 906 ; Arundel, 906 ; j 
Ashbourne. 906; Ashby, 407; Ather- 
ton, 25. 863; Aylesbur.v. 640; Ayr- 
shire, :372; Balrothery, 830; Bangor, 
101; Barnes, 117: Barnsley, 599; 
Barnstaple. 161, 480. 557, 830 ; Bed- ; 
wellty, 25, 200 ; Belfast. 984 ; B»lf ord, 
233 ; Belfast, 70. 338. 517, 830 ; Ber- 
mondsey, 25, 517; BexhiU, 25, 680, 
906; Bingley; 200; Birkenhead, 117; ] 
Birmingham, 25; Blackburn. 984; 
Blackpool, ISO, 80S; Blarkrock, 161; 
Bogn^r, 407; Bolsover, 70; Bolton, 
680; Bo'ness, 233; Boston, 303,372; 
Bournemouth, 680, 791, 868 ; Bradford, 
480,714; Bridgnorth, 268; Bridling- 
ton, 70, 372. .517; Brighton, 480, 517 ; 
Bristol, 200, 233; Buckhurst-hill. 
830; Buckie, 640; Bulkington, 868; 
Burnley, 303, 557 ; Bury, 830 ; Camel- I 
ford, 480 ; Cardiff, 200, 680 ; Cardigan- 
shire, 200, 338 ; Carlisle, 640 ; Carlton, 
:372 ; Carnarvon, 117,630; Carnarvon- 
shire, 934; Carrickfergus, 333, 8.30; 
Castlereagh, 443; Chard, 303. 830; 
Chatham, 25; Chelm-ford, 25, .517, 
714; Chelsea, 557; Chertsey, 407; 
Chester-le-Street. 372 ; Chippenham. 
268; Chislehurst,200; Chiswick, .557 ; 
Chorley, 916; Clacton, .553, 947; 
Clogher, 201, 640; Clonmell, 117; 
Clutton, 25; Coleraine, 791, 907; 
Colwyn Bay, 338, 947; Connaught, 
303; Coventry. 553; Crieff, 233,234; 
' Croydon, 517, 8t)9; Cuckfield, 443; 

Darlington, 443,553; Denbighshire, 
558; Denton, 268; Deptford, 558; 
Derby, 5,^8; Derry, 640; Devon, 
984; Dewsbury, 558; Diss. 907; 
Donegal, 640; Dorking, 303; Dublin, 
233, 641, 680; Dudley, 443; Dulver- 
ton, 443; Dumbartonshire, 791; 
Dnudalk, 117 ; Dundee. 372; Easing- 
ton, 869: East Belfasf, 599; East 
Grinstead. 7 14; East Ham, 201, 599; 
East Preston, 25. 303 ; East Sussex, 
233, 947 ; East and West Molesey, 
233; Edinbureh, 443.599, 680: Ed- 
monton, 372; Elgin C.C. , 414; Ennis- 
killen, 907; Epsom, 517 ; Erith, 480; 
Eshcr and the Dittons, 414, 791 ; 
Essex, 70, 117;, 517, 830; 
Falmouth, 201, 681 ; Fareham, 681 ; 
Farnborough, 480 ; Faversham, 480, : 
599, 714 ; Featherstone, 372 ; Felix- 
stowe, 553; Fermanagh, 70; Fins- 
bury, 162; Flaxton, 907; Foleshill, 
70 162. 517, 641, 830; Forfarshire, 
231; Frimley, 303; Fulwood, 303; 
Galway, 333; Girvan, 301; Glamor- : 
gan, 907; Glasgow, 162, 517; Gospfirt 
and Alverstoke. 333 ; Gower, 444. 640 ; 
Grangemouth, 830: Grantham, 752; 
Greenwich, 599. 681 ; Grimsby, 407, 
.553,599. 791; Hackney, 234; Haiis- 
ham, 517, 907; Halifax, 70. 338, 407; 
Hammersmith, 268, 372,791 ; Hamp- 
ton Wick. 553, 752, 869; Hants. 333; 
Hastings, 102, 714, 907 ; Haverford- 
west, 25; Hay wards Heath, 641; 
Heokmondwike, 117; Helensburgh, 
338; Hcmel Hempstead, 304; Hen- 
don, 681 ; Hprefordshire. 162 : Herts, 
201, 234; Hetton,162; Hinckley, 869; 
Holborn, 599; HolmSrth, 268; Hor- 
sham, 947, 934; Hov.», 268; How- 
den, 441; Hucknall, 792; HiUl, 70; 
Ilford, 70, 907; Ilkeston, 234; 
Isle of Wight, 234; Islington, 201, 
234; Itjhen, 869; Kenilworth, 869; 
Kensington, 558, 752, 869 ; Kent, 481, 
830; Keynsham, 372; King's Lynn, 
. 162; Kingston (Surrey), 681 ; Kings- 
town, 162; Lambeth, 599: Lancaster, 
681; Lanes, 263, 599; Langholm, 
304; Lame, 752; Leeds, 201; Leek, 
407; Leicester, 26, 234, 517, 631; 
Leicestershire. 869; Leigh, 715; 
Lewisham, 26, 201, 558, 611, 869; 
Ley ton, 907; Limavady, 26; Lindsey 
(Lines), 201; Llandrindod Wells, 
792; Llandudno 201, 715, 947; 

1 Municipal Work in Progress and 
Projected (continued) : — 

i Roads and Materials (continued) :— 

Lurgan, 268, 681; Lynton, 558; 
Maidstone, 234; Maidens and 
Coombe, 444, 715; Manchester, 407 ; 
March, 792 ; Marylehone, 558, 947 ; 
Melton Mowbray, 162; Merioneth, 
i 407, 907; Middlesbrough, 70, 234, 

907; Middlesex, 234; Midsomwr 
i Norton, 162, 3:38; Moira, 985; 

Molesey, 408; Montgom«ry, 481; 
Mountain Ash, 201; Newcastle 
(Ireland), 268; New haven, 414; 
' Newport (I.W.), 2:34; Newport 

(Mon.), 869; Newry, 26, 301; Newton 
Abbot, 599; Newtownards, 372; 
Norfolk, 558, 641, 947 ; Northampton, 
372; North Berwick, 681; North 
Riding, 268. 304; Northumberland, 
752; Northwich, 558; Norwich, 414, 
792; Nottingham. 70.553; Okehamp- 
ton, 681; Omagh, 201, 715; Oulton 
Broad, 70; Oxfordshire, 792; 
Paddington, 263; Paignton, 372, 
792, 947; Penge, 752; Penistone, 
4W; Penrith, 26; Perthshire, 
372, 869; Plymouth, 403, 830; 
Poole, 304, 481, 907; Portadown, 
481; Portslade, 599; Repton, 234; 
Rhyl, 403, 599; Richmond (Sur- 
rey), 304, 830; Rochdale, 444; 
Romford, 268; Rowley Regis, 752. 
869; Rugbv, 162; Runcorn, 792, 
Kushden, 372 ; Rutherglen, 304, 792, 
St. Anne's, 372; St. Austell, 162; St. 
Columb, 907; St. Ives (Hunts), 517 ; 
St. Pancras, 985; St. Thomas, 70, 
338. 558 ; Salford, 268 ; Scarborough, 
907; Sheffield, 117. 782; Shoreditch, 
268 517; Shrewsbury, 907 ; Sidmouth, 
234, 408, 599, 830; Skegness, 947; 
Skipton, 234; Southampton, 234, 
947; South Dublin, 681; Southend, 
408; Soutbport, 70, 162. 408; South 
Shields, 702,907; Staffs, 869; Stepney, 
162; Stirlin'.',333,641; Stockton, 162; 
Stokeslev, 558 ; Stretford. 869; Sun- 
bury, 268, 869 ; Sunderland, 408, 444, 
947; Surrev. 752; Swansea, 70, 373, 
444, 481, 947; Swindon, 162, 641; 
Teignmouth, 907; Tettenhall, 830; 
Thornaby-on-Tees, 234; Thornton, 
117; Tilbury, 558; Tjverton, 907; 
Torquay, 907; Tutbury, 481; 
Twickenham, 201, 518; Tyrone, 
947: Upholland, 830: Wakefiold, 
860 i Wallsend, 715; Walsall, 792; 
Walthamstow, 715; Walton-on- 
Thames, 518; Wandsworth, 263 338, 
553, 715, 792, 907; Ware. 444; War- 
ringt0P,715; Warsop,830; Watford, 
681; Weardale, 444; Wednesbury, 
599; Wednesffeld, 201; Westhamp- 
nett, 599, 753; West Lothian, 599, 
631 ; Westminster, 70, 830, 985 ; West 
Sussex, 234, 830; Weybridge, 792; 
Whitby, 234, 408.869; Widnes, 907; 
Wigan, 444; Wigton,947; Wigtown- 
shire, 408, 985: Winslow, 70; With- 
ernsea, 631; Wolverhampton, 162; 
Woodford, 338; Woolwich, 201.830, 
947; Worcester, 373. 403; Working- 
ton, 444; Wortley, 304; Yarmouth, 
792, 947 ; Y'eovll, 641, 947 ; Y'iewsley, 
907; \''ork, 553 

Sewerage and Sewage Disposal :— 
Aberayron, 715; Aberdeen, 26; Alton 
70; Altrincham, 753; Ammanford' 
753; Ampthill, 369; Ashby, 162; 
Ashton-uuder-Lyne, 373; Auckland, 
947; Aylesbury, 641; Balby, 408; 
Baldock, 753; Ballyclare, 70; Ban- 
gor, 599, 935; Barking, 518; Barnard 
Castle, 70 ; Bedwellty, 553 ; Belling- 
ham, 753; Belper, 339, 599; Bille- 
ricay, 907; Birmingham, 201, 641, 
681,869; Birstall, 162, 304; Blofield, 
792; Bodmin, 234; Bognor, 947; 
Bolton, 304; Bonnyrigg, 681; Bow- 
land, 444, 753 ; Brampton, 117; Brid- 
lington, 70; Brigg, 339; Brixworth, 
431; Bromley, 947; BrownhiUs, 70; 
Bulkington, 70, 162, 869; Burnley, 
403; Burton, 553, 599; Caerphilly, 
263; Cannock, 162; Cheadle, 339; 
Chelmsford, 518; Cheltenham, 444; 
Chesterfield, 403; Clowes, 162; 
Clutton, 408; Coatbridge, 830; 
Cockermouth, 70, 162; Cork, 70; 
Darlaston, 117 ; Darwen, 408 ; Derby, 
907 ; Derry, 830 ; Doncaster, 162, 201 ; 
Downham Market, 985; Driffield, 
631; Droylsden, 641; Dunfermline, 
117, 641; Durham, 753; East Grin- 
stead, 117, 715; Easthampstead, 70; 
I Ellesmere, 408, 599; Epsom, 947; 

EsherandtheDittons, 947; Faring- 



January 16, 1914- 

Hunicipal Work in Progress and 

Projected (continued) .— 
Sewerage and Sewage Disposal (con- 
it nued) : — 

don, 481 J Faversharu. 20, 041; 
Featherstone, 304 ; Folkestone, 
715; Glasgow. 414. 7M ; Glen- 
dale, 408 ; Grimsby, 162. 201 ; 
Hailsbam, 201 ; Halifax. lUl ; Hamp- 
ton. 304; Hartley Wintnsy, 2:il; 
Haslemore. 4ii8 : Hayfinld, ilS5; Heb- 
den Bridge. 71; Helston, MS; 
Higham Ferrorp. ."'90: Hinderwell, 
1«1; Holywell, ;i7:i; llorwieb. 330; 
Hursley, 373. 408, 181; Islington, 
'.'47; Kidderminster, 3ii4. S3iJ; Kids- 
grove, 117; Kilkenny. 007; Kingston 
(Surrey), 181,081; Lanarkshire, 715; 
Laurencekirk. 162; Ledbury, 162: 
Leeds. 408. 0(i7 ; Leiston-cum-Size- 
well, 408; Lindsey (Lines). 201; Lis- 
towtrl. 339, 081; Little Lever, 558: 
Liverpool. 373; Loughborough, 234; 
Lowestoft, 201. 047 ; Mansfield, 8.30 ; 
Melton Mowbray, 085; Middles- 
brough. 234. 8i!9; Monaghan, 907; 
Mvtholmroyd, 201; Xantwich, 373, 
907; Newcistle upon-Tyne, 268; 
New Ross, 301; Newton Abbot, 681; 
North Bromsgrove, 71 ; Norwich, 
985; Oakengatfg. 117; Oakham, 304; 
Orsett, 209; Ossett, 339: Paignton. 
l>tl; Patelev Bridge, 117; Peterhead, 
304; Poole, 599, 908; Portslade, 947; 
Poithcawl, 162, 947: Preston, 339, 
518,830; Richmond (Surrey), 641 : 
Rochester, 041 ; Rochford, 117, 558 ; 
Rothesay, 408; Rugb.?. 518; Run- 
corn, 558. 792; St. Austell, 481; St. 
Helens (I.W.), 715; Saxmundbam, 
339: Scarborough. 041 ; Seaton, 908; 
Sedgefield, 408 ; Shardlow, 408; 
Sheffield, 947; Shifnal, 304; Skel- 
mersdale. 71 ; Southampton, 234 ; 
Southend, 71; Southport, 444; 
Sonthwick. 269; Spalding, 444; 
SpUsby, 339, 947; Stafford, SOS; 
Stockton, 304; Stoke Newington, 
518; Stoke-on-Trent, 5.i8; Stow- 
market, 90S ; Stralford-on-Avon, 
144; Street. 162; Sunbury, 444, 869; 
Sutton-in-Ashfi eld, 117, 481 ; Swin- 
don, 102; Swinton and Pendlebury. 
947 ; Teddington,2d9. 830 ; Tenby, 304, 
373, 041; Tendring. 558, 792; Tilbury, 
558; Totnes, 753; V entnor, 269; 
Wakefield, 445 ; Warwick, 71, 908; 
Watford, 373, 869; Wath-upon- 
Uearne, 269; Weetslade, 331; Wel- 
lingborough. 445; Wellington ( Salop), 
79i: Wells (Norfolk), 373, 559;West- 
hampnett, 518: Westhougton, 209; 
Whitby, 304; Whitehaven, 102,445; 
AVindermere, 20; Witbernsea, 71 : 
Woking, 71; Worcester, 108, 445; 
Wrexham, 201, 908 ; Wrotham, 269 
Water, Gas, and Electricity :— 

Aberavon, 71 ; Aberdeen, 305, .599. 641 ; 
Airdrie, 269 ; Alsager, 373, 715 ; Alton, 
201, 985; Ammanford, 269; Ashing- 
too,559. 831; Atherstone, 599, 985; 
Athy, 985; Aylesbury. 234. 445; Ayr, 
599; Bakewell, 753; Ballator, 269; 
Banff, 559; Barnslev, 792; Barn- 
staple, 269;Batley, 947; Battle, 518; 
Bedford, 373 ; Beeston, 753; Belfast. 
2<Jl. 373; Helper, 599 : Bt-thnal-green. 
117;Bidtford,201; Billinge, 26, 481; 
Bilbton,234; Birmingham, 71, 201; 
Blackpool, 518; Bodmin, 234, 305; 
Bootle, 71. 339: Bradford, 041; 
Brechin, 792 ; Bridge of Allan, 831 ; 
Bridgnorth. 269; Bridgwater, 715: 
Brighton, 20, 117; Brumby and 
Frodingham, 339; Brynmawr, 305; 
Budleigh Salterton, 102; Bungay, 
715 ; Burton-on-Trent. 102, 908, 947 ; 
Cardiff, 71, 201 ; Carlisle, 71. 4o8, 031. 
715, 908; Castlederg, 445: Cheadle, 
117: Chelmsford, 269, »>41; Chelten- 
ham, 559; Chester-le-Strcet, 117; 
Chippenham, 831; Chorley, 518; 
Cleckheaton, 234; Clones, 201; 
'lowne, 715: Cockermouth, 2^; 
Congluton, 947; Conway. 715; Cooks- 
town, 445; Cromer, 162; Derby, 117; 
Devon port. 90S; Dewsbury, 908; 
Doncaster, 20 269. 559,641; Dromore. 
71; Dublin, 305; Dudley. 599; Dun- 
bar, 518; Dundalk,869; Dundee, 373, 
518, 559; Dunfermline. .S99; Earby, 
081; East Ward, 339; Edinburgh, 
t>41, 681 1 Ellon, 117; Epsom, 681; 
Exeter, 269; Exmouth, 599; Faver- 
sham. 869 : Featherstone. 599 ; Fife, 
71, 201. 373; Forfar. 102; Fraser- 
burgh. 559; Frinton, 481; Fulham, 
102 ; Glasgow, 305, 081 ; Greenock, 
269, 305 J Hamilton, 117; Hammer- 

Mnnicipal Work in Progress and 

Projected (continued) — 
W'ater, Gas and Electricity (continued) ;— 
smith. 162; Harteborne and Seals; 
117; Hayfield, 234, 305; Hey wood, 
305; Holvwell. 715, 792; Holywood, 
209 409, 908; Honiton. 373; Howden, 
0-<l,831; Hull, 26. 117: Hunstanton. 
715,792; Ilfracombe. &41 ; Ilkeston, 
234; Ipswich, 20: Johnstone. 041; 
Keighley,947;Kenmare,409; Kings- 
ton, 102; Kinross. 518; Kirkby-in- 
\shfield, 7.53; Kirkcaldy, 71; Lan- 
ark, 947; Lancaster, 715. 908; Leeds, 
409, 792; Leicester. 518; Leiston- 
cum-Sizewell, 831; Linlithgowshire, 
1(S, 9S5; Llandaff and Dinas Poms, 
908; Llanwrtvd, 908; Londonderry, 
481; Long Eaton, 445; Longtown, 
.".99; Loughborough, 305, 869; Lur- 
gan, 269, 373, 715; Lytham. 681, 
753; Malton. 681; Malvern, 869; 
Manchester. 518, <JS1; Marlborough, 
117; Marylebone, 71: Maryport, 
305; Matlock Bath. 163; Maj field, 
793; Mexborough, 631: Moffatt, 
(>41; Molesey. 269; Monmouth, 9S5; 
Montrose, 117; Neatb, 71; Newry, 
305, 908; Newton, 870; Northwich, 
831; Oakham, 71; Ossett, 339; Os- 
westry, 641, 753; Oulton Broad, 269; 
Ouniile, 163; Oystermouth, 081, 948, 
985; Paignton, 373; Peebles, 041; 
Perth, 518; Peterborough, 599; 
Plymouth, 559; RadstocV, 870 ; Red- 
ditch, 373; Rhyl, 641: Riccall, 305, 
908; Rochdale, 71; Ross, 948; 
Rothesay, 409, 559: Rowley, 985; 
St. Helens (I.W.), 235; St. Pancras, 
235, 481; Sandbach, 163; Soar- 
borough, 041; Selkirk, 145; Shrews- 
bury, 793; Sleaford, US, 30.5, 870; 
Southport, 715; Southwark, 041; 
Spalding, 339, 44.5; Stafford, 481, 
0-41; Stoke Newington, 518; Stone. 
870; Stourport, 641: Street, 831; 
Sunderland, 20; Swinton, 518; 
Swinton and Pendlebury. 948; Tan- 
dragee. 269; Tavistock, 715; Teign- 
mouth. 641, 681, 715; Thakeham, 
118; Tilbur.v, 559; Tiverton. 753; 
Tobercurry, 831 ; Torpoint, 409 ; Tor- 
quay, 715; Troon, 681, 94S; Ulver- 
ston, 481; Upton-on-Severn, 71; 
Wakefield. 373; Walsall, 269, 985: 
Warrington, 715; Waterford, 641; 
Wednesbury, 793; Welshpool, 339; 
Westbourne, 201 ; West Hartlepool, 
373; Wigan, 305; Winchcombe. 481 ; 
Withernsea, 641 ; Wolverhampton 

Miscellaneous : — 

Bangor, 71; Bath, 445; Batley, 269; 
Bermondsey, 1(53; Bideford, 715; 
Birmingham, 26; Blackpool, (>41; 
Bournemouth, 71, 715; Bradford, 
118; Cardiff'. .599, 041; Carnarvon, 
081; Chertsey, 71; Chesterfield, 985; 
Chester-le-Street, 373; Crewe, 269; 
Darlington. 209; Dewsbury, 373; 
Donegal, 118 : Down, 715; Dumbar- 
tonshire, 753; Edinburgli, 599 ; Exe- 
ter, 269, 948 ; Falmouth. 445 ; Felix- 
stowe, 305; Greenock, 518; Havant, 
948; Hove, 269; Keighley. 948; 
Knaresborough, 163; Launceston, 
163 ; Leeds, (Ul : Leiston-cum-Size- 
well, 831; Lewisham, 831; London 
C.C, 870; Louth Co.. 870; Ludlow, 
.559; Maidens and Coombe, 948; 
Malmesbury. 481; Malton. 269; 
Molesey, 715 ; Newcastle-ou-Tyne, 
374, 641; Newhaven. 518; Newport 
(Mon.), 948: Nottingham. 600; Oun- 
dle, 269; Plymouth, .559; Pudsey, 
716; Richmond (Surrey), 269; Roth- 
erham, .559; Rowley Regis. 753; St. 
Annes, 681; St. Ivea (Cornwall), 518; 
Seaton Delaval, 118; Sleaford, 305; 
Surbiton,600; Swansea. 339. 445, 481; 
Teignmouth, 559; Torquay, 716; 
Twickenham. 26; Uxbridge, 716; 
Wandsworth, 710; Wembley, 831; 
West Hartlepool, 94*; Whartedale, 
985; Wick. 20; Woodford, 339; 
Wrexham, 269, 559; York, 71, 374. 
Mutual Defence, 351, 833. 923, 939 


National Gas Congress and Exhibition 

in London, 482, 519 
National Signpost Fund, 671, 093 
N'ational Water-supplies, 422 

Newcastle-on-Tyne Housing Scheme, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Municipal Work, 

New South Wales, Municipal Engineer- 
ing in, 255 
Nomenclature of Road Stones, 178, 180, 

Northamptonshire Roads, 141 

Office Conversations :— 

A Canadian Prospect, 312 
A Lesson in English, 330 
A Matter of Diagnosis, 8.53 
A Rise in Salary, .589 
Calling in a Consultant, 938 
Colonel Jubber's Complaint, 778 
The Nine-inch Brick, 171 
The Road Congress, 58 
The Sex Problem. 748 
The Ubiquitous Deputy, 114 
Wanted : a Chief Officer, 438 
Old Roadmen at Haverfordwest, 2 
Ontario Highway Improvement, 385 
Ontario Road Improvement, 231 
Open Air Bath. Wimbledon, 308 
Organisation Society and Roads. 317 
Overpayment for Water-supply. 35 

Paris Improvement Scheme. 008 
Paris Motor Fire-engines, 231 
Pembrokeshire, Housing in. 614 
Personal, 20, 72, 118, 103, 202, 235, 270, 
305, 339, 374, -409, 445, 482, 519, 559, 600. 
(>42, 082, 716, 753, 793, 831, 870, 908, 948, 
Petrol in Sewers, 807 
Pipes, Location of Underground, 43 
Pipe Subways for City Streets, 860 
Pisciculture, Sewage and. 43 
Plotting a Survey, 264 
Preparation of Town Planning Schemes, 

248, 295, 335 
Private Street W'orks : An Objection, 494 
Professional Defence, 74-4 
Professional Qualifications, 459 
Profits from Municipal Undertakings, 87 
Promotions by Technical Training, 750 
Protection of Roadside Wastes. 139 
Publications :— 

All about Engineering, 78:3 

British Rainfall. 1912, 449 

Builders' Quantities, 273 

Building Supervision, .554 

Catskill W^ater Supply of New York 

City, 590 
Cement, Concrete, and Bricks, 782 
Cement Testing. A Manual of, 35 
Clerk of Works. The, 554 
Coast Erosion and Protection, 438 
Computations for Marine Engines, 273 
Disinfection and Disinfectants. 273 
Drainage and Sanitation, 872 
Elementary Graphic Statics, 977 
Elements of Water Bacteriology, 591 
Engineering as a Profession. 554 
Fire Protection in Buildings, 173 
Four-place Tables of Logarithms and 

Trigonometric Functions. 173 
Fowey, the Troy Town of " Q," with 

its Surroundings, 591 
Gas and Fuel Analysis for Engineers, 

Gasworks Directory and Statistics for 

1913-14, 872 
Graphics and Structural Design, 782 
Improvement of Rivers, The, 758 
Law Relating to Town Planning, The 

Liskeard and Looe, with their Sur- 
roundings, 591 
Local Government, 1912-1913, com- 
prising Statutes, Orders, Forms, 
Cases, and Decisions of the Local 
Government Board, 758 
Logarithms for Beginners, 195 
" Mechanical World " Pocket Diary 

and Year-book for 1914,783 
Modem Sanitary Engineering and 

Plumbers' Work, 35 
Modern "Technical Drawing, 912 
Molesworth's Pocket-book of En- 
gineering Formulae, 554 
National and Municipal Finance, 35 
Northwood (Middlesex), 943 
Portland Cement: Its Manufacture, 

Testing, and Use, 638 
Practical Stone Quarrying, 783 

January 16, 1914. 


Publications {continued) .— I 

Prospective Opportunities for High 
way Engineers in a National High 
ways Department, Hi 
Public Road Systems of Foreign, 
Countries and of the Several States 
[of theU.S.A.].294 _^, ^^^ 

Public Works Calculator, The. 912 
" Report on Coal and Power Investiga- 
tion " for the Board of Highway 
Commissioners, Saskatchewan, 872 
Social Guide, The, 35 
Survey of India: General Report on 
the Operations during the Survey 
Year 1911-1912, 758 „, ^ • 

Switchgear and the Control of Electric 

Light and Power Circuits, 872 
" Text-book on Highway Engineering, 

The Land Transfer " Scandal, 526 
Transactions of the Institution of 

Water Engineprs, 173 . 

Underground Water for Commercial 

Purposes, 590, 782 
Valuation of Real Property, 526 
Valuation I ables, 912 
Water Purification and Sewage Dis- 
posal, 75 
Waterworks Directory and Statis- 
tics, 872 

Whitaker's Almanack, 1914, 9(i 
Whitakei's Peerage. Baronetage, 

Knightage, and Companionage, 977 
Wooden Trestle Buildings and their 
Concrete Substitutes, A Treatise on, 
Working of Steam Boilers, The, 783 
Public Service Motor Vehicles, Develop- 
ment of, 725, 755 
Pumping, 746 

Purification of Water by Ultra-V lolet 
Kays. 421, 439 

Queries and Replies :— 

Sewage Disposal : Local Government 

Board Requirements, 671 
Surface Water Drainage, 886 
Syphoning Water over Long Dis- 
tances, 586, 719, 743 

Rand Water Supply, 343 

Rating of Sewers, 139, 227 

Recent Developments in Street Water- 
ing, 85 

Reclamation of the River Exe, 327 

Redruth Building By-laws, 95 

Refuse Disposal in Exeter, 159 

Refuse Disposal, London, 9(>3 

Refuse Removal. 421, 431 

Regina, Reservoir Construction in, 411 

Regulations for Fast and Slow Traffic 
on Roads, 90 

Reinforced Concrete Pavements, 93 

Reinforced Concrete, The Application 

of. 169 , ,, . . , 

Relations of Consulting and Municipal 

Engineers, 329 
Reminiscences of Mr. Boulnois, 883, 884 
Removal of Corrosive Properties from 

Water, 385, 394 
Returns by Water Undertakings, Com- 
pulsory, 934 
Ehymney Valley Sewerage, 111 
Richardson, Presentation to Mr. H., 833 
Riches to Roadsweeping, From, 427 
Rivers Pollution and the Protection of 

Water Supplies, 42, 73 
River Water Supplies, 217 
Roadmen at Haverfordwest, Old, 2 
Boads and Streets:— 

Accidents on Tarred Road Surfaces, 

Administration and Upkeep, 185 

A Forfarshire Proposal, 225 

Algarrobo Paving, 166 

A New Road Critic, 437 

Apportionments for Street Works, 925 

Armagh, 241 

Auckland Rural, 95 

Australia, 167, 658, 672 

Australian Road Problems, 494, 500 

Berkshire, 17 

Koads and Streets (continued): — 

Bristol Experiments, 181 1 

Brussels Congress Prize, 75 | 

Budapest, 168 

Built and Unbuilt Areas, 703 

CamberTell,34, 89 

Causes of Wear and Deterioration of 

Roads, 290 
Clare 241 
Comp'sTrisons of Different Types of 

Road Crusts, 495, 524 
Construction and Maintenance under 

Modern Traffic, 186 
Construction of Macadamised Roads, 

Country Roads Board of Victoria, 658, 

County Surveyor and Tar Spraying, 

County Surveyor's Instructions to 

Roadmen, 311 
Creosoted Deal Paving Contracts, 48b 
Croydon Relief Road, 806, 820. 
Damage to Macadamised Roads, 237 
Department of Roads for the United 

Kingdom, 770 
Derry, 743 „ , ^ ^ 

Design of the Edges oE Road Crusts, 

247.275 . ,, ^ 

Development of Public Service Motor 

Vehicles, 725, 755 
Devon County Surveyor and Direct 

Control, 464 
Direct Control, 464 
Direction Posts and Plates, 328, b5(, 

683, 671, 693, 761, 813, 863 
Disintegration, 860 
Drainage as Affecting Highway 

Traffic, 226 
Durham, 785 
East Suffolk, 374 
Egypt, 813 
Engineering Standards Committee 

and Road Materials, 180 
Esher and the Dittons, 685 
Essex, 111 

Exeter, 181 , , 

Experimental Road Work in Scotland, 

Finance, 214. 216, 219 
Pluxphalte Roads at Epping, 450 
Functions of Central and Local 

Authorities, 2.57 
Future Cost of Coal Tar, 909 
Germany, 166 
Glossary of Road Terms, 621, 663, 700, 

728, 786, 822, 903 
Godstone, 668 
Granite Sett Paving in Camberwell, 

Hereford.- hire, 154 
Highway Authorities, 281 
Highway Engineering Education, 485 
Highways, 564 
Holborn Paving, 361 
Horse Owners and the Roads, 828 
Illinois Highway Developments, 86 
Improvements in Road Machinery, 

Ireland, 422 

Irish Road Contract System, 540 
Isle of Wight, 446 
Leek, 46 

Legal View of Making a Road, 747 
Leyton, 539 
Lighting of Highways and Vehicles, 

Limmer Asphalt Macadam, 921, 949 
Liverpool Problems, 933 
Local Taxation Returns, 909 
London Arterial Roads Conference, 

806, 817 
Macadam, 4S9 
Malay States, 294 
Main Road Control in Ireland, 252 
Maintenance— Past and Future, 236 
JIainteuance Problems, 252 
Manchester Street Pavings. 309 
Mining and Quarrying of Road Mate- 
rials, 975 
Modern Road Construction, 684 
Modern Road Maintenance, 151 
Motor 'Buses and Roads, 159, 677 
Motor Driven Road Builder, 861 
Motor Traffic and Road Maintenance 

in Middlesex, 533, 573 
Motor Vacuum Street Cleaner, 12 
Nomenclature of Road Stones, 178, 
180, 225, 2.17, 254, 263. 309, 335. 361, 
402, 550, 605, 615. 621. 663, 700, 728, 
786, 822, 881, 894, 903 
Norfolk, 273 

Norfolk Road Tariing, 170 
Northamptonshire, 141 
Novel Prize for Roadmen, 288 
Ontario Highway Improvement, 231, 

Opening and Reinstatement of Roads 

Boads and Streets (coiitinuedj:— 
Organisation of the French Depart- 
ment of Ponts and Chaussees 368 
Organisation Society and Roads, 317 
Oulton Broad, 273 

Pirish Councils and Steam RoUing.Sll 
Part Played by Water in Macadam 

Road Construction, 805, 808, 951 
Patching in Bedfordshire. 910 
Peril of Manhole Covers, 358 
Petrol Tax, 275 
Pipe Subways, 860 
Protection of Roadside Wastes, 139 

Qualifications of Road Engineers and 

Roadmen, 770, 795 
Quebec, 880 

Recent Developments in Street Water- 
ing, 85 
Reconstruction of Roads at Leyton, 

Regulations for Fast and Slow Traffic, 

Reinforced Concrete Pavements. 93 
Resurfacing Work in Surrey, 181 
Roadamant Company, 193 
Road Board and Road Control, 65 
Road Board Appointments 227. 413 
Road Board: Debate in Parliament, 

177, 182 
Road Board Finance, 34 
Road Board Grants, 89, 256, 308, 603 
Road Board: New Member, 174 
Road Board Policy, 184 
Road Board: Third Annual Report: 

177, 182 
Road Dust and Disease, 413 
Road Maintenance and Improvement 

—Present and Future, 142, 146 
Road Making Contracts and Guar- 
antees, 308 
Roadman and Cowkeeper, 439 
Road Oiling, 21 
Road Openings, 486 
Road Planning Problems, 703 
Roads and Rates, 693, 709 
Roads Improvement Association, 131 
Road^ Organisation, 317 
Ross, 749 

Rubber for Street Paving, 19 
Russia, 639 

St. Petersburg, 168 

Scottish Trials, 924 

Select Committee's Report, 358 

Selection of Macadam Road Material 

Sheffield, 634 

Sizes of Broken Stones and Chippings 

Somersetshire, 310 

Special Training of Road Engineers, 
862, 898, 939, 942, 971 

Staines Surveyor and the Road Con- 
gress, 92, 159 

Standardisation of Road Materials, 
178, 180, 225 

Statistics, 846, 855 

Sudan, 762 

Surface Tarring, 23, 141 

Surface Tarring at Esher and the 
Dittons, 685 

Surrey, 56 

Sutton, 56 

Tarmac Extensions, 939 

Tarring and Fish Life, 431 

Tarring in France, 231 

Testing and Standardisation of Ma- 
Tests of Road Materials, 362 
I Tests of Wood for Paving Blocks, 393 

Tiverton, 504 

Types of ^urfacing on Roads and 
Bridges, 52 

Uniformity in Tar Spraying, 828 

United States, 167 

[Jxbridge, 790 

Various Types of Stone Paving in Use, 

Vienna. 167 
Voidless Asphalt Macadam, 982 

Warwickshire, 252 

Warwickshire Highway Admimstrv 

tion, 283 
Warwickshire Road Improvement 

Scheme, 198 

457, 483 „ , 

Water Bound Broken Stone Roads, 
Western Approach Road Scheme, 695, 

West Virginia, 659 
Widening of Fleet-street, 51 
" Wire 'Bus " and Road Maintenance, 

Wood Paving in Camberwell, ol 
Wood Paving Questions, 165 
Worcestershire, 414 


January 16, 1914. 

Boofadale Sewage Works Extensions, 501 

Bojal Commission on Sewage Dippopal : 
Appendix tx) Eightli Report, 282, 286, 
581, r,20 

Roial Institute of British Arcliitects, 

Boyal Sanitnrv Institute:— Exeter Con- 
dress and Exhibition, 01, G3, 04, 169, 
2(«, 217, 271,:!0", 311 

Euislip - Nortliwood Town Planning 
Sclneme, 545 

Bural Labourers' Cottages, G14 

Russian Municipal Enterprises, 907 


St. Pancras Electricity Undertaking, 

Salt'ord Borough Engineer's Death, 593 
San Francisco, Siiecial Waterworks Con- 
struction in, 458, 409 
Sanitary Association of Scotland, 449 
Sanitary Inspectors' Conference: I'reii- 

dential Adrtress, 413 
Sanitarj Work, Economy in, 777 
Sanitary Work in Kiliiberle.v.440 
School Buildings and their Future, 307 
Scottish Local Government Board's 

" Hints" on Housing, 51'i 
Separate v. Combined Drains, 019 
Sewage Works Managers, the Desira- 
bility of Fuller Recognition of, 992 
Sewerage and Sewage Disposal:— 
"Adamics" Automatic Sewage Litt, 

Aeration as an Aid in Sewage Purifi- 
cation, 87, 275 
Bacterial Clarification of Sewage, 287 
Basement and Low Level Drainage, 

Belfast New AVorks, 556 
Boltin, 909 

Cheltenham Sewage Works, 561 
Chemical and Bacterial Condition of 
Rivers Above and Below Outfalls, 
Combined Drainage, 273 
Distribution of Sewage on Bacteria 

Beds, 196 
Economy in Sanitary Work, 777 
Erith Works, 6 
Evesham Extensions, 707 
Experimental Roads at Sheffield, 607 
Fifty Tears' Experience of Sewage 

Disposal, 961, 964 
Flow of Sewers, 20 
Fresh Water Alga on Contact Beds, 

Functions of the Non-Bacterial Popu- 
lation of the Bacteria Bed, 262 
Harrogate, 541 

Houre Drainage Law, 774, 815, 807 
Insect Life in Sewage Filters, 361, 387 
Intercepting Traps, 047, 720, 731 
Leek, 43 
Leicester, 501 
Leyton, 003 
Lincoln, 430 
Manchester, 331 
Need for Standardisation in Drainage 

Details, 731, 780 
New Method of Concentrating Sewage 

Sludge, 635 
Oyster Merchants' Deputation, 872 
Petrol in Sewers, S07 
Rating of Sewers, 139, 227 
Rochdale Extensions, 501 
Rochester and Chatham Drainage, 8-52 
Rhymney Valley Sewerage, 111 
Rivers Pollution, 12. 73 
Royal Commission's Appendix to 

Eighth Report, 282, 280, .'iSl, 629 
St. John's, East Grinstead Works. 

0-13, 085 
Scraping of Sewage Rising Mains, 414 
Separate f. Combined Drains, 613, 649, 


Sewage and Pisciculture, 4:! 
Sewage Disposal by Dilution. 245 
Sewage Disposal of the Future, 140. 215 
Sewage Farm Profits, 34 
Sewage Tank Construction, 60 
Sewage Works Managers, 193 
Sewer Gradients, llo 
Sheffield, 031, 007, 700 
Sbone's " Cuncta in Unum" Appa- 

ratu.o, 701 
Solution of the Sewage I'roblem, 901 
Stoke-on-Trent Sewage Distribution, 

Storm Overflows, 773 
Stratford-on-Avon, 364,513 
Surbiton, 363, 677 
Surface Water Drainage, 880 
Tiverton, 501, 509, 520 
Treatment of Sewage Discharged into 

Tidal AVaters. 4 
Unittid States, 871 

Sewerage and Sewage Diiposal i 

(continued) : — 

ntilisatioQ of Sewage in Agriculture, 

Village Drainage, 4^16 

Wakefield, 538 

Worcester, 628 
Sheffield Roads, 634, 607 
Sheffield Sewage Works Extensions, /60 
Sheffield Tramway Renewals, 638 _ 
Shrewsbury Borough Surveyorship, 933, 

Signposts on Roads, 328, 057,671,683, 693 

Sizes of Broken Stones and Chippings, 

Slum Property and Public Improve- 
ments, 179 
Small Dwellings Acquisition, 351, 375 
Society of Architects, 744.749 
Society of Engineers, 564, 718 
Solent Tunnel, Proposed, 903 
Somerset County Surveyor's Instruc- 
tions to Roadmen, 311 
Special Remuneration, 535, 500 
Special Water Charges, 228 
Staffordshire, Public Health in, 882 
Staines Surveyor and the Road Congress, 

92, 1,")9 
Standardisation of Road Materials, 178, 

180, 225 
Standards of Purity for Public Water 

Supplies, 553 
Steel-framed Cottages. 902 
Steel Plate Girders, 944 
Stoke-on-Trent, Sewage Distribution at, 

Storage of Cement. 777 
Storm Overii'iws, 773 
Stowmarket Water Supply, 932 
Straw in the Streets, 603 
Street Lighting, Automatic Conti'ol of, 

Street Names, Fixing of, 747 
Sudan, Roads and Wells in the, 762 
Superannuation and Security of Tenure, 

Surbiton, Sewerage and Sewage Disposal 

at. 303 
Surface Water Drainage, 886 
Surveying, 900 
Surveyors' lustitation :— 

Benevolent Fund, 734 

Examinations, 59 

Meeting, 808 

Presidential Address, 734 

Scholarships, 942 
Survey, Plotting a, 264 
Swimming Baths and Infection, 770, 

Swords for Sanitarians, 403 
Sydney Harbour Bridge, 76 
Sydney, Municipal Engineering in, 255 

Talbot Cars. 149 
Tame, Condition of the. 393 
Tarmac Extensions. 939 
Tarring and Fish Life. Road. 431 
Taunton Workmen's Dwellings, 702 
Telegraph Poles in Roads, 761 
Temporary Buildings in Relation to By- 
laws, 759 
Tennie-court.=, Profitable, 650 
Tests of Road Materials, 362 
Three Towns Amalgamation, 903 
Tidal Waters. Treatment of Sewage 

Discharged into, 4 
Timber. Decay of, 413 
Tip Wagons, 712 

Tiverton, Municipal Progress at, 502 
Torquay Medical Baths, Proposed, 203 
Town Planning Institute, 81.5, 864 
Training of Engineers Engaged on 

Work Associated with Sanitation, 

246, 253 
Training of Road Engineers, The Need 

for Some Special, 802. 898, 939, 942, 971 
Tramway Gradients, 394 
Tramway Renewals, Sheffield, 638 
Tramways and Motor 'Buses, 534 
Tramways, I'rofits from " Stud," 538 
Tramway Track Paving, Maintenance 

of, 409 
Tramway Track Repairs, 412 
Treatment of Sewage Discharged into 

Tidal Waters, 4 
Treatment of Soft Waters, 385, 394 
Trees in Public Thoroughfares, 254 
Trees, Too Vigorous Elm, 075 

Ultra- V iolet Bays, Purification of Water 
by, 421, 439 

Underground Pipes, Location of, 43 

University Courses, 253 

Unsatisfactory Housing, Factors Caus- 
ing, 422, 432 

Unsealed Contracts with Local Autho- 
rities, 85 

Urban District Councils' Associati^^n 
Conference, 159 

Utilisation of Sewage in Agriculture. 

Uxbridge Bural District, Road Tarring 
in, 790 

Various Types of Stone Paving in Use, 

Venturi Meters, 899 
Voidless Asphalt Macadam, 982 


Warrington Bridge, 05 

Water-bound Broken Stone Roads, 

457, 483 
Waterproofing Cement Concrete and 

Cement Renderings, 77. 
Water Supply:- 
Advantages of Lime Treatment of 

Water, 613, 627 
Animal Growths in Water Pipes, 1, 7 
Ayrshire, 486 
Brynmawr, 439 
Candy Water Softening and Filtering 

System, 932 
Chemical and Bacterial Examination 

of London Waters, 349, 359 
Clogging of Mechanical Filttjrs, 297, 

Compulsory Returns by Water Un- 
dertakings, 934 
Conservation of Water Supplies, 553 
Corrosion of Water Mains, 769, 772, 

Dawlish Arbitration. 703 
Harrogate Mineral Waters, 541 
Jersey. 10 
Leek. 50 

Liverpool Extension, 890 
Location of Underground Pipes, 43 
London, 349 359, 469 
Los Angeles Viaduct. 854 
Medical Officer and the National 

AVater Supply, 726 
Meters in Madrid, 236 
Mid-Lanarkshire, 302 
Municipal AA'aterworks Association, 

New River Tercentenary, 477 
Overpayment for Water Supply, 35 
Pollutinn in Canada, 3 
liand AVater Supply, 343 
Removal of Corrosive Properties from 

Water, 385. 394 
Reservoir Construction in Eegina, 411, 
Rijers Pollution and the Protection of 

AA'ater Supplies, 42, 73 
Softening and Hardening of AVater 

961, 987 
Solubility of Carbonate of Lime, 961, 

Special Construction in San Francisco, 

458, 469 
Special Water Charges, 228 
Standards of Purity, 553 
Sterilisation by Chemical Methods, 

Sirerilisation bv Electricity, 274, 591 
Stowmarket, 932 
Supplies from Rivers, 217 
Syphoning AVater Over Lang Dis- 
tances, 580, 719 
Treatment of Soft AVaters, 385 39t 
Ultra- A'ioltft Rays, 421, 4.39 
Welsh Supplies, 515 
AVarwickshire Road Improvement 

Scheme, 198 
AA'ednesbury's New Baths, 155 
AA'harfedale Councillors and a Motor- 
car. 847 
Wimbledon Improvement Scheme, 783 
AVimbledon Open-air Bath, 368 
Wimbledon Surveyor and Direction 

Posts, 813 
" Wire 'Bus" and Road Maintenance. 41 

Wood Paving Questions, 105 
AVorcestershire County Roads and 

Bridges, 414 
AVorkmen's Cottages, 88, 224, 335, 402 

JANTTAHY 16, 191*- 





Adam., UW. 190 
Aldndge, H. B., -2^» 
Baines, C- O., 975 

B^rral«t T C 759 ^^ 

Beachain, W f-- *^' 

Bull H b.ob* 

Blai'r. W N.. Ig 

Boraas, i ■. --" „„, 

BoBtock HUl. A j^96i _^^_ _.^g_ 795 

Bcadacz«k l.,-^b 

Brodie, J- »•• r, , * 

Brooked. A. K. (Ji^ 
Bruwn. A., lb; 
Biown, K,js-',9, „„_ 
Burgess Wr.. 987 

Bains, J-,°^V T 4 207 
Cable. F.W-. 773, 777. 793 
Calder, W., 672 
Calliat, D. •- • i% 
CarpBUtor.F.U, .»1 

§|"'GO.:3'?2. 388, 421,461, 19G,53r„ 

Caa»inoue, b... -J» 
Cbaix, E., 91 
CbapLuau, b. U. ' 

Cooper.C tl 5M 
Cncaton-B. owne, J.. 413 ^^g 

Davis, A. 1-, b»4 
Deni],G. 53 
Dorman,^.H 796 

Browne, H. B.. 5* 
Drummond, K., loj. 
Dcjland, A.,524 


Duan, J. &.416 

Ea8dale,W C.,581 


Essex, E. U-, M.) 


Ferguson, B.^- 'SI-'"' 
Fitzrf-rald.M E,b»4 

FortdSCUH, Earl, bi 
Fowler, G.J. ^87 
Frosali, L-, ^^^ 

Gadd.W L.,972 

Ga.rett, H A 203 

Gettings. C. F . 41* 

Gladwell, A., iOl 

Gregory, J. H;,. 64.1 


GuUan, H. b.,l»b 
Hansen, P.. '-5 
Harding. W.D.|='^ 
Hartlree, G; B-. *^- 5,4 

Heidecker, E , od 

Ue*es,L. .l,2Ji. 
Hodgbia, J . 2o9 
Holgate, L. D. 520 

Horton, J. W , /ab 

Hubbard, P., ^07^894 

HumphrBys, U- a.. 00 

Hutchinson, J •,*9^ 

Jack, G. H., 1.51 
Jack, J. 1^.. 2-4 
Jarrett, J. b. 2oO 
Jerman, J.,3Ui 

Kershaw,J,B C., bb. 




Ki-ause, F., 166 

Kropp, h.h; 89.T 

Lappert, B., 168 
Eetts, E.A,2o3 
Lloya-Davies D. E.20b 

Lumet,G 291 
Lyster, A. G., 71' 

Maclean, W. A., 259 
Makepeace. W^H^IW 
Manning, G^W., 207 

Marion, E., 2-9 
Matthews, E. B., 4SJ 
Majen, VV., 221 
Mayer, E., 207 
Mazerolle, E, IW 
Middleton, B E., 9i 
Moucur, J, 857 
Morns, 0. S., 141, 207 
Moulding, T.,bl 
Mountain, A. O., lb/. 
Mumtord.E. M., 2»/ 

Nagy, A.,55 
Nemoihy, J-.220 
jsicholas, A. h.., o"' 

Palmer, A., 731 
Parker, H. 79o 
Pickering, J »•, ^"i 


Presuoit, W.H, 9Ab 


Kablin, J. E.,^VM 
Kansom, W. 772 

Eayner, A. t-,^'* yon, 439 
R*kuagh.*u^ea. M. von. 

Bees JBtt.ejs. " , 
Riohardwn, a ,3-" 
R,ohe, W. ^.. 684 E. K , 8J« 


Rivars, C t,.. Ml 
Bobb J.796 
Rjves,B.,2lb, »o< 
Sandberg F E P 92 
Sargent. P^..2»9 
Serrailer,L. 895 
Sharpies, P. P.. 8J4 
S(ieldon,FJ..'^5 4 09. -,31, 
Shenton, H- ^ ^•> *• 
Sherrard. f- E.. 601 
ShrapnellSmirh.E. S.,-.^/ 
Siddalls, J. 502 
Spenoer-PbilUP^.B. J., /'.< 
, Steele. W J- 602 
Stephenson, A..«* 
-tilgoe.H. E-. ij- 
Stolpakow A^N.. 260 
1 Strachie. Lord 259 
, Swetland, H. M.. 756 
Tannenbaum, A. S., 55 
Taylor, W. J., 50 
Thomas, R- J • ^O^' ^5^ 
Thomson. H. E., 91 
Tillson, G. VV.. 167 
Tonkholka. V. \ -, -0/ 
Torri, L., 207 
Timme, G., ff ^ 
Tarton, C. 64d 
Vawser. C. 236 
Verriere. H., 54 
Von Banch, A^2()7 
Vronblevsky, S. K.. 168 
Wakelam, H. T 237 _524 
Walker Smith. J., 207, 795, »ya 
Walmisley, A. 1., *'» 

WelKE P.,7j'.,,^ ^ Tz 743 
WentworthSheilds,F. E.,74i 

Whipple. G,C, 394 

W.Ikes, J E., 248 

Williams, b., 23J 

Willis, W. A.. 747, 815, 8b7 

WiUmot, J-. 484 
Winter. O.fc... 167 
Wood, F. J .024 796 
Wojien, T- rt. 91 
WooUey. 6. W., 734 
Wynne-Eoberts,B. 0,411 


Jaxfary 16. 1914. 


Automatic Aerial Wire KopewajB, not 

lielfast Municipal Abattoir. Iti.'j 

Buildiner Construction, 980 

Hum I'loses Pridge, W.-illsend, Sl-I. 

Clieltenbam Sewage Purification Works, 

Hajdon, 5li2 
Coast Erosion in Cumberland, 128 
Coast Sand Dunes, Sand Spits, and Sand 

Wastes, 3.i3, 3'*8, 426, 4611, 497, 537, 578, 

016, 660 
Country Koads in Victoria, C72 
Coventry-Birmingham Main Road at 

Stonebridge, 57 

Designs for Workmen's Cottages, 88 
Diagram Illustrating Use of "Adamics " 

Automatic Sewage Lift, 761 
Diagram showing Allowable Loads on 

Different Size Wheels, 14:5 
Diagram showing Amount and Character 

of Air Pollution in Several Scottish 

Towns, 669 
Diagram showing how Load on Kcad 

Surface Causes Depression and Conse- 
quent Upheaval, 565 
Direction Posts, 813, 863 
Distribution of Sewage on Bacteria 

Beds, 196 

Enderby Hill Quarry, 19 
Kvesham Sewage Disposal Works : Block 
Plan, 708 

Factors Causing Unsatisfactory Housing 

and their Prevention, 433 
Ferro-concrete Bridges in Northumber- 
land, 7 U 
Ferro-concrete Work at (^levedon, 289 
Fiddian Distributors at Evesham, 707 
Fluxphalte Roads at Epping, t.")0 

Globe-yard Improvement Scheme, Leek, 

Graveley Splasbguard, The, 487 


Heme Bay Memorial Hall, 310 
Huncote Quarry, Showing Incline, 19 
Hydraulic Ram, 630 


Interior Views, Harrogate Baths, .''vt2 

Loek, Municipal Works at, 119 
Limmer Asphalt Macadam on the Bath 
Road, 949 

Motor-driven Road Builder, 861 


Norwich, City of : 
Direction Tablet, 14-1- 
Street Mirrors for Regulation 
Tvafiic at Corners, 145 

Penmaonmawr Quarries; 

A Blast at, 93 

Road Congress Visitors at, 92 
Portraits ; 

Beacham. W. E., 45 

Boot, Horace (facing p. 725) 

Brown, Reginald, 395 

Chapman. H. T , 785 

Cockrill, J. W. (facing Ti'le) 

Cole, Thomas (facirg p. 9tO) 

Collins, Harold, 142 

Drnmmond, R., 151 

Grace, H. .1 , 72 

<Tregory, W., 226 

Group of Memhers of the Stowmarket 
Town Council and Directors of the 
W^ater Company, 932 

Gullan. Hector F , 147 

Hadfield, W., 1,180 

Hartfree, G. Bertram. 432 

Jack, J. L., 3U5 

Jones, Charles, 321 

Mason, Thomas. 44 

Mead, John R., 27 

Itedfern, J. L., 375 

Rivers, C. E., 541 

SiddHlls, J., 50i 

Stilgoe, Henry E., 322 

Sydney City Surveyor and Staff, 255 

Turner, Sydney G., 887 

AVatling, R. H., 600 

Wilkes, J. E, 248 
I'roposfed Relief Road at Croydon. 820 

Quinton and Harborne Town Planning 
Scheme, 323 

Reinforced Concrete Bridge at War- 
rington. 65 

Reservoir Construction in Regina, 
Canada, 111 

Retaining Wall, 823, 859, 899 

Road Congress Members at Enderby. 

Road Congress Visitors at Hadfields, 
Limited, Sheffield, 18 

St. John's Sewage Disposal Works, East 

Grinstead, 645 
Sample of Reconstructed Road, Leyton, 

Section Showing how Shone's " Cuncta 

in Unum " Apparatus may be Fixed, 

&c., 704 
Setting Out Tunnel, 594 
Sewer Construction, 360 
Shoring, 824 

Smart's "Midget" Boiler, 910 
Standardisation in Drainage Details, 73 1 
Steel Plate Girder: Bending Moment 

and Shearing Force Diagrams, &o., 945 
Stud Partitions and Fir-joisted Floors, 

Surveying, 900 
Sydney Harbour Bridge, Accepted 

Design for, 76 

Tarmac Construction, Watling-street, 
near Atherstone, 57 

The Peaceful Village and the Sign- 
board Mania, 709 

Timber Framing for Water Tower, 745, 

Timbering, 823 

Tip-wagoc, 712 

Tiverton Sewage Disposal Works, .520 

Tiverton Water Supply : 
Service Reservoir at Aller=, 503 
Service Reservoir at Warnicombe, .505 

Town Planning Schemes, The Prepara- 
tion of, 249 

Venturl Meter, 860, 899 
Voidless Asphalt Macadam, 982 

Waterproofing Cement Concrete and 

Cement Renderings, 77 
Wimbledon Open-air Bath, 369 
Workmen's Dwellings at Taunton, 702 


/ioioiinli Sityzvyoi- driif .lichiltti. (iit'at )'ainioulli. 

President of the Institution of Municipal and County Engineers, 1913-14. 

The Surveyor 

Hnb nDunicipal anb County Enoineer. 

Vol. XLIV. 

JULY 4, 1913. 

No. 1,120. 

Minutes of Proceedings. 

A very heavy programme, siic- 
The International cessfully carried out, was brought 

'"'.s^.liirj.n^n In/ ^o a close at a reception held at 
Suggestion for , tt , , ri -i o i. j 
the Future. the Hotel Cecil on baturday even- 
ing, the wind-up of the Third 
International Road Congress. Throughout the 
whole week the weatlier was very fine — although, 
it may be pointed out for the benefit of our foreign 
visitors, it was by no means unusual weather for ihc 
time of the year — and as a resvilt the excursions 
were earned out under almost ideal conditions. 
After giving careful consideration to the programme, 
as carried out, and to certain criticisms and com- 
ments with regard to particular items in the very 
ambitious scheme of activities, we have come to the 
conclusion that this third congress ought to mark a 
turning point, and that in future more of the time of 
the congress should be devoted to work and less to 
play. It is not suggested that the policy of inter- 
mingling social gatherings and pleasure trips with 
the more serious business of the congress was a 
mistake in the first two of these international con- 
gresses. It was perhaps necessai-y to conduct the 
proceedings in this fashion in order to make the 
movement generally known, and, by attracting large 
numbers of membei-s, to provide a basis for the 
future work of the permanent committee and its 
temporary offshoots. The outstanding feature of 
the third congress has been, however, the suboi'diua- 
tion of the serious business of the congress to other 
activities which, though in some eases they were 
instructive to those taking part in them, cannot 
have the same influence upon professional opinion 
and the views of administrators as have the meet- 
ings and di.scussions of the various " Questions "' 
which form the nuclei of the solid matter of the 
congress. We make, therefore, the practical sug- 
gestions that the time devoted to the meetings should 
be much greater than has been the case at this con- 
gress, that these meetings should be so spread OTxt 
and so arranged that they would not overlap as 
much as was the case with the meetings held last 
week, and that at least three times the amount of 
time which was thought necessary should be devoted 
to the final meeting at which the resolutions passed 
by the sections nve ratilied or rejected. A vei-y 
considei-able proportion of the total of the resolu- 
tions passed by the sections were neither ratified 
nor rejected by the congress, being included in 
series passed e« hhic, so that it is impossible 
to know whether the congress as a whole either 
approved or disapproved of any of these resolu- 
tions. On the face of it, it is not good enough to 
devote only a jjart of one afternoon to the real busi- 
ness of the congi-ess considered as a whole. We 
make the suggestion, then, that in future these 
international congresses shall be conducted with a 
view i-ather to the concenti-atiou of opinion on the 
points raised than to the gatliering together of a large 
number of persons who are more oi' less interested 
in roads ; and we definitely contemplate as a result 
of this a great diminution in the number of persons 
attending the congresses. At present the number 
is so great that tlie whole business is much too 

unwieldy, which has not oidy the result of dissi- 
pating energies which should be concentrated on the 
main purpose of the congress, but also has this 
effect, that different individuals emei-ge from the 
week of activities with quite different experiences. 
At first sight there might seem to be no serious 
objection to this result, but when we consider that 
one of the objects of the congress is to provide the 
members with experiences which will enable them 
to compare notes, so that the echoes of the proceed- 
ings may be heard for a considerable time in many 
different countries, it is obvious that a more useful 
result would be secui'ed if a smaller number of per- 
sons could be conducted through a series of activities 
most of which they expei'ience in common. 

Some of the 

We defer discussion of the 
resolutions jiassed by the congress 
and those included in the ''blocks" 
until we have reported the whole of the congress. 
It may be pointed out that the abstracts of the 
papers appearing in The Survkyor are specially 
pi-epared, and are written without reference to the 
summaries furnished by the reporters general. In 
this w^ay the reader maj^ in some cases, have the 
advantage of having a greater number of points 
brought to his attention than would be the case if he 
I'ead one summary in each case. Further, our own 
summaries are written specially fi'om the point of 
view of highway engineers, those prepared by the 
reportei'S general being necessai'il^-, in some cases, of 
a more general character. We regret that it is 
necessary to record the opinion that the proceedings 
at some of the meetings were unbusinesslike and, to 
a certain extent, lacking in the dignity befitting the 
occasion. There was in evidence a desire on the 
part of certain groups to rush through resolutions 
which the_v specially favoured, and this sometimes on 
the plea that these resolutions are not laws but 
merely expressions of opinion, and that thei'e is 
plenty of time for their reconsiderati m at the next 
congress. This is a view which should never have 
been put forward, for it is quite clear that if the 
resolutions are worthy of any attention they should' 
be passed with a full sense of responsibility even if 
they ai'e nothing more than expressions of pious 
opinions. Tlie handling of Question No. 5 was 
particularly unfortunate. Considering that the con- 
gress is international, it was really quite uunecessai-y 
to make a point of especially taking into account the 
views of the French railway authoi-ities as regai-ds 
level crossings. As Sir Jolin MaoDonald pointed 
out, the method followed in England has proved 
perfectly satisfactory, and there is no reason why it 
should not be adopted in other countries. On this 
point, however, and other points, the chairman, 
instead of taking the opinion of the meeting fully 
into account, was so ovei-come by the necessity for 
getting through the business as quickly as possible 
that he dealt with the matter in a somewhat 
summary fashion, creating the impression that he 
i-egarded certain conclusions as inevitable and 
attached undue importance to the opinions of the 
French delegates. One result of the unsatisfactory 


JuiA- 4, 1913. 

methods followed at the sectional meetings was seen 
at the final general meeting, when it was found im- 
possible to accept certain resolutions because they 
did not tally with other resolutions on the same 
subject, and there were on the whole too many of 
the resolutions passed liv the sectional committees, 
which wei-e clearlj- ill-considered and unsuitable for 
adoption in view of the international character of 
the congress and the enormous extent and variety of 
the highways to the management of which these 
resolutions are intended to apply. It is only fair to 
add that in these cases, including that to which 
attention has been more especially drawn, there was 
not sufficient time for full consideration of the 
subjects before the meetings. This was due in part 
to the fact that those responsible for making the 
arrangements had under-estimated the amount of 
time which is occupied in translating the remarks of 
different speakers into two other languages and 
in making clear to the meeting generally the drift 
of such observations as are not translated in full. 
A good deal of time is saved when the person who is 
speaking is himself acquainted with the system of the 
official languages of the congress, and we make the 
pi-dctical suggestion that a few engineers who are 
acquainted with two or more of the alEcial languages 
shall at future congresses be specially told off to lead 
and to help along the discussions. Whatever may 
be the opinion of our readers on these matters, we 
feel sure that tliey will agi-ee with us in congratu- 
lating those responsible for the an-angements and 
the success which has attended in nearly every case 
in the canying out of the other individual items of 
the pixjgramme. 

Animal Growths in 
Water Pipes. 

'i"he trouble which has been 
experienced owing to growths and 
incrustation in water mains has 
recentlj' drawn considerable attention to the causes. 
When large sums of money have been spent in the 
purchase of upland gathering-grounds and upon the 
construction of vast stoi-age resei'voii-s and mains it 
has been a very severe disappointment in more than 
one case to discover that both the quantity and the 
quality of the water delivered are at fault. The 
i-apid formation of giowths and incrustation inside 
mains coming from storage reservoirs has in certain 
cases produced this serious result, audit is becoming 
more and more evident that the engineer must take 
such probabilities into account. Where supplies are 
derived from wells oi- underground sources or where 
the water has been efficiently filtered there is 
apparently little reason to fear that animal growths 
will appear in the mains, but where the supply is 
derived from rivers or upland sources the danger 
is certainly present and should be carefully con- 
sidered. The importance of this matter is clear 
when it is remembered that a very large nuniber of 
schemes, many of them being of the first magnitude, 
include large impounding reservoii'S, while reliance is 
being placed upon purification by storage of river 
water in the case of London. 

Fresh light is thrown upon the subject by ilr. 
Samuel C. Chapman's paper read recently before 
the Institution of Water Engineers. Mr. Chapman 
draws special attention to the animal growths — viz., 
the Bryozoa or Polyzoa, which, by reason of their 
moss-like formation, have been wrongly considered 
as vegetable. Other authors have dealt with the 
vegetable growths in recent papers, while the 
troubles experienced fi'om the pitting and i-usting of 
mains and from the growth of alga- in storage 
reservoirs have also received considerable attention. 
The need for serious investigation of causes has been 
made clear from the numerous cases of trouble 
reported both at home and abroad. Within the 
last few months part of the London supply was 
said to be affected by the alga>. Much work of 
investigation has been done and much more remains 
to be done, and Mr. Chapman's paper is a valuable 
contribution to the woi-k. His chief object appears 
to be to prove the value of filtration for waters 
drawn from rivers and upland sources. Of coui-se it 

is fairly evident that where unfiltered river water 
enters a main fish, eels, and other highly developed 
forms of animal life -find their way in at times. 
Large masses of mussels are sometimes removed 
from the mains which receive unfiltered Thames 
water, and it is said that small trout find their way 
into the Aberdeen mains. Clearly filtration will 
exclude these ; but Mr. Chapman urges that more 
efficient filti-ation by excluding the minute matter 
upon which the Polyzoa feed renders the existence 
of this form of incrustation impossible. If, how- 
ever, the water is not filtered, the Polyzoa will gi'ow, 
and will afford both food and shelter for water 
snails, water lice, and other objectionable forms of 
life. Open surfaces of water are apt to lend them- 
selves to the introduction of various other foims of 
life. Winged insects lay their eggs at the margins, 
and the larv* find their way into tlie mains. Thus 
vaiious tioubles are caused which filti'ation would 
prevent. The possibilities enumerated above show 
liow complex is the subject of water supply. The 
degree of filtration required in order to guard 
against the Polj'zoa incrustations is not stated 
exactly by the author, neither is it cleai- whether in 
his opinion sterilisation or coagulation would be an 
efiicient safeguard. It seems, however, reasonable to 
suppose that sterilisation would be useful, and that 
it might possibly be a cheaper alternative. 
* * * 

The question of the payment 

Old Roadmen at ^^f roadmen has been exercising 

Haverfordwest. ,, ,• ^ .. , S 

attention tor sonie time past, and 

it is satisfactory to notice from the reports of council 
meetings that in a very large number of instances 
councillors are approaching the matter in a spirit of 
piactical sympathy, which is after all the proper 
sort of sympathy to exhibit in these times of 
strenuous toiland rising prices, two main factors which 
are jointly responsible for the demands of the men 
for a higher standard of remuneration. The matter 
has been under the consideration of the Haverford- 
west Kiu-al District Council, a committee of wh ch 
has I'ecently submitted a repoi-t in which among 
others things the familiar and somewhat difficult 
problem of the employment of eldei-lj' and aged 
men is dealt with. It was stated that in the north 
district there are engaged on the roads thirty-three 
men above fift^'-four years of age, twenty-four above 
sixty-four, seven above seventy, four above seventy- 
four, and that two of the seventy-four are in receipt 
of the old age pension. The chairman of the local 
highway committee made no pretence at concealing 
the polic3* of the council with respect to these 
employees. He fi-ankly admitted that •' the men 
were old servants to whom thej- were acting as 
philanthropists. It would pay the council to dis- 
chaige the old men and take }"oung men at a guinea 
a week. Were they going to do that "r They felt that 
they bad acted consistently, and, as far as they 
could, honesfly, and whilst SNinpathising with the 
people they engaged, he remarked that not one 
application for an increase of wages had come from 
a single man in their district." Criticism is almost 
perforce silent in face of such an altruistic con- 
fession of faith as this, yet we cannot resist a 
temptation to point out there is really no official 
justification for running the affaii-s of a rural 
authority either in part or whoUj* on philanthropic 
lines. This is, of course, one of the baffling 
questions of rural life in which the sometimes 
hostile instincts of humanity and business are at 
issue, with the result, in this instance, that humanity 
gains the victory. L'ufortunatelj- economic pro- 
blems, including the not unimportant consideration 
of efficiency of road maintenance, are swept to the 
winds by such a policy as this. While it may be 
imputed to councillors for righteousness, it is to be 
hoped these gentlemen will not forget that it tends 
to place their surveyor in an invidious position, 
especially when there is a disposition to complain 
that the condition of the roads is not what it should 
be, which, by^ the way, is the i-ough and i-eady 
criterion of public criticism, 

July 4, 1913. 



At the meeting of the Institution 
Municipal ,,f Municipal Engineers held on 

'Sftanfs' Wednesday, the 25th nit. a very 
interesting paper dealing with the 
relations which ought to exist between the municipal 
engineer and the consulting engineei' who is called 
in to advise upon a particular sclieme was read by 
Mr. H. C. H. Shenton. The fundamental considera- 
tion in regard to this matter is the obvious one that 
the two engineers, lieing members of the same pro- 
fession, should act loyallj- together to secure the 
success of whatever scheme may be in hand. This 
wonld doubtless be a compaiativelj' easj- matter if 
there were any real gnax'antee that both the per- 
manent official and the specialist were thoroughly 
competent to fulfil their respective functions. As 
Mr. Shenton veiy frankly pointed out. however, any 
man, whether competent oi' not. can descrilie himself 
as a civil engineer, take an office, and, if he possesses 
intluentinl friends and a plausible manner, obtain 
work with which he is quite unqualified to deal. It 
is of course true that if his client suifers b}- reafoa 
of his incompetence he will be liable in an action 
for damages, but unfortunately this fact does not 
suffice to abolish the operations of the quack. We 
are bound to agree with !Mr. Shenton, too, when he 
says there are some persons acting as surveyoi-s or 
engineers to local authorities who are quite incapable 
of discharging their duties elllcientlj'. We refer, of 
coui'se, to unti'ained men who ai'e appointed in small 
districts from motives of either economy or " influ- 
ence." Leaving such men out of consideration, the 
real consultant: often has an opportunity of 
strengthening the position of a harassed official, 
whcse council will be much impressed by the 
courtesy and respect shown to him by the specialist. 
On the other hand, a capable official can render 
incalculable assistance to the consultant by leason 
of his knowledge of the district and of local require- 
ments. He can also render a service to the pro- 
fession by using his influence to secui'e the employ- 
ment of a real specialist in the class of work to be 
undertaken. The more the spirit of cameraJerie is 
cultivated among engineers of all classes the moi-e 
rapid will be the strides made towards an advance- 
ment of professional status. 

» 46- * 

In a short, article on " Road 
Road Surfaces : Oiling," which will be found on 
eS'a'nd -°tl?- P«g«' Major W. W. 
American Practice. '^I'Ofsby responds to our invitation 
to express his opinion on a par- 
ticular view regarding seasonal surface treatment, 
expressed on page 591 of our issue of April 11th. 
It will be seen that Major Crosby is in substantial 
agreement with our own view ; but he is quite mis- 
taken as to our main reason for adopting it. The 
smoothing out and consolidation after the tarry 
matter has most of it been worn oif is not required 
because of the "shifting of macadam into humps." 
On the contrary, it is on hard roads with stable 
crusts that we most often find the small-scale jolti- 
ness referred to. It is, partly at least, due to the 
beat of wheels in spots which are slightly hollow, 
and the failure of the traffic, especially when there 
is a large proportion of well-sprung motor vehicles, 
to wear or beat down the humps. The hollows are 
softer than the humps, and in the case of a road 
■with a tar film which remains effective well into 
the damper season of the ysar this is more marked 
than in the case of an untarred road. It is still 
more marked when the film in the hollows is worn 
off, cr becomes quite pervious, while over the humps 
it is intact, and is dry soon after rain has ceased. 
The crust of the road is then of unequal strengths 
in different parts, and the tendency to small-scale 
joltiness increases. The recuperative action which 
we have described is partly consolidation and partly 
wear, and an important feature is that it is more or 
less continuous whether the road be wet or drj' — 
as dryness goes in the cooler six months of the 
year. It will be noted that Major Crosby uses the 
tei-m " road oiling " as practically synonj'mous 

with our "road tarring," and it is clear tliat 
the time hag come when it is necessary to find 
a woid which will indicate the process without the 
use of a verb derived from the name of tlie material 
usually employed. This consideration applies to 
several other cases. 

A case which was heard 
''noodinJ?'" I'fcently at the Pembroke iJock 
County Court, and in which a 
local farmer was the plaintiff and the Tenby Cor- 
poration were the defendants, raised some very 
interesting questions as to the liability of the Cor- 
poration for damage caused to land by floods, alleged 
to be due to obstructions in the culvert by which 
tlie River Ritec and a considerable body of sewage 
finds an outlet to the sea. The matter is still suh 
jndice — the learned judge having deferred his 
decision — so that we are necessarily restricted for 
the present to stating the facts without comment. 
It appears that in ISG.'! in the course of certain 
railwaj' works an embankment which was erected, 
had to be pierced by a culvert to take the flow of 
the river. Thereupon floodings became somewhat 
frequent, and in lS7t3 the Corporation, in extension 
of the work carried out in 1S63, constructed a 
wooden culvert, which has since become buried in an 
accumulation of sand. On the occasion in question 
some of the planks of this wooden culvert collapsed, 
causing an obstruction, the result being that the 
water and sewage could not get away and the 
plaintiff's land was inundated. It was contended 
on the one hand that tlie Corporation having used 
tlie culvert as an outlet for sewage, were liable for 
damage caused by its defective condition. On the 
other hand, it was said that by the construction of 
the wooden culvert the pl.aintiff had actually 
received a benefit in the shape of a mitigation of 
the floodings to which his land had previously been 
subjected. In the course of the hearing the learned 
judge indicated that one of the difficulties was the 
fact that the culvert also carried sewage. The 
decision in a very curious and interesting case will 
be awaited with much interest. 

A Commission consisting of 
Pollution by eighteen Members of Parliament 

Watiriupplies l;^f ^•^''f*!-^ b«^^. appointed at 
in Canada. Ottawa to inquire into the pollu- 
tion of Canadian sources of water 
supplj'. It appears that even the enormous 
volume of water in the Great Lakes is gradually 
becoming contaminated with sewage. This is indi- 
cated by the fact that the amount of chlorine in 
the west end of Lake Ontario has increased two 
and a half times in thirty years, while in the 
easterly end the amount of chlorine has doubled in 
twenty years. Again, the official figures show that 
in Canada the death-rate from typhoid is 35'5 per 
100,000, while in Germany it is only 7'6 and in 
England 112. 

It is obvious; that something must be done 
promptly to protect the water supplies from con- 
tamination, and the appointment of a commission 
to investigate the matter is a step in the right 
direction. On the other hand, our contemporary 
Tlie Canadian Enrjineer, to whom we are indebted 
for the information, takes exception to the manner 
in which the Government has dealt with the pro- 
blem, and it speaks with no uncertain voice when 
it states that "the public .should be made to under- 
stand the foolishness and unbusinesslike method of 
ei"-hteen unscientific and wholly unqualified Parlia- 
mentarians inquiring into a matter which could be 
much better done by those acquainted with the 
eno-ineering and scientific sides of the problems 
involved." Our contemporary suggests that the 
work could have been carried out much more 
efficiently and rapidl}^ by a much smaller com- 
mission of competent engineers and medical officers 
of health, and we are in complete accord with this 


July 4, 1913. 

The Treatment of Sewage Discharged into Tidal 



The present meeting of ihe A.ssociatu.n of Manager.-, 
of Sewase Disposal Works at Erill. affords an ex- 
cellent opportunitv for the consideration and discns- 
sion of the degree to which it is necessary to purity 
sewaee discliarged into tidal waters. We have at 
Krith an example which has no equal. Here we see 
a town situated immediately below and even within 
sight of tlie Barking and Crossness outfalls which 
<tischarire the wliole of the London sewage, and while 
this immense volume of metropolitan sewage is merely 
treated 1)V chemical i)iecipitation, the relatively small 
volume discharged l>y Erith is treated in ^ich a 
manner tliat it is comparable with the best effluents 
discharged liisher up tlie river above the intakes of 
the Metropolitan Water Board. It should be observed 
that the apparent inconsistency of making Erith 
purify its sewage to tliis high degree is present else- 
where on the river Tliames. 

It seems as if the authorities had only one standard, 
which is applied at all places regardless of conditions. 
The same quality of effluent is demanded at Staines, 
above the intakes of the Metropolitan Water Board, 
at Kingston, below the intakes but above the locks, 
and at Erith in tidal water which is already grossly 

In demanding this high degree of purification the 
authorities in the were proliably of opinion that 
the quality of tlie sewage effluent should have no 
reference to the quality of the water into which it was 
discharged, for if the sewage at Erith had only to be 
purified to such a degree as to make it of the sanie 
quality as the water in the river Thames at the point 
of discharge, it is certain that the greater part of the 
works miglit have been omitted. 

The Eighth Report of tlie Royal Commission on 
Sew-age Disposal does not actually treat of sewage 
effluents discharged into tidal waters, but its con- 
clusions have a distinct bearing on the present case. 
They are as follows; — 

(n) Tlie law should Ije altered so that a person dis- 
charging sewage matter into a stream shall not be 
deemed to have committed an offence under the Rivers 
Pollution Prevention Act, 1876, if the sewage matter 
is discharged in a form which satisfies the require- 
ments of the prescrilied standard. 

<fc) The standard should Ije either the general 
.standard or a sjiecial standard which will be higher 
or lower than tlie general standard as local cin um- 
stances require or jiermit. 

(c) An effluent in order to comply with the general 
standard must not contain as discharged more than 
three parts per 10n,(KJ0 of suspended matter, and witli 
its suspended matters included must not take up at 
65 deg. Fahr. (183 deg. Cent.) more than 2 parts per 
100,000 of dissolved oxygen in five days. This general 
standard should be prescribed either liy .statute or 
by order of the central authority, and should be sub- 
ject to modifications by that authority after an 
interval of not less than ten years. 

<</) 111 fixing any special standard the dilution 
afforded ]iy the stream is the chief factor to be con- 
sidered. If the dilution is very low it may be necessary 
for the central authority, either on their own initia- 
tive or on application by the Rivers Board, to ])re- 
scribe a specially stringent standard, which should 
also remain in force for a period of not less tlian ten 

(f) If the dilution is very great the standard may, 
with the approval of the central authority, be relaxed 
or suspended altogether. Our experience leads us to 
think that as a general rule, if the dilution, while not 
falling below 150 volumes, does not exceed 300, the 
dissolved oxygen absorption test may be omitted, 
and the standard for suspended solids fixed at six 
parts per 100,(K)!). To comply with this test no treat- 
ment beyond cliemical precipitation would ordinarily 
be needed. If the dilution while not falling below 
300 volumes does not exceed 500, the standard for 
suspended .solids may be further relaxed to fifteen 
parts per 100,0;)l). For this purpose tank treatment 
without diemicals would generally suftice if the tanks 
were properly worked and regularly cleansed. These 

• Paper reail before tUo Association of Managers of Se\v.nge Dispell 
Works at Lriili on June 2lst. 

relaxed standards should be siiliject to revision at 
periods to lie fixed by the central authority, and the 
periods should lie shorter than those prescribed 
for the general or for the more stringent standards. 

(/) With a dilution of over 500 volumes all tests 
might be dispensed with, and crude sewage discharged, 
subject to such conditions as to the provision of 
screens or detritus tanks as might appear necessary 
to the central authority. conclusions should be read with the state- 
ment made in clause 61, page 16, of the same report, 
relating to tidal waters, the words of which are: 
" We do not now suggest that the general standard 
should aii])ly automatically to tidal waters as in the of lion -tidal waters, but we think that the 
principle which we have recommended in regard to 
special standards for streams might usefully be 
applied to tidal waters where a standard is considered 

It is tlierefore to be gathered that in the opinion 
of the commissioners 


is jiossible under given conditions in an ordinary 
stream or river, and that it should also be taken into 
account with regard to tidal waters. One is therefore 
apt to jump to the conclusion that if this purifica- 
tion by dilution is possible in a river above' locks, 
much more should the greater dilution in tidal 
waters lie taken as the equivalent of filters or 
similar works. This certainly aijpears to be a logical 
conclusion, and although, as will be seen, there are 
many possible reasons wliy sewage discharged into 
tidal waters should sometimes be purified to a high 
degree, yet it is sufficiently clear that the dilution 
is a matter whirli ought to be taken seriously into 

It is to be noted also that the commissioners 
evitlently take the view that if the water in the river 
is used for drinking ijurposes the water authority 
should look after its own interests. Tliey adhere to 
tlie conclusion in llieir Fifth Report, in wliich it was 
stated that any authority taking water from rivers 
for the ])urpose of water supply must be held to be 
aware of the risks to which the water is exposed, and 
fliat it should be regarded as part of the duty of that 
authority systematically and thoroughly to purify the 
water l>efore distriijuting it to their customers, and 
that if the attempt were made to render sewage 
effluents pure bacteriologically, a false sense of 
security would result, and that there would always 
be the possibility of serious pollution from a mishap 
at the disposal works, storm-water and so forth. The 
question arises whether in the case of sewage dis- 
charged into tidal waters the same reasoning does 
not apply to shell-fish interests and bathing; in short, 
whether it will in the future be held to be the duty 
of a local authority to purity its sew-age to such a 
degree that there is no risk of injury to shell-fish 
and no risk of injury to bathers. It is impossible to 
escape the idea in reading the Eighth Report that the 
commissioners have in mind that, provided there 
is no visible or actual nuisance, and provided that the 
water in the river is up to a certain chemical standard 
of purity, the sewage will have been sufficiently 

Assuming then for the moment that the object of the 
treatment is merely to prevent nuisance in the tidal 
w-ater, and that sufficient dilution will purify a good 
tank effluent, it would appear that more elaborate 
works must generally be unnecessary, and that we 
may expect to get the work of the filter done by the 
sea or river water. There are, however, many things 
which upset this reasoning entirely. 

In vhe first place, assuming that the water in a 
river is pure, and that sewage or partially purified 
sew-age is admitted into this river and thoroughly 
mixed, the quality of tlie river water will at once 
be lowered, and until a certain time has elapsed the 
water will not recover its original purity. Thus, 
supposing a fresh pollution occurred lower down 
before the water had had sufficient time to recover, 
it is clear that a larger dilution would be required 
in order that the quality of the river water should 


Ke kept up to a fixed standard, or as an alternative the 
sewage at the works lower down the river wonld 


Thus, if the Tlianies at En'th were perfectly pure, 
if it were not already seriously polluted by the 
London .sewage, there would be a much greater 
chance of the Erith sewage being purified by dilu- 
tion, but, seeing that the river water is already highly 
jiolluted, immediate purification by dilution in the 
case of Erith might prove to lie impossible, and the 
river water which was already in a bad condition 
might become positively offensive at and near Erith 
if, say, a septic tank effluent were discharged, the 
river water not containing sufficient oxygen to purify 
the flow. This is pure supposition, and is merely 
given as an illustration, and has no reference to the 
actual state of affairs at Erith. 

The question of tides and the chemical quality, 
notably the salinity, of tidal waters has an important 
hearing upon the question of purification by dilu- 
tion. Differences in temperature may prevent jiroper 
mixing. Salt water has a tendency to precipitate 
the dissolved matters of sewage, and this precipita- 
tion and coagulation of suspended matters in salt 
water, as distinguished from fresh water, has a very 
important bearing upon the case. The fact that in 
tidal waters mud-covered flats are often exposed, 
upon which such precipitated matters may lie, tends 
to nuisance and to rob the water of its oxygen 
when the tide rises. The fact that the tides flow up 
and down the river affects the question of dilution 
and mix:ng considerably, and imless this is taken 
very carefully into account may lead to erroneous 
conclusions, seeing that the sewage may flow up and 
down and accumulate to a degree, and fail to '.e- 
ceive the dilution expected. 

With regard to the points mentioned above. Mr. 
George W. Fuller, in his book upon sewage disposal, 
gives the reports of certain experts who were em- 
jiloyed by him to consider the effect of fresh water 
and salt water upon .sewage. A chemist and a biolo- 
gist wore emi)loyed. The chemist, Mr. H. W. Clarke, 
foimd in the first place that salt water holds some- 
what less oxygen in solution than fresh water. 
Sewage mixed with water in large stoppered bottles, 
which were kept iit a constant temperature of 80deg. 
Kahr. for five days .showed in every case, and with 
all the various percentages of mixture, that oxygen 
disappeared much more rapidly in the salt water 
rhan in the fresh water, while the simple te,st of 
smelling the respective samjiles from time to time 
gave strong evidence in favo\ir of fresli water. When 
poHuled mud was added in equal quantities to fresh 
water and salt water in stoppered bottles, and kept 
:it a temperature of 80 deg. Fahr. for five days, it 
was found that in every case the incubation in sea 
water exhausted more oxygen than incubation in 
frcsli water, and also exhausted a larger proportion 
of the oxygon originally present, and in every case 1 
the salt water had the most offensive smell. It was 
concluded that polluted mud flats were more likely 
to rob the water immediately over them of the dis- 
solved oxygen, and more likely to give rise to offen- 
,sive odours in salt water than in fresh water. It 
was also found that anaerobic growths which pro- 
duce ]iutrefaction occurred in greater nimiber in sea- 
water tanks having polluted mud at the bottom than 
in similar tanks filled with fresh water. The pre- 
sence of salt in the water was found to have a strong 
influence as a precipitant. 

The biologist found that under identical condi- 
tions sewage introduced into fresh water was less 
offensive than when introduced into salt water. He 
leported that a varying flow of fresh water into the 
salt water made it wellnigh impossible to preserve 
the uniform degree of salinity necessary for the most 
favourable growth and activity of the beneficent low 
forms of life which were killed off by the violent 
changes. This is a most important point, if it is 
taken that the p\irification which occurs in (he 
water is due to bacterial action, 

Mr. Fuller is of opinion that it is more hopeful to 
• ibsorb, devour and render (he ,sewage inoffensive by 
means of the activities of organic life, very much 
as manure or jilant food is absorbed in the garden, 
than to salt this water and tlms precipitate, concen- 
trate and defer the oxidation of the impurities. 

There is ample evidence that offensive matters 
from sewage, and the sewage itself, are sometimes 
transported long distances by tides and winds, and 
deposited on shores remote from any sewer outlet. 

and one of the most important considerations is 
therefore the proper di.sjjersion of the sewage stream 
in the body of water into which it flows, for luitil 
tliis di.spersion is accomplished it is evident tliiit 
there can be little purification by dilution. 


In a paper read before the Engineering Club of 
Philadelphia Mr. George C. Whipple gave the re- 
sidts of a series of experiments made in order to 
ascertain the effect of sewage pollution upon the 
water supplies drawn from the Great Lakes in 
America. (These experiments have no reference to 
tidal waters, but they show very clearly that, owing 
to the currents induced by winds, sewage may be 
carried for miles out in a great lake and cause 
serious pollution at the drinking water intakes 
situated 4, or even 6, miles from the shore. 

Mr. Whipple gave the clearest evidence that the 
currents induced by winds may, and do under cer- 
tain conditions, pollute the water miles from the 
shore. He shows that " the sewage is projected 
through the lake water for several miles with rela- 
tively little dilution." Experiments made wth 
floats showed that the angle of dispersion of the 
sewage varies according to the velocity of the wind 
in the Great Lakes. Undertow currents induced by 
the wind were found to have an important bearing 
upon the dispersion of the sewage. During the 
sunuiier .season the temperature of the sewage is 
ordinarily about the same as that of the surface 
water of the lakes. Where the sewage was dis- 
charged at the bottom of a lake at a eonsidernl.lo 
distance from the shore it was found that the sur- 
rounding water was much colder, owing to currents 
induced by the winds, and the warm sewage, being 
lighter than the cold water into which it was ois- 
charged, tended to rise into the upper strata and to 
be carried away from the shore by the outward sur- 
face current. On the other hand, when the warm 
shore water was flowing outward along the bottom, 
owing to a different wind, the sewage had les.-. 
tendency to rise, but was carried away from the 
shore by the outward bottom current. Thus, during 
the summer the movements of the wind, whether 
towards or away from the shore, tended at most times 
to carry the sewage away from the shore rather than 
towards it. Though in general it was found that the 
dilution of the sewage discharged into the lakes was 
ordinarily very great, it was found to be very vari- 
able, and under certain conditions, which occur 
several times a year, the .sewage was projected for 
several miles with relatively little dilution in the 
direction of the water intakes. Observations of the 
luunbci- of bacteria in Lake Michigan water, taken 
at different distances from the shore opposite a sewer 
outfall, .showed that there were 1,2&S,000 bacteria 
per cubic centimetre at the mouth of the Milwaukee 
River, 207,000 per c.c. 1 mile east of the river, 2,000 
per c.c. 2 miles east, 970 per c.c. 3 miles east, 235 per 
c.c. 4 miles east, and 45 per c,c. 5 miles east. The 
water supply intake is situated 35 miles in a 
straight line north-east of the river, and here the 
average number of bacteria was 1,182 per c.c. at the 
surface and 694 per c.c. at the bottom, the largest num- 
ber being 3.720 at the surface and 1,600 at the bottom, 
and the smallest number being 20 at the surface and 
50 at the bottom. Also, taking all the samples col- 
lected at points more than 1 mile away from the 
shore, it was found tliat when the wind was blowing 
towards the shore, and thereby inducing an outward 
undertow current, the bottom water contained four 
times as many B. coli. as the surface water, but that 
wlien the wind was blowing off-shore the surface 
water contained eight times as many B. coli as the 
bottom water. 

Daily analyses of the water at the North Point 
pumping station, Milwaukee, showed variations of 
from 5,9f)0 bacteria per c,c. to 330 per c.c. within a 
few hours, while coli are often present in "1 c.c, and 
are occasionally absent from 1 c.c. on the following 
day. It is therefore .sufficiently evident that the 
dilution afforded by tiie passage of sewage through 
.'ii miles of lake water is not sufficient at all times to 
prodiice satisfactory purification, and the fact that 
this occurs in a lake where a distinct current of 
sewage through the water would hardly be expected 
shows that there are, no doubt, similar possibilities 
in the case of tidal waters. It is evidently not 
sufficient to discharge sewage into deep w'ater of 
limitless extent, seeing that the sewage may remain 
undiluted and flow in a distinct current in any given 
direction, and cause trouble at a point at a consider- 



July 4, 1913. 

able distance. Tlie dispersion of the sewage and its 
thorough mixing with the diluting water must be 
accomplished before proper purification can take 

The report of the Metropolitan Sewage Commis- 
sion of New York, in considering the discharge of 
the sewage of that city into tidal waters .shows that 
the experts liave come to the same conclusion as our 
own Royal Commission with regard to the import- 
ance of dilution. In both cases the degree of dilu- 
tion afforded by the stream or waterway is taken 
as the factor to be considered in fixing any definite 
standard. The New York Commission are of opinion 
that an immediate test of the present state of the 
water should show that the dissolved oxygen does 
not fall below a certain figure. 


Enough has been said to demonstrate the impos- 
sibility of stating that sewage discharged into tidal 
waters should he of any particular standard of 
purity. In the most recent works carried out, or in 
contemplation, near home we see that a very high 
degree of purity is considered necessary. One may 
instance Southend, Faversham and Whitstable, 
where the works are, or will be, of a most elaborate 

In America, where a great deal of attention lias 
been given to the matter lately, the principles that 
are being adopted may be gathered from a considera- 
tion of the recommendations of the New York Com- 
mission, which are as follows: — 

(1) Garbage, offal, or solid matter recognisable as 
of sewage origin shall not be visible in any of the 
harbour waters. 

(2) Marked discoloration or turbidity due to 
.sewage or trade wastes, effervescence, oily sleek, 
odour or deposits shall not occur except perhaps in 
the immediate vicinity of sewer outfalls, and then 
only to such an extent and in such places as may 
be permitted by the authority having jurisdiction 
over the sanitary condition of the harbour. 

(3) The discharge of sewage shall not materially 
contribute to the formation of deposits injurious to 

(4) Except in the immediate vicinity of docks and 
liiera and sewer outfalls, the dissolved oxygen in 
tlie water shall not fall below 3 e.e. per litre of 
water.* Near docks and piers there should always 
be sufficient oxygen in the water to prevent nuisance 
from odours. 

(5) The quality of the water at points suitable for 
bathing and oyster culture should conform sub- 
stantially as to bacterial purity to a drinking water 

The meaning of which is that there will probably 
be several outfalls, some of which will discharge 
crude sewage, some partially purified sewage, and 
some sewage purified to a very high degree, as the 
special conditions may demand. 

Following this policy as outlined, it is clear that 
the treatment of sewage discharged into tidal waters 
must vary from the discharge of crude sev.age or 
lank effluent at places wore it can do no possible 
harm to the most cunif)lete system of tanks and 
filters, sterilisation being generally held in the 
background as a final iiossibility. These facts show 
the growing importance nf scientific consideration of 
each case where sewage has to be discharged into 
tidal waters. The chemist, bacteriologist, patholo- 
gist and engineer must each have a great deal of 
work to do in order to ascertain the exact degree to 
which it is necessary to purify the sewage at any 
given place, and such scientific attention will often 
result in the saving of a very large sum of money 
on constructional works and maintenance, but where 
this skilled attention is not given in the first place 
it will generally be neces.5ary for the authority to 
put in works of an elaborate nature which may 
sometimes be altogether in excess of the require- 

It is not to be imagined that sewage can often lie 
discharged into tidal waters w-ithout any i>urification, 
but the degree of purification required before the 
ofHuent is discharged must vary considerably, and 
its attainment will depend not only upon the "design 
of the works, but upon the managenieiit which thev 
receive. Further, that the judicious improvement 
mid better working of existing systems may be 

• With BO 1)81- cent of sea water, aud 40 per cent of lauil 
water, aud at tbe extreme summer temperatiue of SO dec. 
Kahr.. 3 cubic centimetre!) of oxysen per litre corresponds 
tj .W per cent of saturation. 

attained by the efforts of the manager is clear, and 
of this fact the works at Erith are a striking 


Erith sewage disposal works — w-hich, as indicated 
in the preceding paper, were visited by the Associa- 
tion of Managers of Sewage Disposal Works recently 
—were opened in September, 1898, as part of a sewer- 
age scheme undertaken by the council at a cost a' 
£80,000, £20,000 being devoted to the construction 
of the sewage disposal works, the remaining £60,(X)0 
expended in sewerage works throughout the district. 
The scheme was prepared by Mr. George Chatterton, 
M.iNST.e.E., and the works constructed by Mr. G. 
Osenton. The population at the time of opening was 
(approximately) 15,000. 

The works, with an area of 2 acres, were designed 
for the chemical treatment of sewage, cream of lime 
and ahuuinoferric Ijeing used as a precipitant, the 
resultant .sludge from tlie three jarecipitation tanks 
lieing pressed into cakes by two jjresses. 

The council hoped that the proceeds obtained by 
the sale of the pressed sludge would materially assist 
in paying for the upkeep of the works; but farmers 
who tried this sludge-cake as a manure did not care 
for it, possibly on account of the greasy nature of 
the sludge due to the presence of the aluminoferric. 

After three years' working on this process it was 
discontinued, the accumulation of pressed sludge 
during that time filling up all the available space 
at the works. The rams and presses, &c., were 
eventually sold. 

The Thames Conservancy being dissati.sfied with 
the sewage effluent discharging into the river Thames 
from the precipitation tanks, the council decided to 
adopt the liacteriological treatment of sewage by 
converting the precipitation tanks into open septic 
tanks, and constructing two contact beds, which 
were excavated in the clay, and later four larger 
contact beds were constructed with concrete sides 
and bottoms. 

Subsequently the coimcil decided to construct con- 
tinuous aerating filters with Adams' patent revolving 
distributors. The effluent channel was constructed 
at sufficient height to allow the effluent to discharge 
into the river at all states of the tide, with the ex- 
ception of extraordinary high tides, when the effluent 
would head up in the channel and overflow into tlie 
storage tank. This effluent channel is about 440 ft. 
in length and 4 ft. 6 in. wide, and contains three 
catch-pits for arresting humus passing from the 

The council, finding that the effluent from the con- 
tinuous aerating filter satisfied the Thames Conser- 
vancy, have from time to time constructed four more 
filters of a similar type, and the ground is prepared 
for another ; they have also acquired li acres of 
land on the west side of the works for further ex- 

Bournemouth Pavilion Scheme.— After discussing a 
scheme for the erection of a pavilion and concert 
hall, estimated to cost £6O,0lK), Bournemouth Town 
Council have decided to ask the liorough architect to 
submit plans for final approval. 

Law of Private Street Works — It is surely a com- 
mentary on our system of legislation relating to what 
may be termed domestic matters that the owner of 
house property (to say nothing of the occupiers of his 
houses) has to thread his way through a maze of 
statutes and decisions to ascertain his rights and his 
liabilities in connection with questions which may 
arise every day. Such, however, being the case, text- 
books dealing with what on the face of them might be 
deemed to be simple matters have become an actual 
necessity, although the owner of property is lucky if 
tlie text-book suffices and he is not driven to consult 
a specialist. The work before us* deals with one of 
such subjects, piivato street works under the Public 
Health Acts and the Private Street Works Act, 1882, 
but not with the Metropolitan Management Acts ; the 
statements in the text are supported by decided cases, 
with references printed in the text ; there is also a 
table of cases and an index, and it should prove a 
useful hand-book. We find the recent decisions in- 
cluded, and the work seems to have been carefully 
prepared. — The Builder. 

* " ^'otes r»n the Ltiw of Private Street Works uuder the Public 
Health Acle." By J. B. Reiptuier Conder. a Snlicitnr of the Supremo 
Oourl. 3k. Cd. nolL. Loudou : St lirido's Frchs, Limited, 2i Bride- 
laae, EX. 

July 4, 1913. 


Institution of Water Engineers. 


The last paper to come before the recent meeting 
of the Institution of Water Engineers at Walcefield 
was one on 

By Samuel C. Chapman, m.inst.c.e.. 

Water Engineer, Torquay. 

Much lia.s been written in recent years concerning 
tlie incrustation of water pipes, and the retardation 
of flow due to the action of Cladotlirix and kindred 
organisms, but comparatively little has been said, 
in English circles at least, of those animal growths 
which sometimes appear, and whose ])resence has 
been tlie source of considerable anxiety to those re- 
sponsible for the administration of the undertaking 
in whose mains the creatures have ensconced them- 
selves. That .-o little lias been w-ritten on the sub- 
ject is probably due to the fact that in the majority 
of w^orks the whole of the water sent to the consumer 
is filtered, and the state of the pipes conveying water 
to tlie filters is not a matter of great concern, pro- 
vided their efficiency remains unimpaired. Further, 
the difficulty rarely, if ever, arises in connection with 
supplies drawn from underground sources, so that 
tlie question of animal growths is limited practically 
to those undertakings whose supplies are drawn from 
rivers or from upland surface sources. 

In the early days, before filtration was so uni- 
versal or liad reached its present slate of efiiciency, 
it was not an imcommon thing t-o hear of almost 
every description of fauna inhabiting the distribut- 
ing mains, especially in cases where the supply was 
drawn direct from rivers and streams. Among the 
older records mention is often made of eels or other 
kinds of fish, and mussels, to say nothing of sponges 
and pipe moss, or Polyzoa. 

Tlie history of the cholera outbreak at Hamburg 
is so well known that more than a iiassiiig reference 
thereto is unnecessary. The close and exhaustive 
hivestigations which followed that terriljle visitation 
revealed the fact that the Ellie water, which was vm- 
filtored, carried with it into the city's distributing 
mains sufficient nourishment to sustain the most 
prolific species of animal life. Besides sponges and 
Polyzoa, wliich furred up the pipes to a considerable 
extent, there were fomid snails and water-lice in 
hundreds at every exaniiuat'on. while mussels, eels, 
sticklebacks, and even flounders made their homes 
in the water mains. Dr. Kraepolin tells us that he 
found over fifty genera of animals in the pipes. 
Since the introduction of filters, however, the nume- 
rous inhabitants of the pipes have died off, and at 
the i)resent time there are no animal growths of 
any description in the Hamburg dstrilmtiing mains. 
It is hardly necessary to remark that no one at 
the present time ever expects to hear of such highly 
developed animals as fish or eels in a town's dis- 
tributing mains, yet in many works wliere filtration 
has not been adopted the lower growths are to be 
fouud in the pipes, and in some instances to such 
an extent as to cause much trouble and anxiety to responsible for the administration of the sup- 
ply. In the United States especially has this been 
tlie case, and Whipple has stated in reference to 
such growths as sponge and Polyzoa: "They are 
found in the pipes of New York City, Brooklyn, 
Boston, in many small places in New England, and 
in fact in most of the cities of New England where 
surface waters are used without filtration." There 
are, no doubt, many instances in this country where 
animal growths exist in pipes and conduits, which, 
by reason of their moss-like formation, have been 
wrongly ascribed to the vegetable kingdom. 

Where water is drawn direct from rivers or im- 
pounding reservoirs without filtration, small free- 
swimming creatures are often drawn into the pipes, 
and so find their way into service reservoirs, and 
thence into the distributing mains. At certain sea- 
sons of the year their numbers may be very con- 
siderable, and the changes of temperature in the 
water in impounding reservoirs causes them to 
transfer their feeding grounds to such levels as may 
be within the area of influence of the draw-off pipes, 
and vast numbers may be carried into the mains 
thereby. The quantity of such life in a reservoir 
depends hugely, or it may be said entirely, upon the 

available food supply therein, and in new works, 
where food is more abundant, the number of these 
animals would be proportionately large. 

The author had under his observation a short time 


of the presence of these organisms in their myriads. 
The supply was drawn from a storage reservoir which 
had been in use for about five years, and before 
entering the trunk mains the water was passed 
through a battery of mechanical filters. These, 
under ordinary conditions, required cleansing every 
seven days. It was found necessary to wash them 
out more and more frequently, and at last the inter- 
val between successive washings was reduced to 
four days. 

The manhole of one of the filters having been re- 
moved, it was found tliat the rapid clogging up was 
due to the presence of Daphnia. which covered the 
surface of the filter to a depth of i in. or more. To 
ascertain whether the whole reservoir was alive with 
these creatures, samples of water were taken at 
various depths (the reservoir was 50 ft. deep), and it 
was found that they were assembled in the greatest 
numbers at a depth lietween 15 ft. and 20 ft. from 
the surface. The water being then drawn off at 
another level, the filters were at once relieved of the 
extra work they had been called upon to bear. 

The open surfaces of water, whether in service 
reservoirs, clear-water tanks, or in channels, lend 
themselves to the introduction of free-swimming 
animals into water mains. As is well known, many 
winged insects lay their eggs at the margins of open- 
water surfaces, and when these hatch out the larvae 
spend one part of their existence as free-swimming 
animals before reaching a further stage in their de- 
velopment. The larvte sometimes find their way 
into the pipes, and some may even reach the con- 
sumers, and although their presence may be easily 
accounted for, and it may be proved conclusively 
that the water has been properly filtered, the nuu> 
in the street will still be of the opinion that there 
is .<oinething amiss with the supply. 

The larvas of the Dipterous insect are frequently 
found in mains carrying w-iter from surface sources, 
and the author has observed them frequently among 
specimens of sponges and Polyzoa taken from mains 
and aqueducts in various jiarts of the country. 
Water-snails and water-lice, too, are to be found 
associated in the same manner with Polyzoa and 
other organisms, no doubt because these growths 
afford both food and shelter for them. There is little 
doubt that when Polyzoa in variou.s- forms become 
lodged in pipes they at once attract large numbers 
of creatures which either prey upon them or shelter 
iiiiiong their tangled masses. 

Some years ago the author witnessed a rise of flies 
from the surface of a reservoir at Plymouth (t)ie 
water was unfiltered). The caretaker reported that 
the screens at the outlet, which had an area of about 
150 sq. ft., were blocked, and the reservoir was over- 
flowing, a most unusual circumstance. A close 
examination revealed the fact that winged insects 
v.'ere rising in myriads to the surface, and while so 
doing many were drawn against the screens and 
killed. The dead bodies of these flies were jammed 
into a solid mass of considerable thickness against 
the surface of the screens. Above the surface of the 
reservo'ir were swallows innumerable, which found 
an easy living on this occasion at least. Without 
these screens considerable annoyance Avould have 
been occasioned to many consiuners by the influx 
of these insects into the town's water supply. 

Fortunately, many of these free-swimming organ- 
isms do not. as a rule, make the pipes their ijerma- 
neut abode, and they may be regarded simply as 
occasional and unv.illing passengers on their jo\irney 
to ends unknown, and, furthermore, they often 
become broken up to such an extent that little re- 
mams whicli can be detected v.'ithout the aid of the 
microscope. There are, however, organisms which 
find the inside of pipes a most congenial place in 
which to take up their residence, and among these 
pipe-inoss or Polyzoa and sponges are worthy of 
special notice. The first of these has been fouud in 
a variety of forms in many water undertakings i«i 



Ttti.t 4, 1913. 

this foiiiitiy :in(l (in tlip Ccmtiiipnl. wliilp, as j.rc- 
vioiisly stated, they are foiiiifl in nearly every nn- 
filtereil siirfaee supi)ly in the New England States of 
America. Siioiiges are oomnion in snrfaee 
waters, and are found under almost the same con- 
ditions as the Polyzoa. 

The question naturally arises as to whether and 
in what respect these growths are injurious to a 
water supply, and it may be said at once that they 
are not pathogenic. Dr. Kraepelin has informed the 
author with regard to Polyzoa, &e., that: "These 
organisms in pipes are not at all injurious, but, on 
the contrary, they consume the dfbris, and thus make 
the water purer." 

Whipple is guarded in his remarks upon this ques- 
tion. In "The Microscopy of Drinking Water" (p. 
168) he says: "In a certain sense they tend to im- 
jirove the quality of the water by reducing the num- 
ber of floating microscopic organisms; b\it they 
themselves must in time decay, and anyone whose 
nose has ever had an experience with deeomjjosing 
sponge will appreciate the fact that better places for organisms may be found tlian the distribution 
system of otir water supplies. It should be stated, 
liowever. that in all jirobability very large quantities 
would be required to produce tastes or odours that 
would be noticed in the water." 

One of the chief oltjections to these growths lies in 
the fact that they jiroduce 


which are exceedingly detrimental to any water 
inidertaking; thus at Hamburg, sponges, Polyzoa. 
and other organisms were found covering the interior 
of tlie jiijies to a considerable thickness, and to svicli 
an extent that the capacity of the pipes was seriously 
interfered with. At Antwerp, Dr. Kemna .some years 
ago discovered a growth of Polyyoa in a 24-in. main 
conveying inifjltered water, which reduced the clear 
diameter of the pipes to 16 in. 

Whipple, writing to the author in regard to the 
growths of Polyzoa in water mains, says : "In regard to 
the sizes of pipes that have been choked with pipe- 
moss, I do not know that I have ever seen a pipe 
actually clogged that was larger than 2 in., but I 
have .seen 4-in. pipes that were nearly full, and it 
is not at all uncommon to find growths from 1 in. to 
2 in. thick in 8-in., 1'2-in., and 24-in. pipes." 

In many cases the surface of the growths re- 
sembles thick rough matting, while in others they 
are surrounded by a collection of mud and slime. 
Sponges are most irregular in their growth, some- 
times forming a thick, smooth surface, while other 
forms may protrude long finger-like i>rojeefions into 
the water. 

The author exiimined a 12-in. pipe some time ago 
which was coated with sponge to a thickness of 
nearly J in. This was found to have a very rough 
surface. The growth had covered uji the rust 
iiodule.s that were on the .surface, and had used these 
irregularities evidently to their own advantage by 
sending therefrom projections into the water area 
for the better acquirement of food. The result was 
a surface of the worst possible type for obtaining an 
efficient flow of water. There is little doubt that 
these growths not only reduce the sectional area of 
a pipe to a considerable extent, but the rough sur- 
face which they form adds another factor which 
again materially reduces the flow. It is held bv 
some that these organisms (Polyzoa especially) tenil 
towards the production of rust nodules, that they 
become firmly attached to the pipe coating, andwheii 
they die down or become torn away from their posi- 
tions the coating is damaged, and in some places 
entirely detached from the metal, leaving tlie surface 

However, although the effects of these organisms 
so far mentioned have been chiefly prejudicial to the 
water authority, the consumer has just as much 
cause to resent their presence. The natural death 
of the Polyzoa. as well as those londitions which 
sometimes bring about their destruction, 
liberate into the mains large masses of tangled. iiios.s- 
like growths, which become broken up and carrie<l 
into every part of the .system, following generally 
the direction of greatest demand. It thus follows 
that the most important supplies are those which 
first feel the inconvenience of their presence. The 
house .services are first blocked at the ball valves, 
and metered supplies follow. Unfortunately the 
trouble is not of a single dav. but may continue for 
a long period. 

Ill Torquay, among many instances, the following 
may be quoted: On one occasion eleven in 
one row were without water from this cause on the 
same day : in another case an important metered 
supply was blocked upon four .successive days: 
while on another occasion an electric lighting .station 
within the area of supply was nearly forced to close 
down at the time of maximum load because the 
meter was blocked. 

Last year, at New Canaan, Conn., U.S.A.. a growth 
of Polyzoa which had become established in the 
pipes died ofi, and while in some instances the 
heating apparatus in houses became blocked and 
burst, the choking of the house services was almost 
general. The author has also heard of a case where 
a water famine was caused entirely by Polyzoa (Palu- 
dicella) blocking up the house services. This hap- 
pened in our own country a few years ago. . . . 

Some idea of the rapidity with which these growths 
can spread may be obtained from the study of their 
production. The author has had experience with the 
Polyzoon, the Plumatella, Emarginata. Muscosa. 
which was found in the Torquay mains before the 
introduction of filtration. In September, 19in, it was 
discovered for the first time at Newton Abbot; within 
a year it was found in every part of the district of 
supply, and only those who have had experience of 
such a visitation can realise what that means. This 
particular growth has two means of reproduction — 
first, ijy tlie production of free-swimming larvte; and. 
secondly, by statoblasts, or winter eggs. A single 
egg develops inside one of the jjarent tubes, and in 
due time jiroduces a free-swimming larva. After the 
jiroduction of larvie the parent organisms then pro- 
duce the statoblasts. are in two forms, the 
sessile and the floating statoblasts. The first ger- 
minates at the foot of the parent tube, so that when 
the latter dies down there is a new Polyzoon ready 
to perpetuate the giow'th upon the old position. 
The floating statoblasts are developed in great inim- 
l>ers in the upper portion of the tubes. These stato- 
blasts are oval in form, and are surrounded by an 
equatorial band, and between this band and the 
statoblast body there are developed small air cells. 
When the parent dies down these float away, and are 
carried wherever the water travels, thus spreading 
their kind over very con.siderable areas. It will be at 
once seen how can be scattered over a water- 
works system at a very rapid rate. . . . 


for water engineers is. What means can be adopted 
to remove these creatures from the pipes ? 

Many attempts have been made, and with |)arlial 
success. The only safe and satisfactory method is 
starvation— that is to say, to filter out the Plankton 
which forms their food— and they must then die off, 
and the trouble be ended once and for all. 

It may be asked wliether it is possible adequately 
to treat water in bulk in storage reservoirs so that 
these growths n.ay be eradicated at the sources of 
supply, and the author therefore quotes the follow- 
ing from a communication he received from Dr. 
Kraepelin in reference to the Hamburg mains: "No 
means of prevention has been tried at Hamburg; 
it would, indeed, have been quite impossible with- 
out poisoning the inhabitants of Hamburg at the 
same time. . . . The destruction of this growth can 
only be brought about by tlie withdrawal of nourish- 
ment—that is, by careful filtration of the water." 

Dr. Kemna. at Antwerp, had only a short length 
of main to deal with, and it was possible to isolat.' 
this and to turn live steam into it, with the result that 
the creatures were cooked. Water was afterwards 
turned in and the dead growth flushed out. 

In the which occurred at New Canaan, Conn., 
U.S. .v., referred to earlier in the paper, the death 
of the organisms was brought about by chance, and 
in an interesting mannei-. By some accident the 
bottom valve from the storage reservoir was opened. 
and the water tlierefrom was used for a week or two. 
This water, being devoid of oxygen, cau.sed the 
death of the organisms in the pipes, which after- 
wards gradually came away from the mains. 

In several instances flushing under heavy pressure 
has been resorted to. with only partial success, owing 
to the fact that if a .solitary statoblast or a sponge 
larva remains the whole trouble may recur. 

The available evidence all tends to show that fil- 
tration is the only complete remedy for the trouble 
caused by these growths, and, referring to the Poly- 
zoa. &c.. in New England waterworks. Wliipp'le 
states definitely that " Where water is filtered, or 

JutY I. I91o 



wliere ground waters are used, they do not occur." 
Unfortunately, liowever, surface water supidios are 
at any time liahle to a sudden develoimient of these 
animal growtlis, as is shown hy the following facts: 
In Torquay the sui)i)ly has hcen drawji from the 
same source since 1859, and up till yeptemher, IHln. 
no single trace of Polyzoa had ever been seen. Sud- 
denly, witliin a period of twelve months, the growth 
spread to every part of the area of supply. There 
are three storage reservoirs from which the sujiply 
is drawn. The highest has an elevation of 820 f(. 
above ordnance datum, and holds 104,tMJII.tHIO gallons, 
the .second holds 103,(100,0(10 gallons, and has a top- 
water level of 783ti above ordnance datum, the third 
re.servoir holds 171,IXH>,000 gallons, with the overflow at 
769 above ordnance datum. This last has only been 
in use five years, while the others have been in 
oi>eration for a long time. Curiously enough, the 
growth was greatest in the area sniiplied from the 
liighcst reservoir, and never before the date given 
was any trace of it .seen. That the growth is fairly 
well established in the reservoirs is determined by 
the i>resence of numerous statoblasts on the surface 
of the filters. The only suggestion which can be 
made as to their introduction is that the.v were car- 
ried either by wild fowl or with fish obtained foi- 
stocking the reservoirs. 


The President (Mr. C. C'lemc.sha Smith) said they 
had listened with very deep interest to what was a 
very valuable paper. Fortunately for us in this 
country, all of them did not suffer from those animal 
.U'rowths in pipes, but they never knew w'hose turn 
it might be next. -Therefore lie felt certain that the 
Iiaper, and the discussion which he hoped would 
follow, would be of very yrcat value. They had 
luesent with them Ur. Kaye. medical officer for the 
West Riding, and they would be pleased to hear some- 
thing from him on the subject. 

Dr. Kaye, county medical officer for the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, said he was sure they had all 
listened with great interest to the very aUle paper 
of Mr, Chapman. It dealt with the question from the 
mechanical point of view, but it was a great conso- 
lation to hear from the author that these organisms 
were non-pathogenic; the majority .seemed rather to 
lie of benefit to the water according to .some people. 
As far as his experience went he had not had to deal 
with this question on account of any ei)idemic, l>ut 
he had two cases in his mind v/liich might be interest- 
ing. In one case, particularly, in a very large reser- 
voir which was sujjplied from an u))land source the 
water suddenly developed a peculiar fishy odour, which 
was particularly noticeable when one filled one's bath 
ill the morning. The odour came into the room aiifl 
jiassed away after a short time. The reservoir had 
two inlets, one of which w-as a little bit open to sus- 
picion on account of sewage. It only had one outlet, 
which was about 12 ft. deep. On investigation they 
found about ten or twelve dozen trout in there, and 
the question they wanted to settle was. What gave to the peculiar fishy odour which was so notice- 
able ? They had a chemical examination of the water, 
and it proved from that point of view to be pure. 
They also had an examination of the water from a 
geological point of view, but practically no organisms 
resembling those they had heard about in the paper 
were sufficient to demonstrate that as the cause of the 
fishy smell. They found one or two small globular 
organisms, but they were not in a sufficient quantity 
to explain this fishy smell. He might say that the 
odour only occurred in the autumn, which rather 
discountenanced the idea that it was due to the fish. 
He had an idea that tlie re.servoir was overstocked 
with fish, but when they dragged it they only found 
about ten or twelve dozen. He would like to hear 
from Mr. Chapman whether he had ever had any 
experience of that sort of thing. They struck off the 
inlet which they had reason to suspect was polluted 
intermittently, and the next thing tlrey did was to 
have the reservoir dragged, with" the "re.s\ilt, as he 
had said, that they discovered ten or twelve dozen 
trout. They killed off the larger number, only leaving 
about three dozen in the pond. That was last year, 
but it was too soon yet to say whether that had 
effected a cure. They were carefully watching to 
see whether the smell occurred again. It had occurred 
for two years in succession, and it was very objection- 
able indeed in the houses of the consumers. The 
smell had been ascribed to a certain organi.sni, 
but whether it was due in this case to that organism 
or to the fish he was unable to enlighten them. 

Mr. .r. W. H. Johnson (West Riding Rivers Board) 
said there was no doubt that the of the growth 
of organisms in water was due to the food supply, 
and as Mr. Chapman had i)ointcd out in the paper, 
although the organism tenderl to imiu-ove the water 
by consuming the clebrif in it, there was the other 
side— viz., that if tliey got pure water they did not 
want any organism in it. (That was undoubtedly the 
basis which certain Continental observers had u.sed 
for classifying organisms found in w-ater supplies. 
They had arrived at three broad conclusions regard- 
ing organisms according to the pollution they 
made. It was perfectly obvious that the larger or- 
ganisms needed to be more carefully considered and 
guarded against even than the smaller ones. That 
woulil lie readily seen when one considered what hap- 
pened in the case of a sewage-polluted stream. TJie 
higher forms of life, the animals, died out; then they 
got down to the lower forms, and eventually they 
got down to the bacteria forms. It was on account 
of the extreme difficulty of removing the necessary 
food material of bacteria that made all bacteriological 
tests for water supplies so very important. When 
one considered a water supply, and found that it 
contained very few bacteria, it necessarily meant 
that the amount of food in that water had been re- 
duced very considerably. For instance, in their 
Wakefield water supply they had es.sentially a water 
from an area which contained, chemically, very little 
pollution. The only objection was the peat. The 
peat offered two objectionable point.s — first, it was 
acid, and the pluiiibo-solvency gave the water an 
unpleasant appearance when used for the table. By 
suitably treating the water it was possiiile to re- 
move the plumbo-solvency, and the efforts of the 
president in that direction had been such as to pro- 
duce a jierfectly clear water. Dr. Houston in 1892, 
when investigating the water supply of Belfast, 
found it necessary to refer to the water supply of 
several large towns throughout the United King- 
dom. If they referred to those figures they would 
find that the water supply of Wakefield was second 
to none in the kingdom. Its bacteria amounted to 
something like 5 c.c, thus showing that in a water 
containing no pollution even the bacteria contents 
might be very much reduced indeed. When one had 
reduced the amount of pollution and got almost a 
pure water supply, there was another difficulty 
which arose from incrustation, which was formed 
much more japidly in a recent water supiily than 
ill the older. The cause of that seemed to be very 
doubtful. When one examined it, it suggested 
microscopically that there might be some nucleus 
around which the iron had deposited. It evidently 
did not arise from the corrosion of the inner surface 
of the pipe, but was a direct deposit. The one in- 
teresting feature of this was tlie varying amount 
of the substance. With regard to Dr. Kaye's diffi- 
culty, it had been found that certain very minute 
organisuLs— algse — had on several occasions given di.s- 
tasteful properties to water, and it was very likely 
due to some such organism as that that the odour to 
which he had referred arose. In the West Riding he 
had come across one aimilar case, which only oc- 
curred about nine months ago, and the organism 
there was the Plumatella, which was growing in the 
main supplying the service reservoir belonging to 
the Bradford Corporation. What would happen was 
a iiroblem for the future. The water was unfiltered, 
and in that condition the lime carried down by the 
water was sufficient to feed the Plumatella in the 
pipe, and they might probably expect to find an in- 
creased amount this year. 

Mr. W. T. Burgess (London) said the paper was 
a \ery interesting one, and should be helpful in 
strengthening the hands of engineers in inducing 
their authorities to adopt filtration. For himself, he 
believed that, no matter what the purity of the 
original source might be— wliether it was taken from 
an upland source which was so carefully guatxled 
that pollution was out of the question, or wherever 
it w^as taken from, the water should be filtered before 
it was delivered to the consumer. He had no doubt 
tliat the paper would strengthen the hands of engi- 
neers who wished to induce their authorities to go 
in for filtration. The instance that the author had 
given thein of having had a free run for over fifty 
.years without meeting with trouble, and then getting 
it, showed that there was something in being pre- 
pared for a difficulty, rather than waiting for it to 
come. It was very interesting to read the case 
where the screens were choked by some kind of 
water flea, and to hear that, having ascertained the 



JULV 4, liU-?. 

rinee o£ suriace on wliich these organisms were 

Sv growing, the engineer was able to take,n,.t 

and efficient nieans for olieckmg the ronhle H . 

n.ethod of doing so was .luite nigeniuu.-, autl one 

oh following Ip .f one met with -,n.ilar trouWes^ 

W'th regard to growti-.s in mains, he had seen in his 

ne tons upon tons of mussels taken ont of nn- 

IXred water mains dealing with the Thnmes snp- 

nlv. and unless they were very q...ckl> ^-l-^^-f^ " 

n" hot weather he could tell them an a^vful stench 

ose He did not think that mussels were so much 

met with in that part of the world, but he had seen 

huge quantities taken out of mains. 

Mr C H.Roberts (.\berdeen) said that as they had 
in Aberdeen what was rather unusual nowadays-un- 
filtered river water-he thought it might be interest- 
ing if he described what they sometimes go there. 
He sent to Mr. Chapman a collection of the pro- 
ducts and he could assure them it was rather a 
heterogeneous collection. They had everything under 
the Sim in their water. Aberdeen was well known 
as a fishing centre, but it was not so generally known 
that people took their trout through their water 
pipes. (Laughter.) It was perfectly true that suiaU 
trout came through the water pipes very commonly 
in the earlv morning. The lesson to be learned from 
the paoer was as to the importance and advantage 
of filtration. Mr. Burgess had gone a great distance 
when he said that all service waters should be ftl- 
lered Wliether that be so or not, he was sure they 
loiild aU learn something from the paper, for he 
(Mr Roberts^ knew from letters which he had re- 
ceived from Mr. Cliapinan that he had given the 
subject a verv considerable amount of thought. 
They ought to 'congratulate themselves as an insti- 
tution upon having such a paper on their minutes. 
The importance of filtration was very far-reaching. 
Nowadays one heard about the value of sterilisation, 
but. despite that, all the processes seemed to re- 
ijuire some .=ort of filtration. A man called on him 
a short time ago who was interested in an ozone pro- 
cess. He said the ozone process was the most per- 
fect under the sun. but he (Mr. Roberts) noticed that 
the man had got a small filtration plant tucked away 
in the corner of his apparatus, which convinced liim 
(the speaker) that whatever they did with water— 
with the possible exception of deep-well water— some 
sort of filtration was desirable. 

Mr. Chapman, in reply, said that, with regard to 
Dr. Kaye's remarks, a good deal had been written 
by their American brethren on the question of odours 
in water supplies. He had found in theu- own water 
at Torquay occasionally a fishy odour. They had a 
ven- large storage for the size of the town— as a 
matter of fact, they had 260 days' storage. He had 
endeavoured to ascertain what was the cause of the 
odour, and he thought he had been able to put hi? 
finger upon it. There were a great number of organ- 
i.snis which lived in the deeper waters of reservoirs, 
especially of the class of the Polyzoa, and among 
these there were a number which produced little 
globules of oil, which were given off when the crea- 
tures came to the age of maturity. Among these 
creatures was the Uroglena, which gave oft an oil 
resembling in odour cod liver oil. and which could 
be traced in the proportion of 1 in 23,000,000. Then 
here was the Synura, which gave off an odour some- 
thing like cucumber, and there were seven or eight 
others which gave off strong fi.shy odours. In addi- 
tion, there was the Chara weed, which was unplea- 
sant, and he believed the Astrinella had made the 
water in some of the .Vmerican towns almost undrink- 
able. He had only just dipped into the subject, and 
.•=o far as he had been able to do so he had given 
them the facts. If they would try and ascertain the 
number of Polyzoa and similar organisms which 
were in the water it would give them some idea as 
to the cau.=e of the odours. Whipple told them 
that a man who was accustomed to it could tell by 
the ftdour the organism which was in the water 

Among the other pa|x;rs read at llie meeting 
was one by Mr. Alfred J. Jenkins, aksoc.m.inst.c.f... 


Tile presentation of the paper— which was repro- 
duced in our issue of the 13th ult.— was followed by 
a short discussion, opened by the president, Mr. ('. 
Olemesha Smith, who commented upon the eiuineatlv 
|)ractical nature of the contribution. 

Mr. S. C. Chapma.v (Torquay) said tliat he happened 

to know something about the works described, because 
l)efore Mr. Jenkins was appointed engineer he (Mr. 
Chapman) was in charge for a period of three years. 
Ho had the pleasure of visiting the place while the 
works were in progress, and he must say that Mr. 
Jenkins was very fortunate in getting the foundation 
he did. The country in Jersey was somewhat pecu- 
liar. The higher part of the island was in granite 
and the southern part was in the shales. The valleys 
wero exceedingly narrow and very very steep, and 
the dams possible were necessarily very short. The 
qiie.-tion had arisen in his mind as to whether the 
construction might not have been made by the dress- 
ing of the beds with displacers and keeping them 
closely together. It must be remembered that in 
dealing with granite one was not dealing with the 
lieautil'ul stone which could be got in this part of 
the world, and which could be cut into almost any 
-shape with very little labour. The granite in Jersey 
was very hard to dress owing to tlie twists, and the 
amount of labour which had to he expended on ii 
was very excessive. With regard to the amount of 
di.-^placers available one would like to have some in- 
formation in regard to that, as it would appear that 
it would, perhaps, have been better if the number of 
displacers could have been greater, and he tliought 
that bedding them with true bases and true bents 
would have added to the facility of building as well 
as keeping a larger number of displacers in the dam 
itself. There was ore point whicii the author raised 
in the early part of the paper to which he would like 
to refer— viz., filtration. He told them that on one 
occasion he raked over the filter beds, and that after 
that operation the beds were allowed to work for 
three or four mouths without further interference. 
He would like to ask Mr. Jenkins whether at that 
time any particular ol).servatious were made with re- 
gard to the number of bacteria in the reservoirs and 
also in the filters, and also the numbers in the filtered 
water, because from liis (the speaker's) own experience 
tliey found that in certain seasons of the year there 
was a very marked difference in the quantity of bac- 
teria in t][|^ reservoir.s — that was the difference between 
tlie bacteria in the reservoirs and the quantity in the 
water as it entered the filters. As far as he coxdd 
remember, speaking off-hand, there Avas a difference 
of about 75 per cent. If Mr. Jenkins could give them 
any information on that point it might be helpful. 

Mr. H. Preston (Grantham) said it was very in- 
teresting to note tlie peculiar conditions of Jersey in 
regard to its water supply and the way in which they 
had been overcome. They were told in the paper that 
the population of the island was 52,0tW. He would 
like to ask Mr. Jenkins what proportion of that 52,000 
he already supplied, because a watershed area of 
1,2(J0 acres seemed particularly small for supplying 
a population like that. They were told also that 
the average rainfall was 33 in., which, of course, was 
a large one, and with storage he supposed they might 
get a sufiieieut supply ; but he noticed that in the 
year 1906 the four months June to September passed 
without a single day of useful rainfall. He would 
like to ask what was the dry-weather flow of the 
St. Lawrence after that period. Mr. Jenkins spoke 
of the springs supjjlying the watersheds, but the 
geological struetureof which they had heard — granites, 
&c. — hardly seemed good grounds for expecting 
springs. He would like to ask Mr. Jenkins whether 
he had any springs coming down the stream at the 
end of the four months' drought. 

Mr. C. H. PBIE.STLF.V (Cardiff) said he had the 
pleasure of seeing this reservoir being constructed, 
and lie must congratulate Mr. Jenkins upon the way 
in which the work was carried out, and the admirable 
provision he had made for the population he w-as 
supplying. Mr. Jenkins gave them fouj months as 
the period of absolutely dry weather, whereas the 
period the reservoirs were built for was 105 days. 
How did Mr. Jenkins manage theui ? Another que.s- 
tion he would like to ask was whether anything was 
ilone ill the way of preventing pollution of the drainage 
area. He believed it was difficult to do this in that 
particular instance, but it would be interesting to 
know if that was so. With regard to the scraping of 
the filters, he took it that Mr. Jenkins did not put 
that forward as a proper thing to do in ordinary cir- 
cumstances. Anyhow, it .seemed to him (Mr. Priestley) 
that it would not be a good thing to do except under 
tlie exceptional circumstances referred to. He noticed 
that the covered reservoir only held about one day's 
supply; that appeared to him to be a very small 
capacity for the supply of the district. 

Mr. \V. R. K. BiNNiK (Westminster"*, referring to the 

,TuLY 4. 1913. 



cross-section of the ie-;ei voir showing llie outlet pipes, 
asked what was going to liappen if anything went 
wrong with tlie valves. 

Dr. Lapwokth, referring to caulking the face works, 
asked whetlier the joints were cut out aJid the mortar 
raiiinied in, or whether tlic mortar was put in with 
a trowel. 

Mr. E. Sandeman (Westmin.ster) said he would like 
to congratulate the author on liis cost. He thought 
it was very cheap. He knew his own construction 
cost more, and working witli granite was more expen- 
sive. He did not know how the granite of Jersey 
compared in hardness with tliat from Dartmoor, hut 
if they were on a par tlien lie must say tliat Mr. 
Jenkins liad constructed his reservoir very cheai)ly. 

.Mr. G. W. SW.4.LES (Leeds) said that recently lie 
liad had to do with some filters where they had to 
adopt tlie scraping method for getting over a tem- 
porary difficidty. The difficulty had only happened 
within the last six weeks; previous to that they !iad 
not had any trouble of the same sort for forty years. 
Filter beds that had heen running for -ten or twelve 
weeks got choked within five days. They got about 
three times as many men on the beds to get over the 
difficulty, but they had had to resort to the teinjiorary 
e.xpedient of scraping. They put the bed out of ser- 
vice, just raked over the surface thoroughly, and let 
it stand for about six hours without any water going 
through. For forty-eight hours they ran the water 
through at a gradually increasing rate and ran it to 
waste, taking samples for bacteriological analysis 
every six hours. They were sent down for test, and 
they found that in the water taken in the first six 
hours the results were frightfully bad; they were 
worse even than the raw water; but after twenty-four 
hours they got quite good results. He did not pretend 
to say that such a process was good for the beds; 
it certainly was not good for the sand, but it had to 
be adopted as a temjiorary expedient. 

The President (Mr. C. Clemesha Smith) said it 
had been suggested that as Mr. Jenkins had the data 
required for working out the flow from his gathering 
ground he might apjdy the formula that had been 
put before them by Mr. Biniiie and Dr. Lapworth, 
and give them the results at the end of his paper in 
a sort of written reply to the discussion. If that was 
possible he hoped Mr. Jenkins would do it, as he 
was sure it would be of great interest to members of 
the institution. 

Mr. Jenkins, in replying on the discussion, 
thanked the members for the very kind reception 
they had given his paper, and said he was glad it 
liad evoked some discussion. He was induced to 
bring the paper before the institution chiefly because 
the cost of the work worked out so remarkably low. 
.\s Mr. Sandeman had noted that point, he need not 
say anything further regarding it, except that it 
rather dealt with Mr. Chapman's criticism about 
dressing displacers. He was very much disappointed 
to find that lie could not get in 30 per cent. He con- 
sidered the matter of securing the granite blocks 
and keeping them closer together, but he was 
appalled at the cost. He had made a rather fine 
estimate for the work, and he did not want to exceed 
it, and he found he could square the granite block.-; 
without it. Of course, the specific gravity of the 
dam was not as high as it would have been had he 
had more displacers. With regard to Mr. Binnie's 
criticism of the cross-section of the dam not showing 
double valves, there was a valve at the outlet pipe, 
some little distance from the dam, but as they put a 
lot of filling behind the dam they would have had to 
put a valve over the top. If either of valves 
failed to shut he could run it off from the outlet 
chamber as fast as it would come in, and they would 
be able to get at the valve from the top. As to 
adopting rock foundations, he did not claim any 
originality for that, because the same thing was 
done by an engineer of one of the London companies 
many years ago, who gave an account of the work 
in a communication to the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers. He believed it was Mr. Wrestler who wrote 
a .short communication on that point. The rea.^on 
he resorted to scraping as a temporary expedient 
was because all his four beds choked up at once, and 
he was most agreeably surprised to find that the 
beds did not want any more attention till the end 
of the summer. He did not notice anything unusual 
in the number of the bacteria. They only had an 
analysis made once a month. He did not know 
w-hether the analysis coincided in any way with the 
scraping, but there was nothing unusual in regard to 
bacteria, and certainly there was nothing unusual 

ill the effluent. The scraping was done in the 
summer time, but they did not begin to draw the 
water quite as quickly as the gentleman from Leeds. 
He did not think it possible that the filters would 
recover in less than forty-eight hours, and at the 
end of that time they found that things had so much 
improved that they brought them into two days 
afterwards, working one at a time. He could not 
give them off-hand information as to the exact popu- 
lation supplied, but they supplied in galloifr per 
annum 110,000,00(J. Their maximum summer supply 
was 500,000 gallons a day. In 1906 the pressure was 
very much lower in the higher districts, and they 
rarelv exceeded 350.000 gallons a day. Tlie dry- 
weatiier flow in 1906 was .'iOO.OOO gallons per week— 
that, of, included all the spring water. Mr. 
Priestley had raised the question of the prevention 
of pollution of the drainage area. Unfortunately 
they had had one or two severe scares in the island, 
and the Sanitary Committee had taken up the ques- 
tion of pollution of the area. No fault had been 
found in recent years with their water, but there had 
been two or three epidemics, which caused the 
.Sanitary Committee to wake up and do .something, 
and there was now a law on the prevention of the 
pollution of streams. There was a certain amount 
of prohibition in regard to pollution, and the con- 
stables, who were practically the mayors of the 
parishes, had certain jjowers to do what they liked 
in the matter. The company did try to stir up the 
Sanitary Committee, and the committee gave them 
help for a short time, but it meant that they had to 
l>ay the piper. They had to come to certain arrange- 
ments with the farmers, and when they paid them 
certain sums they abated the nuisance; and tliey 
took care that they should have the right of inspec- 
tion in the future. They also had to buy up certain 
.sources of pollution, and as far as possible they had 
eliminated piggeries from the district. As to their 
service reservoir, it w-as certainly too small. It was 
a source of anxiety to him, and he w-ould take the 
earliest opportunity he could of plotting out a larger 
one, but he had to move slowly— he wanted several 
things before he had a larger service reservoir. Dr. 
Lapworth made inquiry about the jiointing. The 
pointing was not caulked in, it was done carefully 
with mortar in the proijortions he had mentioned. It 
was pressed in as dry as possible; it was not really 
hammered in, but it was worked in with very small 
trowels as carefully and efficiently as possible. He 
was not sure whether he wonid be able to supply the 
particulars that the president had suggested— if he 
could he would be pleased to do so, but he was 
limited to the size of the reservoir by the possibility 
of getting suitable ground. He had three sites avail- 
able, and he proceeded with the one that gave him 
the largest reservoir at a reasonable cost, and he 
could not possibly get it a foot deeper, otherwise he 
would have done so. 


Mr. T. MoLVNEix (Stockport) saiil he had much 
pleasure in proposing a very cordial vote of thanks 
to the mayor and corporation of Wakefield for their 
reception of the instituliion. They were greatly in- 
debted to the mayor and corporation for the oppor- 
tunities they had girven them of inspecting their 
works and for the ho.spitality which they had shown 
the meiiiljers throughout their visit. He was .sure 
thev all felt that the reception which they had re- 
ceived in the city of Wakefield had not, l>een sur- 
passed in the annals of the institution. The ele- 
ments had been very kind to them, and everybody in 
W.ikefield had done their utmost to make them com- 
fortable, and altogether they had had a very success- 
ful meeting. The waterworks had been well worth 
seeing, and the ingenuity exercised in obtaining 
their water supply was greatly to their credit, and 
he believed that the hardening plant which the presi- 
dent had installed was unique. Altogether their 
visit to Wakefield had been most interesting, useful 
and enjoyable. 

Mr. E. Sandeman (Westminster), in seconding the 
resolution, said ke thought that every member of the 
institution was deeply grateful to the Corporation 
of Wakefield and to those who had assisted in giving 
such a kindly welcome to the institution. 

The vote was carried with enthusiasm. 

The President said that as there were no mem- 
bers of the corporation present he would be pleased 
to convey the vote of thanks to the mayor and the 
members who had been associated with him in the 
hospitalitv which they had given to the institution. 



July 4. I'il3. 

Mr. F. W. Davies (Nollingliaui) saiil lie liad plpn- 
.sure in proiiosiiig a hearty vote of thanks to the 
retiring nienihcrs of the council for their services 
(luring the past year. He thought that the nienilicrs 
of the institution ought to he very grateful to the 
members of the council for the very useful work 
which they had carried out in the past. That was 
the first time he (Mr. Davie.s) had had the ijleasure 
of meeting the members of the institution in eonl'er- 
ence since the old as.sociation was inaugurated in 
Nottingham. Since that time a large amount of 
water had flowed down the Trent and the Cakier, 
and much useful work had been carried out. From 
small beginnings the Nottingham In.stitution hail 
grown into a very flovirishing society. With the 
vote of thanks he had to propose the re-election of 
the council, with the exception of Messrs. Sanity and 
Frederick Griffiths, who retired from the council, 
but the others were re-elected. Their friend IMr. 
(friffiths was in very poor health, and it occurred to 
him (.the speaker) that it w'ould be a very grateful 
action on their jiart if the secretary wrote and con- 
veyed to him their best wishes for a speedy recovery, 
together with the hope that he would enjoy his re- 
tirement for many years. 

Mr. J. J. Lackland (St. Helens) said that, as a 
member of some years' standing, he always recog- 
nised the great services which the council had 
rendered to the institution. Not only had they to 
attend council meetings, but they also had to attend 
meetings in other [leriods of the year when they had 
not the inducement which they had at places like 
Wakefield, where they had been so exceptionally 
well treated, to attend. Many of the meetings in- 
volved long journeys, and they had great reason to 
be gratefid to the council for the way in which they 
gave up their time to manage the affairs of the 

The President said he would like to say that the 
suggestion thrown out by I\Ir. Davies had already 
been carried out by the council, and a letter would 
be sent in due course to Mr. (jriffiths. 
The resolution was carried. 

The President said he had great pleasure in pro- 
posing a vote of thanks to the gentlemen who had 
so kindly written and read pa]jers before them. 
.Muiost without premeditation, in fact entirely so, it 
would be seen that the papers ranged themselves 
under four categories. Mr. Silcock's paper dealt 
with the financial side of the business : that of 
i^[essrs. Binnie and Lajiworth's was more in connec- 
tion with the mathematical side of the profession; 
-Mr. .Jenkijis gave them a practical description of the 
construction of a reservoir; and Mr. Chapman had 
g>iven them a very interesting paper on the biological 
side. Though their programme was not unduly large, 
it had been extremely varied, and had shown them 
how their jirofession touched so many branches of 
.science, and emphasised the fact which he pointed 
out in his opening address that it was to the advan- 
tage of the institution to have among its members 
gentlemen -who were connected with all the profes- 
sions which in some way or other had to deal with 
W'ater and its supply. He had the very greatest 
])leasure in proposing a hearty vote of thanks to the 
readers of the papers. 

Mr. ,7. S. Pickering (Cheltenham) said he had 
much iilea.-ure in seconding the resolution. Each 
speaker as he had entered into the discussion had 
expressed his appreciation to the authors for their 
papers, and he could assure the writers that those 
members who liad not taken part in the discussions 
e(iually appreciated the very instructive papers 
which had been read, and the institution generallv 
would feel indebted for the time and trouble which 
tlic authors had given in preparing the papers, which 
wnuld be of great use to them. The papers would 
be printed in their "Proceedings," and thev would 
read them at their leisure, and he was sure they 
would get a great deal of instruction from them. 
The resolution %vas carried, 

:\[r. Hknrv Preston (Grantham) said that it was 
his pleasure to propose a vote of thanks to the presi- 
dent for his hospitality and for the arrangements 
that had been made for the comfort of those who 
had attended the meetings. He was sure there was 
no need for him to enlarge upon that subject— it 
was only necessary for him to sav that they had 
been meeting in Yorkshire under a Yorkshireman, 
and, as far as the arrangements made for their 
comfort were concerned, all he could say was that tbcy 
were like all the works of their president— spick and 

span and i-onijilctc. They were all highly pleased 
with their vi^^il, and he was sure it would be their 
desire to give a very heacty vote of thanks to their 

i\Ir. V. H. IvOBKHTs (.\berdeen), in .seconding the 
vole, saitl that not only had the president looked 
after the interests of the institution, but he had also 
attended to the personal comfort of the nieiiibers 
while they had been there. They were very much 
indebted to the very courteous way in which Mr. 
Clemesha Smith had presided over them, and for the 
way he had endeavoured to make the meeting a 
success to every member present. 

The vote was carried with enthusiasm, and the 
President, in reply, said that he thought they had 
:ilready heard enough of his voice to last them at 
all events until the winter meeting. (Laughter, i 
There was no doubt that there was a certain amount 
of work in connection with entertaining the institu- 
tion, but he wished to make it plain that he luul 
not done all the w-ork hiiii.self. He had been very 
alily seconded by the corporation, who had helped 
him very largely with making the social arrange- 
ments, and he had also been ably ,seconded by hi.~ 
staff, to whom he must give a consicherable amount 
of credit. He was sure that it had been witli them 
as with himself a labour of love, and if the mcnibcis 
wore satisfied they were delighted. 

This terminated the jiroceedings. 


are requested to note that " The Surveyor " telephone 
number is now City 1046. 

Tar Spraying and Tar Macadam in Situ.— Tli. 
article bearing this title, by IMr, Thomas Aitkcii. 
M.ixsT,c,E, , county surveyor, Cupar, Fife, wliicli 
appeared in The Surveyor of June 20th and 27th, 
has been published in pamphlet form, and will be for- 
warded on receipt of postage (one penny), which should 
be sent to the Manager, St. Bride's Press, Limited, 
24 Bride-lane, Fleet-street, London, E.G. 

Motor Vacuum Street Cleaner. — In Milan a street 
sweeper similar to the i.irdinary carpet sweeper is being 
used. A revolving broom, 5 ft. wide and 4 ft. thick, 
revolves in an iron shell, which fits it closely except 
for the slot where the broom sweeps the pavement. 
The motor drives the broom round so fast that it 
creates a suction in the shell, sucking in dirt that is 
stirred up by the bristles. The dirt is then carried 
two-thirds of the way round the shell and thrown 
into a bin. 

Bridge Building.— Students,- young engineers, and 
surveyors will find much useful information in "Pre- 
liminary Studies in Bridge Building," by iReginald 
Ryves, Assoc. m.inst.c.e. (London: St. Bride's Press, 
Limited, at Bride-lane, E,C. Price 2s. nett.) The 
book is described as the "first of a series of small 
volumes, each complete in itself, dealing with the 
design of ordinary highway bridges of moderate sfian." 
Though highway bridges alone are referred to, the 
matter contained in this volume is largely applicable 
to railway bridges, aqueducts, and similar engineering 
undertakings. The five primary types of bridges are 
described, and the conditions determining the liest 
site for each of the three types of streams are discussed 
in detail; while in connection with wandering streams 
various modes of designing abutments or approach 
spans are dealt with. Improvements of fords and the 
effect of eccentric loading of vehicles on the girder 
loads are among the numerous other items touched 
on. — Scotsman. 

Testing and Standardisation of Road Materials.— 
Owing to unsatisfactory results obtained with coal 
tar and tar products, Slessrs, R, S. Clare & Co,, 
Limited, have (we are informed by a correspondent) 
adopted certain methods of testing and standardising 
all materials supiilied by them for road work. Theii' 
chemist W'as in attendance at the exhibition held in 
connection with the recent International Road Con- 
gress, with apparatus for demonstrating the importance 
of some of their tests. The following experiments 
actually took place on their stand : (1) Estimation of 
free carbon in pitch ; (2) extraction of bitumen from 
aphalt ; (3) ditillation of crude tar ; (4) separation 
of light from heavy tar oils ; (.5) estimation of volatile 
matters at high temperature ; (6) determination of vis- 
cosity and consistency of compound for stone coating. 
By these and other stringent tests Messrs. Clare 
endeavour to supply to road engineers, surveyors and 
others the best material available. 

Ji LV 4, 11)13. 



Third International Road Congress. 


Sir Geo. Gil)b pi'esided at tlie final meeting of the 
congress, which was held at C'axton Hall, on Friday 
last. The first business was the consideration of ihe 
resolutions which had been passed by the various 
sections of the congress, and the final text of these 
as adopted at the closing meeting on Friday is 
given herewith, additions being denoted in italics 
and omissions in brackets. 



1st Question— Planning of New Streets and Roads. 

(1) As a general principle, it is better that new 
main roads be constructed to pass outside rather than 
through towns, and that where an existing main road 
passing through a town is unsatisfactory for through 
traffic it is often better [to construct a new by-pass 
route] in preference to widening an existing narrow 
main road through the centre of a town, new roa/^/s 
should he planned according to the principles of the 
science of town planning . 

(2) [Wherever possible], gradients on new roads 
should be [limited to 5 per cent] as easy as possible, 
liaving regard to the physical character of the country 
through which they pass, and they should be [less] 
easier where there are curves, trams, or a preponder- 
ance of heavy traffic. 

(3) The radii of curves in roads used by fast traffic 
should, where practicable, provide the best possille and 
an unobstructed view [of 100 yds. ahead], and that 
where this is not possible, the curve being of too short 
a radius, means should be provided whereby the 
approach thereto is in some way clearly indicated. 

(4) Except where it is possible to provide special 
reserved spaces, tram tracks are best placed in the 
centre of the roads, and that where so placed it is 
desirable to provide space on either side tor two tracks 
for vehicles. 

(5) The main traffic roads should be so designed 
as that spaces are provided for ti'am tracks, fast and 
slow traffic, and standing vehicles ; and in such a way 
that they can proceed without unduly intermixing. 
In fixing building lines along what may ultimately 
become main roads, regard should be paid to ultimate 
requirements. Adequate space should be provided 
between the buildings, and powers for enforcing this 
should be held by all authorities who decide the widths 
of roads. 

(6) That the planning of main road communication 
outside towns should be at once nndertahen; it is a 
matter of national importance in regard to which 
some initiative should rest with a central State 
authority, and the action of local authorities should 
to some extent be regulated or supervised by central 
State authorities. 

2nd Question — Types of Surfacing to be adopted on 
Bridges, Viaducts, &c. 

(1) The choice of road surfacing for bridges depends 
on the nature and intensity of the traffic, the local 
conditions, such as permissible first cost, kinds of 
material readily available, and climate. For light 
bridges the choice is largely influenced by the weight 
of the surfacing. Public safety and convenience 
should be first regarded rather than questions of com- 
parative cost. 

(2) On short bridges in town or country, it is 
desirable that the surfacing should be the same as 
that on the adjoining streets or roads. 

(3) In forming the roadway on bridges, special care 
should be taken to secure proper drainage, and to 
prevent the harmful percolation of water. With longi- 
tudinal gradients of at least 1 in 60, the cross-section 
of the surface may be made nearly flat and the dead 
load thus reduced. 

(4) As a general rule, the surfacing of a bridge 
should be [as smooth as possible without being 
slippery. It should be] waterproof, capable of resist- 
ance to wear, durable, and of a weight appropriate 
to the structure of the bridge. It should also be as 
sinooih as possible without being slippery. 

(5) Plank surfacing on bridges is light, and its first 
cost is low. Its cost of maintenance is, however, 
excessive, except where the traffic is light. Its 
extreme liability to damage by fire is a serious dis- 

advantage. It should not be adopted, except in 
remote districts in which there is an abundance of 
cheap timber, and where a more desirable form of 
surfacing is not easily obtainable. Single plank floors 
are only suitable for very light traffic. For moderate 
or heavy traffic, two layers of planking, the lower of 
which is creosoted or otherwise protected from rapid 
decay, should be used. 

(6) Macadam, or ordinary broken stone surfacing, 
on timber planking, is not satisfactory, on account 
of its great weight and its permeability. [It] Macadam 
is, howe\er, quite satisfactory for massive bridges in 
rural districts if the substructure has a proper damp- 

(7) Macadam, bound with tar or other waterproof 
and elastic material, is useful and economical for the 
surfacing of rural bridges with moderate traffic, when 
the spans are short or the structure is massive. 

(8) Wood-block paving, 3 to 5 in. thick, is an ideal 
surfacing for bridges in most cases. It is light and 
durable and can be laid on concrete, or, when weight 
must be minimised, on a timber sub-floor, which 
should be creosoted. Special care should be taken 
in the selection, treatment and laying of wood blocks 
for bridge paving, to avoid troubles due to expansion 
and contraction of the blocks or of the metal structure. 

(9) Asphalt, in various forms, is an excellent sur- 
facing material for bridges with easy gradients, on 
which the traffic is not confined to definite lines or 
very heavy. 

(10) Stone paving, carried out either with ordinary 
hand-dressed setts or with small setts (Durax ; 
Kleinpflaster), laid on concrete and bound with cement 
or pitch, makes excellent and economical surfacings 
for bridges with heavy traffic. However, it is only 
suitable in cases where questions of the weight of 
the surfacing or of noise are of no importance. The 
thickness of the layer of sand interposed between the 
setts and the foundation wHl be decided in the same 
way as with an ordinary carriageway, in town or 
country, as the case may be. 

(11) For movable bridges, and for non-rigid sus- 
pension bridges, the surfacing should be light and easy 
to attach to the bridge platform. The trials made 
in France and Belgium with old mine cables, or other 
fibrous substances of even less cost, and with such 
materials impregnated with tari-y, bituminous or 
asphaltic materials should be encouraged. 

3rd Question — Construction of Macadamised Roads 

bound with Tarry, Bituminous, or Asphalt 



By the use of tarry, bituminous, including tarry or 
asphaltic binders we may obtain a number of different 
foi-ms of road crust, which may be employed with 
advantage, according to the various conditions of the 
road as regards traffic, locality, and climate. 

The exact value and duration of life of these various 
road crusts, taking into account traffic [and climate], 
climatic conditions, and the methods of construction, 
remain to be determined. 

For this purpose it is advisable to draw up a uniform 
system of tests, measurements and records, under the 
following headings : — 

(1) Physical and local conditions. (Plans, cross- 
section, slopes, camber foundations, subsoil.) 

(2) Materials employed, petrological analysis, dimen- 
sions, composition of the binding agent. 

(2a) Method of construction, date of construction. 

(3) Census of traffic on the section under review. 

(4) Climatic conditions affecting the road. 

(5) Periodical measurement of wear. 

(6) Periodical examination of the state of the road 

(7) Actual cost of the road crust — (o) as regards 
cost of construction ; (6) as regards maintenance cost. 

Tlie standard fortn in ichich the informaiion is to he 
furnished ivill he draicn up hy the Permanent Commission. 


(1) Foundation and Drainage. 
Confirming the conclusions adopted in 1910 by the 
Second Congress (Brussels, 2 Question), which called 
attention to the advantages of a dry foundation and a 



■Tfly 4. 1913. 

sound subsoil, the roiigress es|)Ocially insists upon the 
great imporlanci' of efficient foundations in the case 
of road rrusts bound with flarry] bituminous, incliid- 
inij tarry or asphaUic binders, for the following 
reasons : — 

(1) The road crust being expensive, it is important 
to give it a base which [secures stabilitj-] will inrrease 
ilA life. 

(2) As the weight, speed and intensity of the traffic 
continually fend to increase on roads considered 
worthy of such a crust, it is best to provide a founda- 
tion which has been so constructed as to secure ff>r 
the crust the best possible conditions of resistance to 

(■2) />(■)»'' naions and Shape of Metalling. 

(1) When an ordinary macadamised road crust is 
constructed with a view to being tar-sprayed, it should 
be constructed of hard metal, with sharp edges, and 
broken as nearly as possible to a cube of the dimen- 
sions of from 4 to 6 centimetres. 

(2) Tn the case of [tar] bituminous, inrhidinri tarry 
or asphaltic macadam, cari-ied out by the mixing pro- 
cess, the dimensions of the metal [must] may be so 
selected and gi'aded as to form a compact road crust 
with the fewest posible voids. The dimensions of the 
largest metal may vary according to the nature of the 
stone and of the traffic. When the process of con- 
struction employed requires more than one layer of 
material, the upper layer or wearing crust [must] may 
be formed of smaller metal. 

(3) In respect of [tarry] bituminous, including tarry 
or asphaltic road crusts constructed by the penetra- 
tion process, the trials and tests now being carried out 
in various countries should be continued, taking care 
only to employ metal of as cubical a shape as possible, 
and with sharp edges, at anj' rate, for the poi-tion of the 
road crust nearest the surface. 

(4) It is understood that further experiments will 
also be carried out in the use of other methods, and 
especially those referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2. 

(3) Employment of Partially Feed Metal. 
By carefully eliminating all particulars of mud and 
organic matter, it is possible successfully to make 
use of partially worn materials, on condition that they 
are not employed for the surface of the road crust. 

(4) Relative Importance of Paicliing. 
It is agreed that it is absolutely necessary to carry 
out repairs, in the case of all [tarry] bituminous, 
including tarry and asphaltic road crusts, immediately 
the necessity for them arises. 

(5) Permissible Wear. 
The complete renewal rendered necessary by wear 
must be carried out immediately the depth of the road 
crust is below a given limit of safety, or when its 
waterproofing qualities have become so poor that the 
road will unduly suffer from climatic conditions. 

(ii) Various Means of Employing Tarry, Bituminous 
and Asplialtic Materials. 
In using these materials, liotli in the penetration 
method and the mi.nng method — (a) It is preferable to 
use dry stone in order that it may adhere icell to the 
binder. In the midng method the stone must always be 
dry. and if necetsary it must be heated, (b) One must 
never lay a top crust ttpon a soft or damp foundation. 
One. should preferably carry out the work in fine weather. 
(c) One mtist never employ too much hinder, but only a 
mfficient quantity to bind the portion of the road which 
is being rolled, (d) One must never employ road rollers 
v^hieh are too heavy. 

17) Tests and Chemical Analysis. 

The advantages of analyses and methodical 
laboratory tests, and their necessity in the case of 
bituminous binders, are unanimously recognised. 

It would be of advantage to obtain uniformity— 

(1) As regards the specification of the principal 
characteristics of these binders. 

(2) As regards the methods of testing for drawing 
up these specifications. The Permanent International 
Commission will be entrusted tvith the work of inquiring 
into the best way of standardising tJie above. 

(8) Climatic Effects. 
It appears to be generally agreed that certain tarrv, 
bituminous or asphaltic road crusts (as is also usually 
the case with all smooth and waterproof road surfaces) 
may become slippery under certain conditions of 

This may be remedied by strewing the surface with 
coarse sharp sand ; and in most cases a good cleansing 
of the surface will usually prevent the carriageway 
becoming slippery. 

(9) Effects on Public Health. Ac. 
Sufficient information is now available to enable 
engineers to select and specify bituminous binders 
which will have no prejudicial effect upon public 
health, fish life, or vegetation ; but which, on the 
contrary, will conduce to conditions of considerable 
hygienic advantage. 

(10) Clean.'iiiig and Watering. 

It is recognised that carriageways properly treated 
with [tarry] bituminous, tarry or asphaltic materials 
require less sweeping and watering than ordinary 
water-bound macadamised roads, and that they allow 
of considerable economy being effected under this head. 

The meeting puts foru-urd the fvllowing additional 
proposal : That an International Technical Committee 
should be appointed by the Permanent International 
Commission in order to study a standard method of 
obtaining information and data upon materials, physical 
conditions, local conditions, methods of construction, ler- 
m-inology, and other points concerning inacadam bound 
irith tarry bituminous or asphaltic binders. 

Tlie report of the committee should, after e.ramination 
by the Permanent Commission, he presented to a n.e:rt 

4th Question — Wood Paving. 

(1) Where gradients permit, wood block pavement[s] 
[laid on proper concrete foundations, are the most] is 
very suitable for streets where traffic is great, but is not 
of the exceptionally heavy character usually existing 
on streets near docks or similar centres of industrial 
traffic. It should be ui^cd where a noiseless pai'ement i.< 
desirable. ft is of great importance that a concrete 
foundation should be laid of sufficient strength to carry 

the traffic passing over the pavement. 

(2) Great care is necessary in the selection of the 
proper timber for the purpose, and all soft wood 
blocks should be thoroughly impregnated with a well- 
proved preservative before being laid. 

(3) In view of the varying results given by wood 
pavements, according to local circumstances, it is 
desirable that further investigations and laboratoi-y 
experiments should be carried out in connection with 
the selection of the timber and of the impregnating 

(4) Every precaution should be taken in laying the 
blocks to prevent, so far as possible, the entry of water 
through the joints. 

4a. Hard woods give varying results according to local 
circumstances, and it does not ' appear desirable to 
recommend them for roads with intense traffic in large 
cities, unless some means are devised to effectively 
prevent the rapid destruction of the joints and the 
resulting destructive effect on the concrete below. If 
these woods are employed it is desirable not only to pre- 
vent the percolation of water through the joints to the 
foundation, but also to consolidate the blocks as far 
as possible, so that they may not become rounded 
at the edges. Soft woods obtained from suitable kinds 
of trees, and e.'^peeially from resinous species, are equally 
suitable for roads vnth a comparatively heavy and 
intense traffic as viell as for roads with a light and infre- 
quent traffic. In the latter, hou-evtr, the blocks are liable 
to rot if they have not been suitably pickled. It is also 
desirable to make the joints as sm,all and icatertight as 
possible- On the other hand, their comparatively rapid 
tvear on roads u:itli great traffic should encourage one to 
make e.ehaustive investigations into tlie best means of 
treating them so as to increase their strength loithout 
prejudice to their elasticity. 

(5) Subject to certain precautions, such as impreg- 
nating of the wood, waterproofing of the joints and 
surface, frequent cleaning of the roadway. &c.. there 
is no objection to wood pavement from the sanitary 
point of view. 

(6) The spreading of gritting is necessary under 
certain conditions and in certain weather (especially 
on hard wood paving) to prevent the surface becoming 
slippery, but the gritting should be done with suitable 
small gravel, [or] chippings. or sharp sand, so as to 
avoid, as far as possible, any injury to rubber tyres. 

[ (7) Where hard woods are adopted for paving, the 
" sectional block " system or some other effective 
system should be employed, in order to avoid the 
objections which have Ijeen found in hard wood 

Tni.Y 4, 191."). 




5th Question— Methods of Lighting. 

(1) For the purposes of a general determination of 
methods of lighting highways may conveniently be 
divided into three classes as follows : — 

1 — Important streets iu cities, towns or other ui-ban 
areas in which the traffic after dark is considerable in 

2 — Important suburban roads in the vicinity of large 

3 — Rural roads »" open country. 
And having regard to modern conditions of traffic it 
is essential that adequate lighting by means of fixed 
lights should be provided in classes 1 and 2. 

(2) As a general principle in the lighting of all 
highways which require to be lighted by means of 
fixed lights, the method of lighting to be adopted 
should be such as will provide an illumination as 
uniform and free from glare as possible. The amount 
of illumination and the position of lamps must be 
determined with reference to local circumstances. 

(3) It would be impracticable to light rural roads 
in. opan rounlrij generally by similar methods to those 
adopted in urban streets or suburban roads, and the 
lighting of vehicles [using] running or ^landing on rural 
roads at night is therefore of the highest importance. 

(4) [All] Every vehicle[s] whether standing or moving 
[on the road should be comjielled by law to carry eithei' 
suitable lights in front and in rear or lighted lanterns, 
so constructed and fixed that the beams shall as far 
as practicable be visible both from the front and the 
rear] should carry or show a light of sufficient power at 
night which can, except when specially authorised, he seen 
from the rear as well as from the front of the vehicle. 

2 — Every motor car must carry after nightfall two 
lighted lamps in front, and one at the back ; if it is able 
to move at a high speed it must [also] be fitted in 
front with a head-light of sufficient illuminating power 
to light up the road or path for at least .50 yds. to 
the front. In inhabited places where the ordinary 
lighting is sufficient to allow motorists to see their 
way and to be easily seen, the light of the head-lights 
must be limited to that of the ordinary lamp. 

(5) It is desirable that all obstacles across a road 
such as gates, and pai'ticularly gates at railway level 
crossings, should be painted white and [should be 
clearly lighted at night by means of fixed lights, 
preferably of a red colour, to indicate danger] in other 
colours in alfervate parts and illuminated hy fixed lights 
which are lighted at dusk. 

3 — It is desirable to paint with white paint, or 
indicate by some other method all danger signal posts, 
direction posts and other posts, milestones, wheel kerbs, 
bridge abutments, &c., or other special features, the 
indication of which would aid travellers or conduce 
to the safety and convenience of the traffic. 

(6) [Red] One and the same should be universally 
adopted as the colour for danger signals. 

The meeting, on the proposal of Mr. Ghaix. unani- 
mously adopted the following resoluiion : " If is desirahle 
that each Government should do away as soon as 2}0ssihle 
with coloured, lights on aulomohiles." On the proposal of 
Mr. Hansez. the meeting adopted the foUoiving resolu- 
tion, with two dissentients : " The congress expresses the 
wish that regulations should he made to compel drivers of 
herds of cattle to make their presence known at night." 

6th Question — Observations noted since 1908 as to 

the Various Causes of Wear and of Deterioration 

of Roadways. 

(1) Weather conditions are among the most 
powerful influences which cause deterioration of roads, 
and the destructive effect of weather can be mini- 
mised by effective water|)roofing of the road surface 
ti'ith suitable drainage for the foundation. 

(2) Any considerable volume of traffic consisting of 
either heavy motor vehicles or high speed light 
motor cars has a seriously damaging effect on water- 
bound macadam roads. The damage caused is effected 
by the balancing of the [vehicle] motor ; the ratio 
between propelling power and adhesive weight ; the 
weight of unsprung portions of the [vehicle] motor ; the 
[continuity] pmgressivily of action of the brakes ; the 
system of springing ; the type of tyres employed, the 
diameter of the wheels, the width of the rims, variation 
of s>peed and adherence and other factors. 

(3) The damaging effect of heavy motor vehicles can 
be minimised by the use of wheels of large diameter : 
tyres of a width properly adapted to the weight of 
the axle load ; rubber or elastic tyres and sui+ible 

springs and that all reasonable means of reducing the 
damage to roads caused by such vehicles should be 

(-t) Light motor car traffic does not cause serious 
or exceptional wear or damage in the case of properly 
made macadam roads which have been proj)erly treated 
or bound with tarry, bituminous or asphaltic materials, 
except in sharp curves. 

As regards horse-drawn vehicles it is desirable also 
to study the relations between load, width of rims and 
diameter of wheels and more especially the system of 
shoeing horses. It is aho necessary that jicnver should be 
given to local autlioritics to prevent the deposit of refuse 
from the fields and earth upon tlie roadway hy the ulieels 
of agricultural carts. 

(.5) There is still a great lack of precise information 
in regard to the various causes of wear and deteriora- 
tion of roadways, and that it is desirable to collect 
more information compiled on carefully devised 
scientific methods standardised as far as possible for 
the purposes of comparison, and to make further 
systematic study of these causes. The International 
Permanent Commission is charged with the pre- 
paration of a programme of observations, studies and 

7th Question — Regulations for Fast and Slow 
Traffic on Roads. 

(1) That all regulations for the control of road 
traffic should be based on the principle of [facilitating 
the maximum] allo^ving the speed practicable [speed] for 
each different kind of vehicle consistent with public 
safety, [and] general convenience, and the normal wear 
of the road. 

(2) That regulations for the conduct of fast and 
slow traffic should be as few and simple as possible, 
and should be such as can and ought to be universally 
adhered to and enforced. 

(3) That in all large cities there should be a traffic 
authority on whom should be charged the duty of 
studying and dealing with street traffic problems, the 
powers of such authority and the co-ordination of such 
powers with those of other public authorities being 
matters of detail which must be settled by Government 
on consideration of the circumstances and conditions 
of each large city. 

(4) That there should be ample provision of traffic 
controllers (such as the police in London) with 
adequate powers to regulate the traffic, not only at 
congested points, but throughout the course of crowded 

[ (.5) That fast traffic should always be as far as 
practicable from the kerb so as to minimise the risk 
to pedestrians who may intentionally or thoughtlessly 
step from the footpath on to the carriageway.] 

(.5) That having regard to the increased danger 
which is necessarily created by the conditions of 
modern traffic it is important that drivers should be 
carefully and systematically trained, and that children 
should be specially taught how to provide against the 
dangers of the road. 

(6) That except where local circumstances render it 
absolutely necessary, no obstructions, such as lamp- 
posts, tramway standards, &c. , should be placed in the 
centre of a road, except necessary refuges for pedes- 
trians crossing. 

(7) No obstruction of the public highway should be 
permitted either by vehicles standing unreasonably. 
or travelling at an ohslrucling speed, or by things placed 
on the highway. Exception must, however, be made 
for depots required for the work of maintenance 
or repair of the road, or for work being carried 
out by duly authorised and competent authorities, but 
in every case, all necessary steps must be taken to 
ensure the safety of traffic. 

The meeting, on the proposal of Mr. Chaix, unani- 
mously adopted the following resolution: 

8. " Eegulations for roads and traffic must aim at 
defining the 'rights, duties^ and responsihilities for each, 
kind of traffic, in order to \void the causes of accidents 
and damage, and to en^'^e the maximum of order and 

8th Question— Authorities in Charge of the Construc- 
tion and Maintenance of Roads. Functions of 
Central Authorities and Local Authorities. 

(1) The system of road administration in any country 
must be in harmony with the general system of govern- 
ment prevailing in that country and the political 
genius of its people. It is impossible, therefore, to 
lay down any general rule of universal application as 




July 4, 1913. 

to the extent to which the road organisation of any 
country sliould be centralised or decentralised. 

[In countries where maintenance o! roads by local 
authorities has hitherto been the prevailing system, 
the modern engineering problems of road construction 
raised by the increased motor traffic are creating a 
tendency to greater centralisation, and it is desirable 
that there should be a further development of State 
assistance and supervision. 

In those countries where centralised systems of 
administration already exist it is desirable that these 
systems shall be developed and perfected.] 

A principle that can be laid down as of universal 
application is tliat the unit of highway administration 
shall be sufficiently large and command sufficient 
resources to employ and adequately remunerate a com- 
petent [administrative, engineering, and accounting] 

[It is desirable that the engineering staff shall be 
organised on a national basis, and shall consist of — 

(1) Chief engineers, having jurisdiction over the 
area which shall be selected as the unit of adminis- 
tration ; 

(2) Divisional engineers in charge of divisions of the 
unit and responsible to the chief engineer ; 

(3) Assistant engineers, recruited by examination 
from engineering students who have received a 
practical training following upon a good general 
education, and an engineering education at some 
recognised engineering school or university. Pro- 
motion shall be by merit.] 

9th Question — Finance of the Construction and 
Upkeep of Roads. Provision of Revenues. 

(1) The expenditure on the maintenance and 
improvement of 

(0) the roads which serve as main routes of com- 
munication between important places in any country, or 

(6) roads which are used mainly by long distance 

unless such expenditure is borne wholly out of the 
national revenues under a system of State administra- 
tion of roads (which system is practicable and suitable 
in the case of some roads in some countries) sliould 
be mainly paid for out of national revenues, whether 
or not such roads are locally administered and main- 
tained, subject, where local administration prevails, 
to the supervision of a central government authority 
both as to efficiency and expenditure. 

(2) It is desirable to abolish, so far as possible, all 
tolls on public roads, but it is equitable that [the 
owners of] vehicles which, on account of their weight, 
or weight combined with speed, or any other excep- 
tional circumstances connected with either the vehicle 
or use of the road, cause special damage to roads 
beyond the wear and tear of the ordinary traffic of any 
district, should be subject to special taxation, the 
proceeds of which should be earmarked for expenditure 
on roads. 

(3) Borrowing money for new road construction and 
for the periodic renewal of the surface coating of a 
road is consistent with sound financial principles, pro- 
vided tliat the loan period in the case of loans for 
renewals is kept well within the life of the surface 

M. Tannenbadm (St. Petersburg) put forward three 
resolutions in relation to question 2, but the chair- 
man said it was inipos.sible to accept these as addi- 
tions to the resolutions settled by the section. That 
would require further consideration. He was in- 
formed that M. Tannonbauni would be satisfied if 
the resolutions he had put forward were recorded, so 
that they would be in the bulletin of the congress, 
and he would ask M. Tannenbauni to accept that 
settlement of the matter. 

At tlie request of JI. Tannenbauni tlie chairman 
read the resolutions he liad put forward, as follows: — 

(1) In the construction of the more important 
bridges, permanent or transportable appliances must 
be provided which render possible close examination 
of all important parts of these structures. 

(2) It is desired to take in the programme of the 
next congress discussion of the que.stion as to effec- 
tive means for the protection of wooden parts of 
bridges from the danger of catching fire. 

(3) It is to be desired that statistical data in re- 
gard to costs of maintenance and durability of dif- 
ferent kinds of bridge structures shall be published 
on systematic and uniform bases. 

Upon the resolutions of question 3 coming up for 
consideration, Mr. Horton moved that the words 

"a technical committee" be replaced by the words 
"an international technical committee" in the 
second part of No. 10. 

The Chairm.\x said they would accept the altera- 
tion which jVIr. Horton desired, and also called 
attention to a further amendment to the resolution, 
which he said should read: 'The meeting puts for- 
ward the following additional proposal, that an inter- 
national technical conimittee should be appointed, 

Mr. Scott Plcmmer (County Councils Associa- 
tion of Scotland) moved the deletion of resolution 4, 
and also sub-section 2 in question 5. The question 
he submitted was not one for an international con- 
gress. The Scottish authorities had had an oppor- 
tunity of making by-laws on the subject, and there 
was not one by-law making it necessary for agii- 
cultural carts to be lighted. 

Major Oswald seconded. 

Sir John Macdonald said the matter was fully 
discussed at the section meeting, and he did not 
think Mr. Scott Plurainer and the gentlemen with 
him got much sympathy from the .section. He would 
point out that it was very desirable that all wlio 
used the road should endeavour to promote one 
system of lighting throughout the whole world. 

The amendment was put to the meeting and de- 
feated, the conference approving of the original as 
it stood. 

Mr. Gibson next moved the deletion of the second 
part of resolution 4, question 6, relating to the 
deposit of mud from fields upon the roads by cart- 
wheels. He thought it was unjust, and would pre- 
vent agricultural work being done except in fine 

Mr. H. Perot Boulnois, who presided at the sec- 
tional meeting, said the question was well considered 
there. The congress was not making laws, but was 
trying to give powers to local authorities to frame 
by-laws. At present they had no power to prevent 
such an occurrence as deep mud being brought out 
from the fields on to the roads. The damage done 
to the roads by careless farmers was enormous. The 
matter could be remedied by laying down straw, &c. 

The amendment w^as lost and the original resolu- 
tion agreed to. 

M. DE TiMONOFF nioved the omission of paragraphs 
2, 3 and 5 from question 8. He considered that 
paragraphs 2 and 3 were in contradiction of para- 
graph 1, which stated that it was impossible to lay 
down any general rule of universal application. 
Paragraph 5 he considered was impossible and un- 

Sir Archibald Hepburn said as there were so 
many foreign visitors present, he thought the posi- 
tion of Scotland in that matter should be brought 
before their notice. They in Scotland were in a very 
different position from England. In Scotland they 
had but one kind of road authority, and they had no 
difficulty whatever in the management of their roads. 
They did not \ decentralisation at all. All they 
wished, and all they required, was that, with regard 
to the main trunk roads, they should receive some 
Government subsidy for the purpose of keeping the 
roads up. 

Mr. Seymour Williams said he was inclined to 
asree that section 5 might be left out. It dealt with 
the constitution of the staff, and was too domestic 
a matter to be dealt with at an International Con- 
gress, but he would like to ask the congress not to 
leave out the other two paragraphs. Those resolu- 
tions made it clear that there were two systems 
adopted in different countrie.s— one applying to 
oountries where there was a certain amount of de- 
centralisation, and another dealing with countries 
in which there was centralisation. It was imjws- 
sible to harmonise opinions on the matter. He asked 
the congress to leave paragraphs 2 and 3 where they 

Prof. LuiGi LuiGGi (Italy) said he thought para- 
graphs 2, 3 and 5 should be struck out, as they were 
inconsistent wuth the other paragraphs. 

Upon the amendment for the omission of para- 
graphs 2 and 3 being put to tlie meeting it was 
adopted, as was also the further amendment for the 
deletion of paragraph 5. 

The congress adopted the remainder of the resolu- 
tions, and Sir Geo. Gibb made his final speech to 
the delegates. He did not. he said, want to intro- 
duce into that "farewell any note of regret, because, 
although their meeting was over, they could look 
back upon it as a meeting full of practical and use- 
ful result. They should, added Sir George, be in- 

July 4, 191S. 



s|iiied with hoije for the future, tuid coufideiit faith 
111 the progress of the great jjublic work on which 
they had been engaged during the kist week. Sir 
George, in conclusion, expressed thanks to all who 
had assisted in the organisation of the congress 

Mr. Lewald (Germany) expressed the thanks of 
all the delegates for the kindness shown by the King 
in inviting them to Windsor Castle, and remarked 
tliat it was a never-to-be-forgotten visit, which had 
impressed them all. 

Speeches from others of the delegates representing 
various countries followed. 


A.n agreeable and instructive excursion was provided 
for those members of the congress who accepted the 
invitation to inspect some of the main roads in Berk- 
shire on Thursday of last week. At ten o'clock a 
start was made from Reading Station for Maidenhead 
and Windsor, the journey, which was made in motor 
cars, being continued by way of Ascot, Bracknell, 
and Wokingham and thence back to Reading. Nearly 
the whole of the route traversed was laid with Tarmac, 
but the county council had also experimented over 
.sections near Twyford with Camarco road asphalt, as 
described in previous issues of The Surveyor. 

The Tarmac roads inspected during the excursion 
were very smooth and entirely free from dust; in fact, 
the only dust encountered during a two hours' run 
wa.s over a few short lengths where, fro'm one cause or 
anotlier, there was a breach of continuity in the 
metliod mainly employed on the route. A pleasant 
interruption was the halt made at Windsor Town 
Hall (built by Wren iu 16S0, and recently restored 
by the borough surveyor and arcliitect, Mr. Stick- 
land), where the party were invited by a member of 
the Highways and Bridges Committee of Berkshire 
to partake of light refreshments, and the Mayor 
offered a few words of welcoxue to the members. The 
journey was resumed through the Great Park to Forest 
Gate, and thence through part of W'indsor Forest to 
Ascot and Bracknell. 

At the last-named place another halt was made, but 
the object this time was entirely educational and 
practical. A short section of road, that had already 
been laid with Tarmac, was now being relaid, and 
from what the visitors could see for themselves, with 
the addition of printed and verbal explanations, they 
were enabled to gain a fairly complete knowledge of 
the metliod employed. The method exclusively 
adopted, with the exception of one or two short 
lengths, and the experimental lengths at Twyford, is 
for the foundation to be strengthened with hand-laid 
lump slag, placed on a layer of gorse or heather — 
this vegetable layer being used because the soil is 
clay— and for the surface to be laid with a 12-ft. centre 
of Tarmac supplied by Tarmac, Limited, of Wolver- 
hampton, and the sides laid with 2-in. of broken 
slag coated with a final layer of 2-in. of granite, 
•water bound. In Bracknell High-street, however, 
as well as at the corners of the roads, the Tarmac 
is laid fronr kerb to kerb. Members of the congress 
displayed keen interest in the Tarmac laying process 
as well as in the finished product presented by the 
roads, and there appeared to be a general agreement 
with the statement made in tlie introductory part 
of the official programme that " tlie work completed 
has given every satisfaction to all concerned, and the 
improvement in the main road.-^ of Berkshire has 
well warranted the expense and work entailed in 
the carrying out of the schemes." 

The members arrived back at Reading in good time 
for the reception at the Town Hall by Sir Robert G. C. 
Mowbray, Bart., Chairman of the Berk-jhire County 
Council, supported by His Worship the Mayor of 
Reading (Alderman C. G. Field). There was also 
ample leisure to inspect the council chamber, which 
contains a giortrait of Archbishop Laud, who wa.s 
born at Reading. At the lunch which followed the 
reception Sir Robert Mowbray presided, and the com- 
pany included Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, Sir John 
Macdonald, p.c, k.c.b., the Mayor of Reading, Sir 
George Gibb (chairman of the Road Board) and 
Lady Gibb, Alderman C. A. Ferard (chairman of the 
Berkshire County Council Highways Committee), Mr. 
W. Rees Jeffreys (secretary of the Road Board), repre- 
sentatives from Canada, France, Germany, Greece, 
Hungary, Italy, Russia, Sweden, and the United 
States, and the following county surveyors: Mr. F. G. 
Carpenter (West Riding), Mr. H. T. Chapman (Somer- 
set), Mr. J. F. Hawkins (Berks), Mr. E. Purnell Hooley 

(Notts), Mr. H. P. Maybury (Kent), Mr. J. Muncui 
(Staffs), Mr. G. D. Phillips (Glam.), Mr. S. St:illanl 
(Oxon), and Mr. J. Willmot (Warwickshire). 

After lunch the chairman proposed "The King,' 
and then "The International Road Congress," coup- 
ling this toast with the names of Sir John Macdonald 
and the Russian representative, Mr. Stolpakow. The 
chairman added that lie was not proposing his own 
health, because he was not a member of the Road 
Congress, but he believed the congress as an insti- 
tution had come to stay, and the morning's ride had 
shown what great progress had been achieved in 
road-making. The language difficulty, wliich began 
with a meeting of engineers on a plain in Shinar, 
had naturally been felt by the congress, but he com- 
plimented the foreign members on the extent of their 
success in speaking English. 

Sir John Macdonald, in responding for the congress, 
spoke of the increased interest manifested in roads, 
of the healthiness and real cheapness of modern roads, 
and repeated his now well-known prediction that in a 
few years the horse will have disappeared from our 

Mr. Stolpakow said just enough to show that he 
could express himself in English intelligibly, however 
quaintly, but confessed that he felt less at home with 
the language than he did with the country and the 
people, and so he fell back ou the sentiment "England 
lor ever ! " 

Lord Montagu, in proposing "Berkshire Roads," 
said the county had an ideal system, with plenty of 
money, good management, and an energetic and 
able surveyor. In reply to the chairman, he remarked 
that the ijuilders of the Tower of Babel were archi- 
tects only and not engineers, who . had different 
prolilems to solve, and he thought that the importance 
of the road engineer and his work was not yet properly 
recognised. Speaking from a wide experience of 
roads, he said that no county has improved so much 
in this respect as Berkshire. 

Alderman Ferard, in responding, said that the High- 
ways Committee liad to contend with circumstances of 
extreme difficulty. The county was agricultural, and 
therefore poor. It was intersected by trunk roads, 
and yet contained no fit material for such roads. The 
soil was clay. The county had become very largely 
the playground of London, and owing to its posses 
sion of four racecourses, of Henley, and of the royal 
residence at Windsor, the traffic was very great, and 
at times, such as during Ascot week, it was enormous. 
The county would shortly have eighty miles of Tarmac 
roads, and they found the better the roads the greater 
the traffic. He advocated the concentration of road 
areas and the taking over of all district roads. 

On tlie conclusion of his speech there were loud 
and numerous cries of " Hawkins," to which the 
county surveyor responded in a few words. 

The mayor proposed the health of " The Chair- 
man," which was well received and suitably 
acknowledged, and the members then proceeded to 
inspect Messrs. Sutton & Sons' seed trial grounds. 


A large party of delegates to and members of the 
congress left London on Monday morning on a visit 
to a number of Midland towns. A special train pro- 
vided by the Great Central Railway Company left 
Marylebone at half past ten. and was run direct into 
the works of Hadfields, Limited, Sheffield, w^here the 
visitors were received by the chairman. Sir Robert 
Hadfleld, f.r.s., the managing director, Mr. A. M. 
Jack, J. p., also the other directors, Mr W'. H. 
Pixon, Mr. P. B. Brown, Major A. B. H. Gierke, Mr. 
H. Cooper, and Mr. I. B. Milne. 


The capacity of production of the Hadfleld Works 
has been very largely increased during the last two 
years, and they have now a total shop area of no less 
than twenty-five acres, and employ over 6,009 work- 

As being of special interest to the visitors, the party 
were first conducted to the various .shops devoted to 
the production and erection of crusher machinery 
such as used in the production of road-making 

Hadfields are specialists in nuuiy types of stone 
crushers ; for instance, they make botli the jaw and 
gyratory design, each of these bearing many advan- 
tageous features they have introduced in the form of 
improvements. Their machines are used in a large 
number of plants in the British Isle.*, and their foreign 



July 4, 1913. 

trade in crusliers extends to practically the whole of 
the civilised world. They supply portable breaking 
and .Kcreeninir i)lants with different arrangement.'* for 
meeting tlic various requirements, also large and 
small fixed plants in quarries and mines too numerous 
to mention. A few years ago they introduced the 
•• llocla " Disc Crusher— Symons' Patent — of which 

the main crushing load is boine by a large ball-and- 
socket bearing having little movement. The disc 
crusher is very efficient in reducing breaker rejec- 
tions down to J in. or less. It moreover satisfactorily 
deals with wet or dry gravel boulders mixed witli 
sand Avhen a smaller product is needed. 
Hadfields, in addition to the juaiu breakers, also 


Road Congress Visitoks at H.adfields, Limited, Shlihili'. 

they have the sole rights of manufacture. This 
machine embodies an unique principle of working, 
and being intended for intermediate or secondary 
crushing is particularly suited for the production of 
■"road-dressing" material. The actual crushing 
operation takes place by reason of the pressure exerted 
by two saucer-shaped discs which run at a high 
speed in the same direction. These discs are sup- 
ported at an angle to each other. The material enters 
where the discs are widest apart, being then carried 

make screens, elevators, rolls, <.^c., everything, indeed, 
required for a complete crushing installation. 

The trackwork section, which was visited, embraces 
simple and complicated junctions, crossovers, and lay- 
outs for railway and tramw'ay work. A floor several 
acres in extent is reserved for the sole purpose of 
putting component sections together, thereby en- 
suring exact assembling on site and subsequent 
"sweet" running. Hadfields supply both rolled and 
cast rails for railway or trauiwav service in " Era " 

Road Congbess Members at Exdeeby. 

[Utatcooi, Bigh sir 

rouud to where closer together, and crushed in the 
operation. One of the discs is actuated by a pullev 
giving it an oscillating movement while it revolves, 
thereby greatly increasing the value of the " nip." 
There is no shattering of the stone, which is cru.shed 
to a cubical sample. The machine is readilv ad- 
justable to afford a range in the size of product, and 

-Manganese Steel for positions where the service 
is iniusually severe. The patent "Hecla" Tramway 
Switch is a speciality largely adopted on account of 
Its great efficiency, as are Hadfields' steel-tyred wheels 
for electric traction on account of their exceptional 
lengtli of running life. 
We have not the necessary space to describe all the 

JuLV 4, 1913. 



^'eiieral woik Hadfields UKuiufacture, but under this 
Iieadiiig can be included practically every class o£ 
casting made in steel, from huge press-heads, housings, 
frames, &c., down to such articles as colliery wheels, 
rollers, pedestals, elevator links, and so forth. Had- 
tields were the pioneers in substituting cast-steel for 
castriron, and no belter testimony could be found 
than the fact that theirs is the largest steel foundry 
in the world. 


On Tuesday a visit was paid to the Enderby Quarries 
of the Enderby and Stoney Stanton Granite Company, 
Limited, Narborough, near Leicester. 

This company has been establislied since ISGO, and 

on arrival by Mr. H. J. Grace (chairman and manag- 
ing director of the company), and the other directors, 
Mr. F. Nowell, Mr. A. Cooper Rawson, Mr. J. A. 
Lycett, and Mr. A. Green. Among those also present 
to welcome the visitors were the Mayor of Leicester 
(Councillor J. McCall), the borough surveyor (Mr. 
E. G. Mawbey), and several county surveyors. 

The visitors were shown round the quarries and 
witnessed a blasting operation, some 1,200 tons of stone 
being displaced in three shots. The process of 
sjilitting lai'ge blocks of stone by small charges of 
powder was also seen, after which the party proceeded 
to inspect the crushing plant. The manufacture of 
tar macadam was next witnessed, but time unfor- 
tunately did not permit of more than a passing glance 


has consistently grown until it has become one of the 
largest granite quarrying industries in the United 
Kingdom. At the present time ten quarries are being 
worked in Leicestershire, and two in North Wales. 
The granite from these quarries is of a very high 
standard, and is widelj' known for its hard wearing 
qualities and resistance to atmospheric conditions. 
The kerbs, setts, and macadam are recognised as being 
some of the finest produced, and the clean cut and 

at the ingenious hauhvge plant wliich has been 
installed at the quarries. 

Subsequently at a luncheon given in the grounds 
attached to the residence of Mr. Grace — " Pen Craig " 
— Sir George Gibb, chairman of the Road Board, in 
replying to the toast of his health, remarked that all 
present had been interested in seeing the famous 
Enderby quarries, the product of which was popular 
throughout a very large portion of England. What 

Endeuby Hill Quarry. 

uniform grain of the stone renders it extremely suitable 
for setts for tramway purposes and paving generally. 
The great durability of the stone and its non- 
slipperiness are also well known. The company are 
manufacturers also of dressed masonry, channel stones, 
broken stone for macadam, tarred stone and chippings, 
chippings or screenings for concrete, &c. , stone for 
bacteria beds, and rubble for road foundations. In 
addition the company are licensed producers for Durax 
Dustless Roads. The large area of stone worked, and 
the railway and tramway sidings connected with the 
works, ensure a regular dispatch of materials. 

Tuesday's visitors to the quarries numbered between 
fifty and sixty, and included representatives from all 
parts of Europe, America and Japan. They were met 

they had seen wa 
worked quarry. 

very fine example of a well- 
CTo he continued.) 

A New Road Material. — With a view of obtaining 
a load surface whicli will give a l)etter resistance to 
automobile traffic, experiments are being made 
again in France with a road-bed material consisting 
of a mixture of "iron straw," or iron in the shape 
of a wiry or fibrous mass, together with cement 
mortar and sand. Such material is called " ferro- 
cement," and it a|)ears from tests that it is giving 
good results. The iron is specially prepared by suit- 
able machines, and it is claimed that the resulting 
material is not over-expensive. 



July 4, 1913. 

Assistants' and Students' Section. 

Conducted bt SYDNEY G. TURNER, assoc.m.insi.c*. 

^11 communicottoM in regard to th« jiago must Uadiressed to The 
E^torVsi. Uride'8 House, ii Uride-lane, Fleet-street. E.G. i;»-l^n«. 
must be marJ:«d •* jBswtants' 

ction" in the to,' ieft- 
nled to sufcBUt ju»stwn» for comiierat 


The Premium for June is divided between — 
Mr. E. D. Alexaxdek. 
Council Offices, 

Mr. F. Nicholson, 

County Surveyoi's Ottice. 

whose contributions have, in the opinion nf the 
.adjudicators, been the best received during the month. 


This week answers are invited to the following 
questions: — 

325. Air Compressors. — How is the size of an air 
receiver calculated in connection with an air com- 
pressor ? Of what thickness of metal would it be 
made if (1) of cast iron, (2) wrought iron, assuming it 
had to withstand a pressure of from 151b. to 401b. ? 
Give any further particulars regarding same. 
(" Griffo.") 

330. Sewage Disposal. — Design a small sewage dis- 
posal svstem for a gentleman's residence, capable of 
dealing with 500 gallons per day. The sewage is 
fairly strong on account of the drainage from a small 
cowshed. The available fall can be neglected, and 
the earth is of a sandy-clay nature. State approximate 
cost. The eflSuent should discharge into a soakaway. 
(" Inky.") 

333. Sewage Tank Construction. — What is a suitable 
formula for calculating the requisite thickness of 
.sew'age tank walls? Give an example. ("Check.") 

334. Sewerage What would be the flattest 

gradient allowable for 6-in., 7-in. and 8-in. sewers 
respectively, to give a self-cleansing velocity ? What 
is a good modern book on sewerage and sewage dis- 
posal, giving tables of velocity and discharge ? 
(" Urban.") 

335. Surveying. — Describe a method of ascertain- 
ing true north, with sufficient accuracy for a small 

336. Foundations.— Draw plan and section of a 
ferro-concrete foundation 7 ft. square, on light soil, 
to carry a load of 25 tons from a stanchion with a 
base 2 ft. 3 in. square. 

CThe Editor is at all times glad to hear from 
readers who desire to submit questions regarding: 
matters of general interest, points of daily practice, 
&c., for insertion in the "Assistants' and Students' 
Section." Questions which are published are taken 
into consideration, as well as other matter, in 
awarding the Monthly Premium.] 


331. Sewerage.— In the case of the oval sewer in 
the sketch, 5,790 lin. yds. long, having a total 
fall from inlet to outlet 15 ft., what flow will be dis- 
charged when quarter, half, three-quarters, and 
full ? 

[The following additional reply to this question afioi-ds 
a useful comparison of the results obtained by the use 
of the different formula'.] 

If any degree of accuracy is required the best 
formula to use is, of course, the Ganguillet-Kutter 
formula, but on account of its complexity it is not so 
widely used in this country as the more convenient 
Chezy formula. However, since a simplihed form of 
the Kutter formula has been given by the late Jlr. P. J. 
Flynn, the chief objection to the original Kutter 
formula is done away with. The Chezy formula 
(v = tVR X S) assumes the constant c to be the 
same for all surfaces and does not take into account 

to til* questions ychich appear. Tor th« contrtbutioiu conniera^ 
to he the most meritorious, on< or more premiums \n hooks vill he 
aicarded vionthly. Diagram* must be drawn to ecalt on separate iPveete, 
ready for rejwoductwn. 

any change in the value of VR. As a result of 
this, too high velocities are obtained for small 
sewers and too low velocities for large sewers. 
Mr. Flyivn's formula' is of the form 


and since there are tables giving the values of k and 
.. for different surfaces, it does not give much more 
trouble to find the correct value of the constant. 

As it does not state of what material the sewer is 
composed, we will assume as a good average that the 
value of )( = 0018, this being the value for brickwork 

Sketch Accompanying Question 331. 

in good condition, 
and .!• = 0'.578 
n = O'Cin. 

J full 
k full 
i full 

From the tables we get 7> = 183'8 
for the corresponding value of 

A'alue of c 
~1 -I- £ 





= -029 

, -.VT=^' 

3 X o79U 1158 1158 

(1) When HowiDg full: — 

V = 125-36 X 1-245 x 029 
= 4-526 feet per sec. 

A = 1-148 ff- = 1-148 X 5-3- = 3267 square feet, 
g = V X A = 4-526 X 32-67 

= 147-864 cubic feet per sec. 

(2) When flowiiig } full :— 

V = 127 79 X 1-319 X -029 
= 4-837 feet per sec. 

A = -8795d2 = -8795 x 5-3= = 24-71 square feet. 
(J = V X A = 4887 X 24-71 

= 120 758 cubic feet per sec. 

(3) When llowing \ full ;— 

V = 123-95 X 1-197 X -029 
= 4-303 feet per sec. 

A = -5091d= = -5091 x 5-3'^ = 14-30 square feet. 
Q = V X A = 4-303 X 14-30 

= 61533 cubic feet per sec. 

(4) Wheu flowing J full : — 

V = 116-64 X 1004 X -029 
= 3-396 feet per sec. 

A = -1862(i- = -1862 x 5-3= = 523 square feet. 
Q = y X A = 3-396 X 5-23 

= 17763 cubic feet per sec. 

(A. E.F., AltnUfn) 

July 4, 1913 



The Surveyor 

Bn^ flDuniclpal anb Ccimt'e Enofnccr. 


Animal Growths in Water Pipes 

Appointments Vacant 

Assistants' and Students' Section ... 

Association of Consulting Engineers 


Eritli Sewage Disrosal Works 

Institution of Municipal and County Engineers ; Notices ... i 

Icstitution of Water Engineers: Summer General Meeting .at 

Liability for Flooding 

Local Government Board Inquiries 


Municipal Competitions Open 

Municipal Contracts Open 

Municipal Engineers and Consultants 

Municipal Work in Progress and Projected ... 

Old Roadmen at Haverfordwest 

Overpayment for Water Supply 


Pollution by Sewage of Water Supplies in Canada 

Recent Publications 

Relations of the Consulting Engineer and the Municipal 

"Road Oiling" 

Koyal Sauitai-y Institute Congress 

Surface Tarrins of Roads : Penetration or Absoii)tion 

Tenders lor Municipal Works or Supplies 

Third International Eoad Congress : Closing Meeting : Resolu- 
tions of the Congress : A Suggestion for the Future 

Treatment of Sewage Discharged in Tidal Waters 

Water Supply of Jersey 

Wood Paving in Camberwell 

332. Roadmaking. — What is the best form of 
cross-section for the surface of a macadam road ? Give 
rc.i.sons. (" Ehu.") 

The hest form of cross-section of a macadam road 
is a subject upon which there is considerable diversity 
of opinion, but generally speaking a cross-section of 
the form of a very flat ellipse is undoubtedly the best. 
as it has the advantage over that consisting of a 
segment of a circle of giving flatter side slopes, with- 
out at the same time having the objection of liability 
to wearing hollow, as when the haunches are formed 
by straight lines as advised by some engineers. 

The form of road, quality and thickness of 
materials to be adopted, will necessarily depend upon 
the situation and the amount and the nature of the 
traffic that is proposed to be accommodated. For 
country roads where the traffic is comparatively 
small and light a coating of about 10 in. of broken 
stone spread upon the natural ground properly shaped 

place if the traffic was equally distributed o\er the 
whole roadway. 

The cross-section shown illustrates a type of road 
which can be advantageously adopted where there is 
a moderate amount of traffic. 

In setting out a cross-section much depends upon 
the class of material proposed to be used. Roads 
repaired with flints or similar material should have 
a cross-fall of 1 in 24- from the centre, with brokeu 
granite 1 in 3(5. (H. B., Barnalaple). 


By Major W. W. Crosby. 
The Surveyor (p. 591, issue of April 11th last) in- 
vites the writer's opinion of a view it has frequently 
expressed— namely, "that there is a wide field for a 
system of (road) crust maintenance which consists 
in preserving the surface during the summer by 
tarring or carpeting nicely proportioned to the traffic, 
allowing the carpet, film, or tarry surface to wear 
out, and giving the road a period of recuperation 
during which the crust is smoothed out by the traffic, 
partly by consolidation when it is wet, partly by 
rolling out under wheels when it is plastic, and 
partly by wear of the surface when it is dry— during 
this period small constant repair to be in full force." 

It seems that first there should be a clear under- 
standing — apparently now somewhat lacking— as to 
the writer's meaning in the use of the word 
" carpet." Under the heading, " Limits of Carpeting 
System," in his article on "Road Carpets," as 
printed (in The Surveyor for April 11th, p. 597), he 
attempted to suggest his definition of a carpet, but 
a further description seems advisable. He said: 
"k carpet is an appreciable thickness of cementi- 
tious material mixed with a mineral or other aggre- 
gate " — i.e., such a mixture must, to be a "carpet," 
have an appreciable thiciness, whether it be Vg- in. or 
i in., over the surface of the macadam. It is diffi- 
cult, and perhaps unnecessary to specify the mini- 
mum thickness, but to put it another way, a road 
would not be considered "carpeted" if the stones 
of the macadam show in the surface. 

Later the writer endeavoured to differentiate 
between his idea of a "carpet" and of a "sheet 
pavement" by limiting the use of the latter term 
to those mixtures prepared previous to spreading on 
the road surface or foundation, and thus making 
"carpets" apply only to thin sheets (how thin ?— 
well, for illustration mainly, say, | in. or "less) made 
in situ. 

Now, if we are ready to consider sheets (of, say, 
pitch mixed with sand or grit) of appreciable thick- 
ness (covering and hiding from view the stones of 
the macadain) as " carpets " (or sheet pavements). 

Ceoss Section Illustrating Reply to Question on Road Making. 

will be adequate. For main roads carrying fast and 
heavy traffic a solid ballasted foundation with an 
even coating of about 4 in. of tough broken granite 
will be necessary, so that the road may be as hard 
and durable as possible, in order that loads may be 
conveyed over it at a minimum expenditure of 
tractive power. 

The whole width of a roadway should be con- 
structed uniformly both as regards quality of 
materials and thickness of coating. A common and 
erroneous opinion is that the depth of material in 
the middle of the road should be greater than at the 
sides, and the practice of -ballasting the centre with 
10 ft. or 1-2 ft. of hard material such as granite or 
trap rock, and making the haunches of a weaker 
material, is a bad one, as the sides soon get out of 
repair, and the consequence is that all vehicles are 
forced into the centre track of the road, thus at 
least doubling the wear and tear which would take 

what of the pitching, tarring, &c., of a macadam up 
to the point of forming a "carpet"? 

In the United States this lighter treatment is 
generally referred to, for convenient differentiation 
probably, as "oiling," and the writer mentioned this 
process, somewhat briefly perhaps, in the earlier 
part of his former paper. Again, later, he said: 
" There may be travel conditions just too severe for 
support without damage by ordinary macadam, and 
yet not severe enough to warrant the construction 
of a 'carpet' on the surface of the latter. In such 
eases the simple treatment occasionally — say 
annually— of the macadam with a proper oil, tar or 
pitch compound has proved entirely satisfactory and 
economical. In such cases no appreciable thickness 
of carpet is formed on the macadam, and the stones 
of the latter still continue to take the wear, though 
they do not then loosen and become displaced as 
they would without the pitch applications." 

From the foregoing it will probably be seen that 


^Me surveyor and municipal 

July 4, 191.3, 

the writer agrees with The Surveyor's opinion, first 
HVioted, at least in general. The extent of the field 
for "oiling" i.''. he thinks, mainly bounded by travel 
conditions, and must be found within certain limits 
of them. Beyond these travel limits the experience 
of the United States has seemed to prove "oiling" 
iinsatisfactory, and a "carpet," or something even 
hipre substantial, necessary. 

The writer will not attempt to indicate, by any 
(expression in travel-units, the limit for successful 
biling under known conditions of soil, road crust, 
&c., further than to refer briefly to the proved fact 
tliat an ajiparent "rotting" of the macadam, an 
intensely disagreeable, slimy mud, and a pitting or 
potholing of the road crust have resulted from "oil- 
ing" where an excess of "blinder" existed in the 
macadam, where the earth adjacent to the road has 
been of a clayey nature, when wet weather was pre- 
valent during the early part of the "oiled" condition 
of the road, and where the ratio of motor to horse- 
■dra vn travel was considerable. These defects from 
"oiling" have been overcome by a proper "carpet" 
in many eases, though in some recourse had finally 
to be had to a "sheet pavement." 

The Surveyor refers to another consideration 
which does not seem to the writer to carry as much 
weight outside of England as it may there — that is, 
the giving of a chance to the road crust proper to 
be smoothed out and compacted periodically by 

It seems to the writer that to the English practice 
of incorporating in their macadam a considerable 
amount of earthy material, or "blinder," may be 
largely attributed the tendency to displacement of 
such crusts under certain conditions. Also the 
moisture of the English climate may be pjartly re- 
sponsible. In the United States the best and largest 
practice seems to be to avoid carefully the presence 
in macadam of any fine material except .stone dust 
or sand, and there has been no appreciable need of 
smoothing or compacting such macadam periodically, 
provided, of course, that the sub-grades or founda- 
tions are proper. 

The shifting of macadam (not of the "carpet") 
linto humps has seldom, if ever, taken place in the 
IDiiited States, even .under the heaviest travel, unless 
fhe macadam corttained in its interstices clayey 
material, and thea the shifting tendency has gene- 
rally been increased by the application of oily pitch 
compounds, especially during wet-weather periods. 

A "carpet" will frequently move laterally or shift 
as above when the pitch compound used m it is too 
oily, when the carpet is too thick for the size of its 
aggregate, or when the traffic is too .severe. 

In neither case has it seemed possible to remedy 
the shifting satisfactorily by rolling either by 
niachine or by traffic. 

The writer has made some investigations and ex- 
periments bearing on these very points, and has 
found that the " oiling " treatment will give satis- 
factory protection against far greater travel where 
the macadam is free from earthy or cla.yey material, 
or where even the adjoining soil likely to be tracked 
on the road crust in question, from the verges or from 
the cross roads, is sandy rather than loaniv or 

In view of the foregoing, he thinks that the " oil- 
ing" treatment has even a wider field in the United 
States than in England, though he admits his some- 
what limited acquaintance witli English conditions. 
Tlie need for care and .skill in the selection and appli- 
cation of the pitch to tie used need not be discussed 

In conclusion, permit the writer to record again 
his oft-stated lielicf that in highwav engineering, as 
in all else, "All things luive theiir place." The 
science of the i)rofes.sion is the correct diagnosis of 
the problem, and then the proper selection of pre- 
scription of its .solution. The ait of the profession 
is in the i>roper execution of tlie work, and each 
most assuredly, in both "oiling" and "carpeting." 
should play their part. 

City of London Street Widening.— At a meeting of 
the City of London Corporation on Wednesday, the 
Improvements and Finance Committee brought uj) 
a report, which was adopted, recommending the 
acquisition at a cost of about .£18,0(XI of leasehold 
and other interests in houses required for the widen- 
ing of Loadenhall-street, and an expenditure of 
.t3.4(H) in connection with the widening of Flcct- 


For every ill beneath the sun 
There is some re/nedy cr none; 
If there fie one, resolve to find it : 
If not, submit, and never mind it. 

—Anon., circa 1SJ3. 


To the Editor of The Surveyor. 

SiK, — The present position of this Association is yet 
sufficiently indefinite to justify an effort on the part of 
those interested to modify the Bcheme of operations 
which has been so far proposed and adopted. Rules 
have been drafted and apparently adopted by the existing 
members, articles of association have also been pr&t 
pared for submission to the Board of Trade, and much 
trouble and expense have been incurred, and unless the 
movement is promptly placed upon a proper footing the 
result must prove abortive so far as the objects in view 
are concerned. 

The object of the present letter is to show in what 
respects the Association has gone astray and how the 
mistakes may be corrected before it is too late. 

The need for an association to organise and bring 
together the consulting members of the profession is so 
obvious that it is unnecessary to elaborate the point ; it 
is further confirmed by the fact that several Continental 
and foreign countries have formed several associations, 
and an international conference of similar bodies is 
being held this month in connection with the Exhibition 
at Ghent. The promoters of the English Association 
have, however, definitely avoided the adoption of a 
programme on lines adopted by other similar bodies, 
and have, for all practical purposes, concentrated 
attention upon the one questionof professional conduct — 
that is, the maintenance of a certain standard of integrity 
with provision for exclusion from membership in cases 
of proved default. Thus those who have joined the 
Association up to the present have, at any rate by 
inference, undertaken to adopt the standard set forth in 
the rules and to adhere strictly to it in practice ; more- 
over the confessed intention of the promoters has been, 
and still is, definitely to associate the members with 
certain rules of professional conduct, and to create an 
impression among those who employ consulting engineers 
that the members are prepared to adopt a higher standard 
of integrity than non-memlers, and it would be very 
interesting to know how many of the existing members 
have joined the Association mainly because, by not 
joining, they might be assumed to be unable or unwilling 
to adopt the standard set up by the rules. 

Xow, while membership is based solely upon this 
standard, the Association is bound, either on the one 
hand to leave many eminent and fully qualified con- 
sulting engineers under a ban as presumably unwilling 
to adopt an arbitrary standard of practice, or, on the 
other hand, to exert such pressure upon practising mem- 
bers of the profession to join the Association as to amount 
to a form of blackmail. 

It is also very unsatisfactory that the profession 
should, by establishing an organisation on this limited 
basis, assume and publicly intimate that unprofessional 
conduct is sufficiently common to require such drastic 
measures to prevent it. Here it should be noted that 
there can be no objection to members of the profession 
considering and agreeing mutually to accept a standard 
of professional conduct, but that serious mischief will 
be done by the publication of such a standard outside 
the profession, and particularly by the association of 
some with, and the exclusion of others from, a standard 
which, until unanimously adopted by the profession as a 
whole, must be considered arbitrary, and one which is, 
as a matter of fact, impossible. 

The main feature of the rules governing membeiship 
of the Association is the exclusion of aU those who may 
have an interest direct or indirect in manufacturing or 
contracting work, or in patents. Now, to review the 
history of engineering during a period of less than a 
century reveals the fact that many of the most wonderful 
and useful advances made by the profession have been 
made by engineers engaged in manufacturing or contract- 
ing, and the profession of consulting engineer pure and 
simple is merely a refinement or subdivision of functions, 
introduced in those departments of engineering which 
have become standardised by universal application. In all 
modern developments such as motor cars, aviation, sub- 
marme motors, and in many other branches of engineer- 
ing, the consulting engineer cannot possibly practise 

July 4. 1913. 



unless he is associated with the manufacture of the 
machines or apparatus involved, and it is a needless 
and undeserved stigma upon the profession at large to 
suggest that interest in manufacture or contracting work 
necessarily implies an inability to give sound and dis- 
interested advice to a client. 

Another and more useful element in the rules of the 
Associatijn is the endeavour to prevent unfair competi- 
tion between members of the profession. There are, no 
doubt, cases where laxity of principles and the increasing 
disproportion between the number of consulting engi- 
neers and ihe amount of work available have led 
members of the profession to violate the laws which 
should govern the relations between ccmpetiag jrofes- 
sionals; but surely this subject should be dealt with 
lirivalely, ami as privately as pjssi't^c, if the honour and 
dignity of the profession are to be maiu'.aiued or 
improved. It seems to the last degree undignified 
publicly to proclaim the fact that certain members of the 
profession are prepared to act honourably by their fellow- 
professionals, and leave the uninformed public to assume 
that the others are guilty or capable of improper 

One other point arising out of the constitution of the 
Association will, with what has already been advanced, 
suffice to show the necessity for amending the constitu- 
tion as soon as possible. 

The efficiency of the Association for the main purpose 
they profess to carry out will only be demonstrated when 
the necessity arises to exercise the powers conferred 
on the committee in regard to the expulsion of members, 
because in the iQeantime it is inevitable that minor 
breaches of ihe rules will be constantly siispeHed, even 
if not actually practised, and until an example is made 
of some defaulter there will be no means of proving 
that the ruks are capable of enforcement. Thus the 
Association will only acquire real influence and strength 
by the exercise of a function of the most delicate and 
difficult character, and at the same time it seems almost 
certain that action of this kind would involve such 
vmpleasantness, and possibly publicity, that the pro- 
fession at large and the Association in particular would, 
temporarily at least, suffer greater harm than would be 
warranted by the benefit which might ultimately accrxie. 
from what has been said above it wiU be seen that 
the chief defect of the existing constitution of the new 
Association appears to be in the limitation of its scope 
and object to one mcst delicate and difficult point with- 
out any attempt to grapple with other and more useful 
work which lies to the hand of an Association of Con- 
sulting Engineers. 

In considering how the objects can be enlarged, atten- 
tion is called to the fact that the Board of Trade will not 
grant incorporation to an association of this character 
which, by virtue of its objects or by its regulations or 
conditions, would become a Trades Union. It is there- 
fore important to observe that incorporation will be 
impossible so long as the objects are limited to the 
improvement of the position of the members alone, and 
there must be some attempt to serve a public, as well as 
a private, interest. 

Now, it seems very clear that it would not only be an 
advantage to clients and the public at large to secure a 
certain standard of qualifications, abiliiy. and experience 
in those members of the profession who undertake con- 
sulting work, but also an incalculable advantage to those 
members who have spent many years and much money 
in acquiring proiicieucy iu their profession, and surely 
such an object would be far more worthy of effort than 
the securing of professional integrity according to a 
standard which cannot but be an arbitrary one. 

The committee's report for the year I'Jll' contains a 
scheme adopted by the American Institute of Consult- 
ing Engineers for standardising fees, and there seems 
no justification for the committee to have shirked this 
question as they have done. It is only necessary to 
standardise minimum fees, and no one would ask that 
rates of remuneration should be "stereotyped." This 
point, however, could hardly be dealt with unless a 
standard of minimum qualifications (experience) were 
also provided. 

The committee also publish a lengthy paragraph deal- 
ing -with the appointment of Government and municipal 
officials as consulting engineers, but make no practical 
suggestion to remedy a state of affairs which constitutes 
a far more serious menace to the consulting profession 
than the failure of some members to observe strict pro- 
fessional eticiuette. This is the growing practice of 

incompetent salaried officials undertaking (either volun- 
tarily or under compulsion) to carrj- out work of which 
they have no experience, and which they can only do by 
obtaining all their information from contractors. Note 
that it is impossible and absurd to try and prevent a 
qualified engineer from t^upplementing a salary by fees 
if allowed to do so by his employer. It would, however, 
be an advantage to the profession and the public if 
uuqualified men could be prevented from executing work 
beyond their sphere of knowledge and experience. 

Similarly it would be a mutual advantage to the con- 
tractors as well as to professional men if some means 
could be found to prevent incompetent men or inex- 
perienced youths obtaining instruction and help from 
contractors without them.^chcx paying for it. 

The above are a few of the points which, although 
mentioned in the committee's report and in correspon- 
dence from the Secretary, are unprovided for in the 
constitution of the Association, while attention is concen- 
trated on details of professional etiquette. 

The object of this communication is to induce the 
committee of the Association at once to extend the scope 
of its functions, but, should this not be done, it seems 
necessary to urge consulting engineers to withhold their 
support in the interests of those who may not feel them- 
selves sufficiently slrcng and independent to remain out- 
side for fear of being classed as liable to unprofessional 
conduct. — Yours, &:., 

Percy Grifiith. 

20, Victoria-street, S.W. 
•luly 2, 1913. 


To Ihe Editor of Tee Suhveyor. 

Sir, — Referring to the articles by Mr. Ailken in your 
last two issues, 1 do not think that some of the state- 
ments contained therein should go unchallenged. I 
have not suiface tarred himdreds of miles of roads, but I 
do enough of this work every year to satisfy myself that 
all penetration of tar into the crust of the road is due to 
absorption, and how it can possibly be asserted that a 
machine passing over the surface can by pressure squirt 
tar into the body of the road passes my comprehension. 
The gravitation machine, says Mr. Aitken, " squirts tar 
over the road " — well, so does a pressure machine, except 
that the " squirting " is a little more forceful. I thought 
by this time that it was an accepted fact that the pene- 
tration is first and last a question of absorption. I find 
in many cases in tar painting by hand — a primitive 
method according to Mr. Aitken— that the tar pene- 
trates {i.e., is absorbed) into the road to a depth of li in. 
to 'J in., and the depth of the absorption is only regu- 
lated by the age and condition of the road and the 
temperature during tarring operations. 

Mr. Aitken refers to a case where, on the first 
treatment of a road, the tar was aU absorbed into the 
road, practically disappearing, and he suggests that the 
tar was actually driven into the road by his machine ! I 
have roads where the same amount of penetration 
(absorption) has happened with hand treatment. 

I have nothing to say against machine pressure 
sprayers, which, as far as I have observed, are very 
suitable for the purpose of sjiraying large areas of road, 
and make an excellent job ; but I do question the extra- 
ordinary claim of Mr. Aitken, that if the tar is required to 
penetrate the crust of a road it must be applied by a 
high-pressure machine. 

I almost feel I ought to apologise for setting forth the 
foregoing few lines, which, I fear, must be regarded as 
very elementary facts by most of your readers. — 
Yours, Ac , 


July i, 191.:; 

[Letters on the subject of the Surveyors' Institution 
examinations, from "Asking no Favours" and 
" A.R.I. B.A.," are unavoidably held over until next 
week.— Ed. The Sukveyor.] 

Croydon's Open Spaces Pollard's-hill recreation 

ground, Norbury. was formally opened on \Vednes- 
day. Croydon "now possesses two 22-aere green 
.spaces, and this latest addition covers more than -^ 
acres at the summit of the hill. It commands splen- 
did views of the surrounding country. 



July 4, 1913. 


T>n i'dilor invito tht co-operation 0/ SuBTITOB readtrt frith a »%»« 
to truikinff th« in/ormatum given under thit head m* comylet* (ml 
Meurati ae ^wt^U. 

Dorchester T.C. (Juno 16th. Mr. K. H. Bicknell). 

— cy.jO for works of surface-water drainage, and £400 
for llie construction of an underground sanitary con- 
venience at the junction of South-street and Triiiity- 
street.— The borough surveyor, Mr. H. D. Strange, 
submitted sections and full particulars of tlie surface- 
water drains and connections to be laid. The council 
had, subject to the approval of the board, accepted 
the tender of Jlessrs. Saunders, of Poole, at £278. 
The inspector expressed the opinion that cei-tain 
sections of the pipes would need the protection of 
concrete, and he asked the surveyor to calculate the 
extra cost of this and let him know, so that the board 
might sanction a loan for the whole amount required, 
though probably the £3.50 applied for would be found 
a covering sum. The borough surveyor also submitted 
the plans for the underground public convenience. 

Dudley T.C. (June 2.3th. Mr. Edgar Dudley).— 
£1,100 for the purchase of propei-ty in King-street and 
Hall-street for purposes of street improvement. — Mr. 
J. S. Morris (deputy town clerk) explained that the site 
consisted of 660 sq. yds., on which stood a building 
formerly used as a political club and several houses 
with shops. It was proposed to demolish these build- 
ings and round off the corner of Hall-street and King- 
street. This public improvement would i-equire the 
utilisation of 113 sq. yds., and the remainder of the 
area would be offered for sale. 

Kettering U.D.C. (June 12th. Mr. M. K. North). 

— Cl.ftM) for laying a new feeder iu connection with 
the electricity undertaking, and £5,600 for alteration.-; 
and additions to the public baths. — There was no 
opposition with respect to the proposed loan for elec- 
tricity plant. With regard to the public baths, the 
surifeyor, Mr. T. E. Smith, stated that it was proposed 
to convert the central part of the existing buildings 
into a ticket ofiBce with a public entrance on each 
side, enlarging the caretaker's house and converting 
the present large open batli into two, a covered one 
75 ft. by 35 ft., and an open one 120 ft. by 43 ft.. to- 
gether with the erection of five slipper baths, a vapour 
hath, sliower bath.-;, dressing boxes and sheds. 

Newbiggin-by-the-Sea U.D.C. (June 18th. Mr. 
.\. W. BnL'litiiiuiei. — £1.600 for .street improvement, 
and ti.iiiiU ior the construction of an outfall sewer. — 
The clerk, :Mr. J. Jardin. stated that the district luul 
extended very quickly since 1910, the rateable value 
in the last three years having gone up from £8,577 t'.> 
G18,4()0. There was no opposition. 

West Hartlepool T.C. (July 1st. Mr. H. R. 
Hooper). — £4,330 for electricity purposes. — The money 
was required, the inspector was informed, to purchase 
convei-ting plant in connection with the supplying of 
electric current to the tramways. Hitherto the trams 
have been run by current from a generating station 
at Greenlands, midway between the Hartlepools. This 
station was taken over by the corporation when they 
purchased the tramways, but it was stated that the 
plant there was now inefficient and inadequate. Con- 
sequently it is intended to supply the current required 
lor the trams from the new waste heat station. The 
plant at the old tramway station is to be " scrapped," 
and in this connection the inspector observed, ' The 
position, then, is this — You have gone to one depart- 
ment to borrow money for the purchase of this plant. 
and you come to another department to borrow money 
to enable you to ' scrap ' that which you have pur- 
chased." "We can't help that," replied the town 
clerk (Mr. Higson Simpson). "It is not an uncommon 
experience in cases of tramways ])ur(liase to ' scrap ' 
the whole thing." 


Athlone No. 1 R.D.C.— £12,1.39 for labourers" 

Birkenhead T.C— £4,S00 for a school site. 

Birmingham T.C— €42,000 for street widenings. 

Denbighshire CC— C.),000 for an infants' school 

lor Rhosdflu, 

Eastleigh U.D.C— £3,134 for street improvement 

Gloucester T.C— £.5,250 for water mains extensions. 

Hayfield R.D.C— £1,000 for works of sewerage. 

Kingsbridge R.D.C — £2S0 for water supply works. 

Lancaster T.C. — £1,.577 for the construction of con- 

North Dublin R.D.C. — £3,200 for sewerage and a 
water scheme. 

Nuneaton T.C. — £1,250 for converting two primary 
beds into percolating filters. 

Sherborne U.D.C. — £15,000, revised cost of sewage 
disposal and sewerage scheme. 

SligO CC — £3,830 for main road improvement 

Stoke-on-Trent T.C. — £2,.500 for a new fire station, 
and £-5,150 for a domestic and manual instruction 

Swineford (Ireland) R.D.C. — £18,763 for labourers' 

Upton-on-Severn R.D.C— £10.000 for a water supply 


Bangor U.D.C— £11,360 for vertical retorts at the 
gasworks, and £-500 for street improvements. 

Barrow-ln-Furness T.C. — £2,341 for a secondary 

Carshalton U.D.C. — £.300 for street widening. 

Chelmsford T.C— £22,971 lor the erection of IOC 
working-class dwellings. 

Haltwhistle R.D.C— £4,000 for a water supply 

Hebden Bridge U.D.C. — £3,2^50 for extensions at 
electricity works. 

Keighley T.C. — £6,800 for a turbo-alternator for the 
electricity works, and £1,100 for a water tower. 

Lancaster T.C. — £1.625 for the construction of public 

Nuneaton T.C. — £1,0.50 for works of sewerage. 

Skipton R.D.C. — £940 in connection with the Eastby 
sewage disposal scheme. 

SligO CC — £385 for steam rolling plant. 

Stafford T.C. — £12.000 for the erection of artisans' 

Todmorden T.C. — £1,800 for storm-water tanks. 

Wallasey T.C — £81,2.50 for the erection of the town 
hall on the North Meade site, Seacombe, and £22,000 
for meters, lamps, cookers, and appliances. 

Westbourne R.D.C — ,£400 for a new water supply. 


JULY. £ 

7, — Biggleswade. For a housing scheme 

(Mr. H. S. Stewart) 3,800 

S, — Burton-upon-Trent. For the provision 
of a duplicate rising main (ilr. T. C. 

Ekin) 4,000 

8. — Devonport. For the water undertaking 

(Mr. W. O. E. Meade-King) 8,330 

8. — Finchley. For open space and road 
improvement purposes (ilr. Edgar 

Dudley) 4,900 

8. — Swansea. For electricity purposes 

(Major J. Stewart) ..." 40,000 

9. — Maidens and Coombe. For sewage dis- 
posal works, and the provision of a 
refuse destructor (Mr. P. ~Sl. Cros- 

thwaite) 10,.508 

9.— Stalybridge. For the provision of elec- 
tricity plant (Mr. T. C. Ekin) 22.5.50 

10. — Brighton. For street improvement works 

(Mr. M. K. North) .5,774 

10. — Carlisle. For the provision of public 

offices (Mr. A. B. L0W17) 1,600 

10. — Lymington. For sewage disjiosal works 

(Mr. R. G. Hetherington) 20,468 

10. — Paddlngton. For the provision of public 

baths (Mr. Edgar Dudley) 20,000 

10.— St. Annes-on-the-Sea. For electricity 
purposes and laving out the esplanade 

(Mr. T. C. Ekin) " 5,600 

1". — Taunton. For water supply purposes 

(Mr, W, O. E. Meade-King) 6.2-50 

11-— Wallasey. For electricity, water, and 

recreation purposes (Mr. T. C. Ekin) ... 21.8-59 
11.— Winchester. For the extension of the 

Guildhall (Mr. M. K. North) 6,701 

July 4, 1913. 



Municipal Worii in Progress and Projected. 

Tkm SHt*r invitu tKf e<M>p«raHo» of Subtstob rsadert with a vine to malein^ 

accural at po$*ihl». 

nftrmation givtn un<I«r tkU hMi4 oj compUU utU 

The loUovviiig are among tlie more iiiiijoitaiit pro- 
jected works of which particulars appear below : 
Buildings— Cardiff £11.500, Dublin £43,000, Seven- 
oaks £4,000; housing and town planning — ^Prestatyn; 
roads and materials — Chelmsford £7,700, Rotherham ; 
.-sewerage and sewage disposal — Windermere ; water 
sujiply, gas and electricity — Ipswich, Doncaster. — 
Particulars of other works projected will be found 
on our "Local Government Board Inquiries" page. 


Aberdeen T.C.— The Links and Parks Committee 
recommend the extension of the esplanade, at an 
estimated cost of £5,360. 

Barnsley T.C.— The public baths are to be extended 
at a cost of about £6,565. The new block will be 
built at the rear of the existing baths, and will pro- 
vide a swimming bath 75 ft. by 35 ft., around which 
the seating accommodation and dressing boxes will 
be on the amphitheatre plan. There are also shower 
baths, twenty-four slipper baths, and a club-room. 

Brighton T.C.— Tlie Pavilion Committee have in- 
structed Mr. C. E. Layton to prepare sketch plans 
and a description of the structural alterations which 
he suggests should be made to the Royal Pavilion, 
submitting, in the first instance, that part of the 
scheme dealing with the proposed rearrangement of 
the cloak-rooms. 

Campbeltown T.C ^Plans have been passed for a 

sanatorium pavilion at the combination hospital, 
towards the cost of which £1,000 has been given by 
Miss Greenlees. 

Cardiff T.C The city engineer, Mr. W. Harpur, 

has submitted to the Markets Committee plans of the 
proposed Roath market extensions, at an estimated 
cost of £11,500. The scheme includes the provision 
of cold storage and extension of the carcase market 
and slaught«r-houses. Proposals are also being con- 
sidered for new weights and measures buildings. 

Dublin T.C. — The question of providing a muni- 
cipal art gallery, at an estimated cost of £43,000, is 
being considered by a special committee of the 

Lincoln • T.C. — The council have resolved upon a 
scheme to utilise the old filter-beds at Boultham (of 
which there are .seven) for public baths. It is pro- 
posed to provide accommodation for both sexes, the 
estimated cost of the undertaking being £600. 

Lewisham B.C The borough surveyor, Mr. E. van 

Putten, has received instructions to proceed with the 
necessary drawings and estimates for the erection 
of a dispensary at Ladywell. 

Retford T.C. — A scheme is being discussed for a 
joint isolation hospital with the rural district council, 
the estimated cost being £6,000. 

SevenoaliS U.D.C. — A swimming batli is to be erected 
at an estimated cost of £4,000. 

Selby R.D.C. — The council have agreed to be re- 
sponsible for one quarter of the total cost — such pro- 
portion .not to exceed £2,500 — of the proposed new 
bridge over the Aire, provided that the Goole Rural 
District Council pay a quarter of the cost, and the 
West Riding County Council one-half, and that any 
grant received from the Roads Board be deducted 
from the total cost. 


Guildford T.C— It has been decided to l.uild 
twenty cottages at Slyfield Green. 

Llandudno U.D.C- Plans and estimates for work- 
ing-class dwellings, to cost £5,000, are under con- 

Market Boswortil R.D.C — Half an acre of land has 
been purchased at Markfield for £50 for a hou.sing 

Prestatyn U.D.C. — A committee is considering a 
scheme for the provision of workmen's dwellings, 
at an estimated cost of £2,800. 


Bridlington T.C. — It is proposed to purchase 
several acres of land, at a cost of £14,000, from j\Ir. 
Y. G. Lloyd-Greame, of Sewerby House, for the pur- 

poses of a recreation ground and park. The land 
adjoins the north sea front. At present when the 
tide is up to the sea wall there is only a restricted 
playground for the children. In the proposed park 
a lake will be constructed for model yachting and 
boating, and a cafe is to lie erected. 


Horsham U.D.C — The Local Government Board 
liave written intimating that they were prepared 
to sanction the desired loan for the proposed refuse 
destructor, not in connection with the electric light- 
ing scheme, but under the Public Health Acts. 
This, the clerk suggested, would mean a delay of 
some two months in order to comply with certain 
new formalities; while the delay would be very in- 
convenient. The council have authorised the clerk to 
interview the Local Government Board with a view 
to facilitating matters. 

Lewisham B.C The Works Committee recommend 

tlie purchase of a dust van from Messrs. Glover & 
Sons at £54. 

Portsmouth T.C — ^The rftjjort of the cleansing 
superintendent, Mr. H. Hopkin.son, shows that there 
are about 56,876 dry refuse receptacles in the town, 
consisting of sanitary bins, old tins, buckets, and 
boxes. A saving has been effected in several items 
by tlie organisation of a more efficient method in 
the carrying out of scavenging works. The intro- 
duction of the trade refuse system last January had 
caused a decrease in general refuse collection, and 
assisted the extra work to be carried out. The mile- 
age of streets scavenged amounted to 12,488 miles in 
length. The amount of water used in street water- 
ing for 1912-13 was 25,522,510 gallons. The night 
flushers (men engaged in washing the principal 
paved and asphalted thoroughfares) have expended 
5,957,360 gallons of water on this job. 


Atherton U.D.C — Street works are to be put in band 
at an estimated cost of £2,814. 

Bedweiity U.D.C — A new road from Pengam to Fair- 
view is to be constructed at a cost of £700. 

Bermondsey B.C. — The council have passed a resolu- 
tion that all men engaged in the construction and 
reconstruction and repair of roads and sewers and 
unloading of barges be given twenty minutes' allow- 
ance time in the morning. 

Bexhill T.C— A new road to Cooden Beach is to be 
constructed at a cost of £1,500. 

Birmingham T.C. — Tlie Tramways Committee have 
lieen authorised to widen Pershore - road, between 
Pebble Mill-road and the tramway terminus at Cot- 
teridge, except in Ten Acre-street, to a width of 50 ft., 
and to reconstruct the tramway in such thorough- 
fare as a double line, at an estimated cost of £68,000, 
of which £26,000 will be provided from the tramways 
reserve fund. 

Chatham T.C — £200 is to be paid for the purchase 
of property for a widening scheme at the bottom of 
East-hill, Luton. 

Chelmsford T.C — It has been agreed to pave Spring- 
field-road (to the Iron Bridge), Moulsham-street (to 
N^ew Writtle-street) and High-street (to Shire Hall) 
with wood at a cost of £7,700. It is expected that the 
Essex County Council will contribute £3,856 towards 
the cost, and application is to be made to the Road 
Board for a grant. 

Glutton R.D.C Street works estimated to cost £2,619 

are under consideration. 

East Preston (Sussex) R.D.C — The surveyor, Mr. 
C. W. Leney, having reported that owing to damage 
by the sea urgent repairs were required in two places 
in Sea-road, Rustington, he has received instructions 
to submit an estimate of the cost of reinstating the 
road to a width of 18ft. 

Haverfordwest T.C — On the recommendation of their 
borough surveyor, Mr. W. Bevan, it has been decided 
to purchase one of the Phoenix Engineering Com- 
pany's "Patent" Tar Spraying Pumps to fix on their 
vertical tar boiler. 



July 4. 191 S 

Leicester T.C.- Tlie Highways Committee looom- 
meml extensive i>uichases of land nnd property for 
the improvement of Slater-street and Frog Island. 

Lewisham B.C Tlie Works Committee recommend 

the Hcoeptance of the estimate of the borough sur- 
veyor, Mr. E. van Putten, at £104, for making \ip 

Limavady U.D.C.— The surveyor, Mr. S. Macartney, 
liavinj; uri;ed that a beginning should be made with 
steam" rolling the .streets, as these could never he 
in a satisfactory condition until they were treated in 
th.-it wav. the council have apreed to steam roll 

Newry U.D.C The question oi responsibility for road 

maintenance was discussed at a council meetins; last 
week, when the clerk announced that he had received 
a letter from the Down County Council dealing with 
the maintenance of the nuiin roads. After 
reading it he would advise the council to take no 
action in the matter at present, as it suggested that the 
district council should hand over the control of the 
main roads to the county council, and he certainly 
woidd not be in favour of their doing that. The 
chairman and the other councillors were of the same 
opinion, and ultimately it was re.solved to adjourn 
the matter till next meeting. 

Penrith R.D.C. — The council have by resolution ex- 
pressed concurrence with certain representations 
made by the Atcham Rural District Council (Shrews- 
bury) with respect to^the maintenance of roads. 
Among other things it was complained that the 
present administration of the money in the liands of 
the Road Board was most unsatisfactory both to road 
authorities and road users, When the Road Board 
was formed it was stated over and over again by 
responsible JMinisters that the funds would be used to 
ease the heavy burdens of the highway rates, instead 
of which the practice of the Road Board in making 
grants to local authorities made it conditional on 
their ahso spending money in excess of their normal 
expenditure, so that instead of easing the highway 
rate the grants tended to increase it. 


Aberdeen T.C. — Part of the sewer in Union-grove 
West is to be enlarged, and storin-water culverts are 
to be constructed in Union-grove and Holburn- 
street, at an estimated cost of £2,800. 

Faversham T.C — The surveyor, Mr. S. P. Andrews, 
at the recent council meeting reported that the new 
sewage disposal scheme had been completed, and 
that, with the exception of one or two minor adjust- 
ments, the machinery was in proper order and work- 
ing \ery satisfactorily. 

Windermere U.D.C— The tender of Messrs. Firth, of 
Derby, at £26,500, has been accepted for the contract 
in connection with the sewerage and sewage dis- 
l)nsal works scheme at Tower Wood. 


Billinge U.D.C— Particulars are to be submitted 
of a scheme for the improvement of the preliminary 
treatment of the water at Cobmoor, the construction 
of a small reservoir, and the provision of larger pumps 
for the No. 2 shaft. 

Brighton T.C— The Lighting Committee has con- 
ditionally approved a proposal by the electricity engi- 
neer to construct new mains for supplying INIouls- 
combe-place, at an estimated cost of £345." The profit 
balance on the water undertaking is £4,327. 

Doncaster R.D.C— A water supply scheme has been 
submitted to the Local Government Board for 

Hull T.C. — From the profit of last year's working 
ot the electricity undertaking a sum of £7,7.55 has been 
allocated to the reserve fund. 

Ipswich T.C— It is proposed to expend £33,000 upon 
the (-xteiisiou of the electricity undertaking. 

Sunderland T.C— The nett profit earned by the 
elect ricily undertaking last year was £6,247. 


Birmingham T.C— Several proposals for tramway 
extension and for the linking up of the various routes 
in the centre of the city came before the council at 
their meeting on Tuesday last. The scheme was 
divided into thirteen sections. Two parts met with 
the disapproval of the majority of the members, the 
proposal to link up Broad-street with Colmore-row vid 

Victoria-square being referred back to the Tramways 
Committee, and the suggestion to connect Navigation- 
street with Corporation-street vid Stephenson-street 
being rejected. All the other proposals, including 
that for a double line of tramwavs along Broad-street, 
were passed. 

Twickenham U.D.C — It has been agreed that in 
future tlie regular hours of the council's carters shall 
terminate at 1 o'clock on Satuixlays, instead of 
4 o'clock, and that work aft«r that hour shall be paid 
as overtime ; and t hat scavenging and cleansing work 
on Sundays shall be paid as overtime. 

Wick T.C. — The scavengers have had their wages 
increased by 2s. per week, and the carters increased 
bv Is. 

Institution of Municipal Engineers. — At the meeting 
of this body which, as reported elsewhere in this issue, 
was held in London on Wednesday ot last week, the 
attendance, in addition to the chairman, 'Mv. E. A. 
Stickland, borough engineer of Windsor (past- 
president), included ISIessrs. Horace Boot (London), 
vice-president ; W. Matthews Jones (Chester), vice- 
president ; C. Durie (Williton) ; John Robinson (Dar- 
lington) ; H. Blewitt (jSIutf ord and Lothingland) ; W. 
Louis Carr (Ruislip-Northwood) ; A. Angell-Smith 
(West Kensington); A. H. Dykes (London); C. C. 
Hancock (Warminster) ; J. C. Stevenson (Barton-on- 
Humber) ; Arthur Culkin (Sculcoates) ; H. Cubitt 
(London); H. C. H. Shenton (London); A. Winter 
Oray (Lambeth) ; J. C. Hooper (Hitchin) ; Geo. 
Gregson (Durham) ; Geo. Symon (Blaydon-on-Tyne) ; 
and B. Wyand, secretary of the institution. 


Mr. R. Dixon, borough engineer of Stratford-on- 
.Avon, has had his salary increased by £25 a year. 

Mr. S. O. Orchard, surveyor to the Taunton Rural 
District Council, has had his salary increased to a 
maximum of £200 a year. 

Mr. W. E. Coles, surveyor of highways to the 
Stratford-On-Avon Rural District Council, has had 
his salary increased from £175 to £200 a year. 

Mr. A. Toft, surveyor to the Bakewell Rural Dis- 
trict Council, who is retiring after thirty years' ser- 
vice, has been presented by the council with £100. 

Mr. T. Hinchcliffe, late district foreman to the 
Brighouse Corporation, has been appointed road 
foreman to the Hebden Bridge Urban District 

Mr. H. V. Snook, surveyor and inspector, to the 
Petersfield Rural District Council, has been appointed 
to similar positions under the Haslemere Urban 
District Council. 

Mr. C. F. Walker, of the Malvern surveyors' de- 
partment, has been appointed junior surveying 
assistant in the office of the countv survevor of 
Worcestershire (Mr. C. F. Gettings). " 

Mr. Jesse Ellis, late of Maidstone, Kent, will have 
the sincere sympathy of the very many municipal 
engineers to whom he is known, on the death of his 
wife, on Sunday last, after long suffering, at the age 
of sixty-three. The deceased lady was buried at 
ALvidstone yesterday. 

Mr. J. Whalley, surveyor to the Aysgarth (Yorks") 
Rural District Council, has been unanimously voted 
£20 a year for travelling expenses. He intimated to 
the council he should have to resign forthwith if 
some grant was not made, as his medical man had 
interdicted cycle riding. 

Mr. Edward Willis, surveyor to the Chiswick Urban 
District Council, has had his salary increased by 
£50 for the present year to £650, with further annual 
increments of £50 per annum on April 1, 1914. and 
the two following years, making a total ultimate in- 
crease of salary of £200 per annum. 

Mr. J. M. L. Bogle, of the city engineer's depart- 
ment, Liverpool, has been awarded the first prize oi 
£100 in the Blaekliurn town planning competition. 
Mr. Bogle is a Bachelor of Engineering of Liverpool 
University, and it is a subject for congratulation 
that a municipal engineer siiould have carried oft 
the premier honours. 

Mr. Edred Weeks, assistant in the public health 
department ot the Rural District Council of God- 

TuLY 4, 1913. 



stone, luis been ai)pointed surveyor and sanitary 
inspector to the rural district council of Petersfield, 
in succession to Mr. Howard V. Snook, who has re- 
ceived a similar appointment under the Haslemere 
Urban District Council. 

Mr. George E. Wrigley. surveyor to the Sowerby 
Bridge Urban District Council, has been apjiointed 
out of 151 applicants to tlie position of borough 
surveyor of Banbury, at a salary of £250 a year, 
rising by increments of £25 to £350. Banbury is 
just commencing a new sewerage and sewage dis- 
posal scheme, which will cost nearly £40,000. 

>rr. Ernest Minors, (EngineeringV, of the city 
engineer's department, Worcester, was on Monday 
last presented with a Worcester Royal porcelain 
afternoon tea set by the staff of that department, on 
tJie occasion of his leaving to take up the position 
of chief assistant to the borough surveyor of Darling- 
ton, to which post he was recently appointed. 

Mr. T. Collins, the surveyor to the Bishop Auck- 
land Urban District Council, has just received in- 
formation to the effect that his eldest brother, Alfred, 
has been murdered in Paraguay, the motive, it is 
understood, being robbery. It appears that the 
deceased gentleman, who, with another Englishman, 
carried on business in Paraguay, was found dead 
outside of his stores, having been shot in the back. 
Mr. A. S. E. Ackermann, (Engineering), 
Assoc.M.iNST.c.E., left England on the 1st inst. for 
Egypt for the p\irpose of testing and reporting upon 
the Shuman-Boys sun-power plant that has been 
erected near Cairo. Lord Kitchener, who recently 
inspected this plant at work, expressed the view 
that it would be a great help to the development of 
the Sudan and Upper Egypt, and wished the pro- 
moters every success. 

Mr. Edgar Purnell Hooley, m.inst.c.e., county sur- 
veyor of Notts, has been appointed a member of the 
Advisory Committee of the Road Board. Mr. Hooley 
has had a long experience in municipal and county 
engineering in all its branches. He has been from 
the first a warm advocate of direct maintenance of 
main roads, and has given expert evidence in a large 
number of main road and engineering cases in the 
law courts, at Local Government Board inquiries, 
and before Parliamentary Committees. Between 
1896 and 1902 he, wUh his then chief assistant, Mr. 
J. Sander, designed and built the new county asylum 
for Notts, entailing an expenditure of about £147,000, 
the county council making him, with his jiartner- 
assistant, a payment of £5,000 for extra services. In 
1882 he was elected a member of the Institution of 
Municipal and County Engineers, and is conse- 
quently one of the senior members. He was presi- 
dent of the institution in 1908. 

Mr. William Paton, senior assistant in the Liver- 
pool city engineer's drawing office, has retired, after 
an active career, extending well over fifty years, in 
the public service, first in the Royal Engineers as a 
superintendent of the Ordnance Survey Department, 
and the latter thirty-six years having been with the 
corporation. iMr. Paton was selected and jjlaced by 
Dr. C. F. Deacon, m.inst.c.e., the hydraulic 
engineer, in sole charge of the large surveying 
staff engaged on the site of the ijresent Lake 
Vyrnwy and its extensive watershed during 
the initial stages of the Liverpool water sup- 
ply scheme, ijreparatory to application being made 
liy the corporation for Parliamentary powers. Mr. 
Paton now retires into private life with the sincere 
wishes of his colleagues and many friends at the 
nuinicipal offices, who have presented him with a 
very_ handsome illuminated address as a token of 
their esteem. 

Mr. W. J. E. Biniiie, who jointly with Dr. H. 
Lapworth prepared the paper on " Reservoir Storage 
in Relation to Stream Flow," read at the summer 
meeting of the Institution of Water Engineers at 
Wakefield,* is forty-five years of age. He was 
^educated at Rugby School and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he olitained hononrs in the Natural 
Science Tripos. On leaving the university he studied 
engineering in Germany at the Karlsruhe Polytech- 
nic School, and was afterwards articled to Sir Alex- 
ander Binnie, his father, who was then waterworks 
engineer to the Bradford Corporation. While with 
him he was engaged on various preliminary survey 
work in connection with the Nidd Valley scheme 
for the supply of that town. He was then engaged 
• SeeiTHE Sdevetob, June 27tb. 

by the late Mr. James Mansergh, p.r.s., on the 
Parliamentary survey work for the Birmingham 
water scheme, on which he afterwards obtained an 
appointment as assistant engineer under the direc- 
tion of Mr. G. N. Yourdi, m.inst.c.e. He left the 
Birmingham waterworks to join the .staff of the late 
Sir Benjamin Baker, under whom he worked for 
many years, first as resident engineer for the 
western section of the Central London Railway, and 
afterwards as resident engineer for the Alexandria 
Graving Docks, Egypt. As his father had retired 
from his appointment as chief engineer to the 
London County Council, Mr. Binnie left Egypt in 
1902 to join him as a partner in private practice in 
Westminster, and since that date has been chiefly 
engaged in connection with hydraulic works, includ- 
ing the Alwen scheme for supplying Welsh water to 
Birkenhead, and the Taf Fechan supply for Merthyr 
Tydfil and surrounding districts. He is a Fellow 
of the Geological Society, and has contributed papers 
to the Institution of Civil Engineers and the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, among 
other bodies. 

Mr. .lohn R. Mead, who, as briefly announced in 
last week's Surveyor, has been appointed borough 
engineer of Ipswich, is only thirty-two years of age, 
but has had exceptional opportunities of gaining, 
valuable experience in the many branches of the 
profession he has adopted. From 1898 to 1905 he 
was a pupil and salaried as.sistant of Mr. George 
T. Lynam, m.inst.c.e., e.s.i., &c., borough engineer 
and surveyor of Burton-on-Trent, where, in addition 
to being engaged on bridge widenings, tramways, 
extensions to the sewage farm, and other works, he 
was for about two years resident engineer on the 

Me. John R. Mead. 

Stapenhill and Winshill sewerage scheme, which 
cost £50,000. In 1905 he was appointed general engi- 
neering assistant to Mr. Chas. Brownridge, m.inst. 
C.E., F.R.G.S., borough engineer of Birkenhead, under 
whom he carried out a large scheme for the demoli- 
tion of property, and the erection of dwellings under 
the Housing of the Working Classes Acts, the con- 
-struction of a boulevard 60 ft. wide, extensions to 
parks, design of a large main outfall sewer into the 
river, and for some two years was in charge of the 
repairs, renewals and extensions to the whole of the 
corporation's tramway tracks. Mr. Mead was in 
1911 appointed deputy borough engineer and sur- 
veyor of St. Helens, Lancashire, under Mr. Arthur 
W. Bradley, m.inst.c.e., and in that town has been 
engaged on extensions to the cemetery, culverting 
Windle Brook, erection of a Carnegie library, tuber- 
culosis sanatorium, school clinic, and new .schools, 
in addition to assisting in the supervision of about 
300 workmen, and the usual work in connection with 
sewage works, markets, parks, destructors, and 
cemeteries. The Selection Committee of the Ipswich 
Council interviewed eight candidates, three of whom 
appeared before the council, and it must be gratify- 
ing to Mr. Mead to know that he was unanimou.sly 
appointed to the office. 



Jdly -), i!iri. 


See End of Paper. 



The Council invite applications for the appointment 
of an Inspector of Nuisances to be made at their Meeting 
to be held on Tuesday, the 29th July, 1913, at No. 5 
Bancroft, llitchin, at o p.m. 

The district has an area of about 59,865 acres and a 
population of about 18,066. 

Candidates must not be less than 25 nor more than 
45 years of age. 

The salary will be £120 per annum, rising £10 per 
annum to a maximum of £15<i. 

Candidates must hold the Certificate of the Royal Sani- 
tary Institute, or a Certificate from some other similar 
examining body. 

The OiHcer appointed will be required to perform all 
the duties of an Inspector of Nuisances mentioned or 
referred to in the General Order of the Local Govern- 
ment Board dated the 13th December, 1910, together 
with the Inspection of Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milksliops, 
and the duties of an Inspector under the Housing 
(Inspection of District) Regulations, 191(1, He must 
reside in some central part of th^ district, and will be 
required to devote the whole of his time to the service 
of the Council, keep all necessary books and accounts, 
and attend all Meetings of the Council. No allowance 
■will be made for travelling or other expenses, but the 
Council will provide printing, stationery, and postages. 
The Inspector will share an office with the Surveyor. 

The appointment will be made in the first instance for 
a period of twelve calendar months, and will be subject 
to the consent of the Local Government Board and to 
ihe provisions of the said General Order of the loth 
December, 191(1. 

Applications, on forms to be obtained from the Clerk, 
to be made in the Candidate's own handwriting, endorsed 
"Inspector," to be received not later than the 19th Julv, 

Dated this 2nd day of July, 1913. 

(By order of the Coimcil) 


5 Bancroft, Hitchin, Herts. (612) 

^ DRAUGHTSMEN with knowledge of Water, 
Sewerage and Sewage Disposal Works. Apply, with 
particulars of experience, age and salary required, to 
Messrs. Willcox & Raikes, 63 Temple-row, Birmingham. 



The above Coimcil hereby invite Tenders for resur- 
facing the undermentioned Carriageways within its 
District with Asphalt, Macadam, or Bituminous Bound 
Granite, or Tarred Slag Macadam : — 

Clarina-road 343 square yards. 

Evelina-road 1,147 ,, ,, 

Melvin-road 1,565 ,, 

Ridsdale-road 3,263 ,, ,, 

Arpley-road 1,004 ,, 

Plans and Sections may be seen, and Specification and 
Copies ot the Schedule and Form of Tender obtained 
on application at the office of Mr. II. W. Longdin, the 
Surveyor to the Council, Town Hall, Anerley, on and 
after Monday next, July 7th, on payment ot one guinea, 
which will be leturned on receipt of a hond-fidc Tender. 
Sealed Tenders, endorsed " Tender for Resurfacing 
Roads," to be delivered to me, the undersigned, not 
later than 12 o'clock noon on Monday, the 14th dav of 
July. 1913. ^ 

The Council does not bind itself to accept the lowest 
or any Tender. 

(By order) 


Clerk to the Council. 
Town Hall, 

Anerley, S.E. 

3rd July, 1913. (613) 

piTY OF birmingha:\i. 

The Public Works Committee are prepared to 
receive applications for the appointment of Engineering 
Assistant in the ( 'ity Engineer and Surveyor's Depart- 
ment, at a salary of £150 per annum. 

Preference will be given to those Candidates who 
have had special experience in works ot sewerage, and ai'e 
Associate Members of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
or hold the Testamur of the Institution of Municipal 
and County Engineers. 

Age not to exceed 35 years. 

It will be a condition that the person appointed shall 
subscribe to the Superannuation Scheme, and shall 
devote the whole of his time to the duties of his office. 

Applications, in the Candidate's own handwriting, 
stating age, qualifications, present and past experience, 
together with copies of not more than three recent 
testimonials, and endorsed " Appointment of Engineer- 
ing Assistant," to be sent to the undersigned not later 
than Tuesday, the 15th instant. 

Canvassing, either directly or indirectly, wiU be 
considered a disqualification. 


City Engineer and Surveyor. 
The Council House, 

Birmingham, July, 1913. (609) 



The Corporation of the City of Coventry are prepared 
to receive applications for the following appointments : — 

(1) An Engineering Assistant at a salary of £150 per 
annum. Candidates must be thoroughly qualified 
persons, not less than 25 years of age, and must have 
had experience ia important general works of a Munici- 
pal Engineer's '3ffice. 

(2) A Junior Engineering Assistant, at a salary of 
£80 per annum. Applicants for this appointment must 
have had experience in a Municipal Engineer's Office, 
and be good draughtsmen, and able to survey and level 

.Vpplications, in (Jandidate's own handwriting, stating 
age and full details of experience, accompanied by 
copies of not more than three recent testimonials (which 
will not be returned), and endorsed " Engineering 
Assistant" or "Junior Engineering Assistant" as the 
case may be, to be sent to the undersigned not later than 
Wednesday, the 16th July, 1913. 

Canvassing, directly or indirectly, will be deemed a 

J. E. SWINDLEHURST, m.inst.c.e., 

City Engineer and Surveyor. 
Saint Mary's Hall, 

July 2nd, 1913. - (611) 


The above Council are prepared to receive applications 
from suitable persons for the appointment of Road 
Foreman in the Urban District. 

The age of applicants must not exceed 45 years, and 
they must have had a thorough experience in the con- 
struction and maintenance of roads in tar-macadam, 
bituminous binders, lVc, laying of kerb and channel, 
sewer work, and thoroughly coraiietent to supervise and 
organise manual and team labour. 

The wages offered are o's. 6d. per week, rising to a 
maximum of 45s. per week. 

Applications, stating age, experience, present and 
previous appointments, accompanied by copies of th e 
recent testimonials, to be sent to the Clerk, W. E. 
Foster, Esq., and endorsed " Road Foreman," by 
Tuesday noon, 15th inst. 

Canvassing will disqualify any Candidate. 
(By order) 

F. C. UREN, 

Surveyor's Department, 
Municipal Buildings, 

July 2nd, 1913. 



.Ii'LV 4. 1913. 



The Relations of the Consulting Engineer and the 
Municipal Engineer.* 

By Jl. (J. H. SHENTON. 

There .slioiihl lie no antagonism lietweon llio roii- 
siilting engineer anil the nimiiciiial engincei'. They 
are both ineinlieis of the sauic i^rofession, and for 
that reason should t'arefnlly study their coinnion 
interest. Signs arc not wanting that tlic t^nie is 
ripe for combination among engineers with the 
object of improving tlieir standing and general wel- 
fare, and tlie prc-^ent jiuper is written with tlie object 
of furthering this end. There is absolutely no <iif- 
ference in status between the two branches of the 
profession. Wc aie all engineers, we all .start level, 
we all receive much tlie same education and train- 
ing, and eventually elect to specialise or to take up 
muuiciiial appointments, or work in some other 
braiicli of the profession not under present con- 
sideration. Witliout doubt, a great municipal engi- 
neer of long experience is a better man juofessionally 
than a consulting engineer of smaller experience, 
ajul similarly a great considting engineer is profes- 
sionally of more importance than a municipal engi- 
neer of lesser attainmeuts. This may lie a truism, 
but it needs to be understood properly in order that, 
when they liave to work together, the .senior man 
(as regards experience and attainments) should take 
the lead witliont any feeling on the part of his 
friend, the consultant or salaried official, as the case 
may be, that he is being treated with want of proper 

The combination of all ilasses of engineers into 
one l)ody is not beyond hope, but the combination 
of engineers of a particular class should not only be 
quite possible, but may well be attenjpted at the 
present time. For instance, all engineers holding 
iuunici])al apjiointments coidd cond)ine very easily, 
but in tlie author's opinion such combination would 
be incom])lete, because it would leave out a very 
large nundier of men who advise as to the construc- 
tion of some of the most important works of local 
authorities — viz., the consulting engineers. A diffi- 
culty at once presents itself as to who shoidd 
be included in such an organisation and who 
should be excluded. It is not to be denied that 
there is a certain number of consulting engineers 
whose experience does not entitle them to call tlxem- 
selves "specialists," and whose knowledge of tlie 
subjects upon which they undertake to give advice 
is inferior to that of the average municipal engineer ; 
persons whose knowledge on all matters not pertain- 
ing to municipal work may or may not be great, but 
who are looked upon with considerable disfavour, 
and justly so, by those municipal engineers with 
whom they may have to work. Any man, however 
limited his knowledge may be, is at the present time 
able to write the letters C.E. after his name, take 
an office and give advice, and if he pos.sesses influ- 
ential friends and a plausible manner he stands a 
good chance of obtaining work with which he is 
quite unqualified to deal. There ought to be .some 
method whereby such persons should be prevented 
from advising as to the spending of public money. 
On the other hand (and it is necessary to be per- 
fectly frank) there are many persons holding posi- 
tions in municipal or district council offices who 
by no stretch of imagination can be considered 
worthy of the title of "Engineer." In the author's 
opinion a district surveyor is, or should be, an 
engineer ; yet in small urban and rural districts, and 
even perhaps in some boroughs, where the salaries 
paid to the district surveyors are too small to tempt 
experienced men to act, men of a very inferior type 
as regards experience are frequently employed. 
Ignorant councillors are frequently of opinion that 
if a man is a good bricklayer or tradesman he is an 
engineer, and they employ him as their surveyor 
partly from motives of mistaken economy, and 
largely because they prefer to have someone to w-liom 
they can dictate, and whom they will treat with very 
little re.spect. thinking that thereby they, being 
omniscient in all matters pertaining to the sur- 
veyor's department, may have the ruling hand. In 
this way the dignity of the engineer's position is 

• Paper read before a meeting of the Institution of Municipal Eu<;i- 
nccrtj, in the council chumber, Ko. 1 Soiitliamptou-row, Loudon. W.C., 
on Wednesday, Juue 25th. 

lowered, and an enormous waste of public money 
takes place. 

The pro[)erly trained and qualified man, whether 
lie is a municipal or a consulting engineer, looks 
with considerable <lislikc on the two classes of 
amateur engineer meiit-oned, and he would like to 
see the profession so organised that the incompetent 
I)ei-.son should find it as difficult to call himself an 
engineer as to call himself a lawyer or a doctor. 
How-ever, on this point one must carefully avoid 
coming to a false conclusion. There are many good 
engineers whoso early training was that of a dif- 
ferent calling, liut who jios.sossed such ability that 
they forced themselves forward, gaining experience, 
it may be, in a very luimble station, and finally 
taking their places in the profession as honoured 
members with absolute justice. It is therefore 
necessary to consider whether many of the men who 
<-ause so much annoyance by undertaking work for 
which they can show no proper qualifications, and 
by doing it for an entirely insufficient remuneration, 
are not often persons of considerable ability wlioni 
it would be difficult and unwise to treat as being 
completely outside our ranks. The very fact that 
they possess the assurance to undertake engineering 
■work suggests the possession of one of the qualities 
most necessary to all engineers— viz., pluck. Those 
men, whatever their previous condition may have 
lieen, may be quite capable of gaining the necessary 
exjiericnce and training to quality them as engineers, 
, but till they have done so, whatever their age and 
l>os:tion may be, they can only he regarded as 
juniors, and should be treated accordingly. In that the local authority who tried to employ such 
unqualified persons in chief positions, or as con- 
sultants, should be prevented in the same way as 
they could be prevented from aiJiiointing a medical 
student to the position of medical officer. Leaving 
out of our consideration the inexperienced class of 
men on both sides, we may consider the remainder 
. as belonging to one class, and these ought to be able 
to unite for their common good. 

The most important question at the present time is 
, that of remuneration. No engineer ought to be made 
to work for insufficient payment. The municipal 
engineer is sometimes a perfectly competent spe- 
cialist, and can advLse his council better than any 
consultant upon a given matter outside his ordinary 
duties, but when he does .so without receiving proper 
fees such as the consultant would charge he is 
I doing the profession serious harm. He is ranking 
himself with a sort of consultant who ijrepares 
schemes for nothing, or who obtains work by offer- 
ing to do it at a reduced commission. in the 
abstract one must condemn such practices utterly, 
but such is the unfortunate condition of the profes- 
sion, owing, however, entirely to lack of organisa- 
tion, that the municipal engineer may be forced to 
do w-ork quite outside his ordinary duties without 
charge, in order to keep his position, and the con- 
sultant may be forced to w-ork for nothing in the 
hope of being able to make a living some day. This 
is entirely wrong, but it has been done. There is 
only one remedy : we, as engineers, should combine 
and organise for registration, so that the incompetent 
men may be excluded from the ranks of those wlio 
act in chief positions, and when this has been done 
we shall be able to refuse to work except to a proper 
scale of charges : and, moreover, we ought to be 
prevented from doing so. Means must be devised 
whereby it is made impossible for local authorities 
to obtain the services of their salaried officials or of 
consultants except by paying proper salaries or 
proper fees. In this matter the assistance of the 
Local Government Board is required, and it is not 
beyond hope that such assistance would be given 
if once the profession were properly organised. It 
is perfectly clear that the board have tlie greatest 
dislike to the employment of unsuitable persons by 
local authorities, and that even at the present time, 
as far as their powers permit them, they do very 
good work in refusing to sanction loans for unsuit- 
able schemes prepared by incompetent persons. 
It is urged at times that the municipal engineer 



July 4, 1913. 

i-; unfairly taking up tlie work of the consultant. 
This, in the author's opinion, is quite incorrect, for 
it is oliviously the houiulen duty of a municipal 
engineer to give his hest services to liis enii)loyer.-', 
and so long as lie can do the work, and his rennine- 
ration is adequate, the consulting engineer has uo 
eronnds for complaint. Where a consultant is called 
m U> advise a. local authority, his work should he 
(lone in such a way as to assist and strengthen the 
jiosition of tlie municipal engineer, and similarly 
the municipal engineer should work with the con- 
sultant so as to ensure the success of his work in 
every possible way, both sides avoiding doing any- 
thing likely to bring the profession into disrepute. 
In the author's experience these relations are gene- 
rally quite satisfactory, but it would be of consider- 
able interest to learn the experience of others upon 
this point. 

.V consulting engineer is sometimes called in by 
an authority whose siuveyor is a man of knowledge 
and experience, but whose services are entirely 
undervalued and underpaid by his council, and 
whose position is the reverse of i)lea.sant. It is pos- 
sible in such a case for the consultant to insist upon 
proper respect being iiaid to such a man. and he 
should make it his business to do .so and to help him 
to advancement in every way possible, as the council 
are likely to attach imi)ortauce to the action of the 
consultant and to the degree of respect with which 
he treats the surveyor. 

It may be asked whether it is possible, after all. 
to make an exact distinction between the man who 
IS an engineer and the man who is not? In the 
author's oijinion there is no difficulty whatever in 
deciding whether a man is a qualified municipal 
engineer. It is not at the present time a questimi 
of examinations passed, of pupilage or of member- 
ship of societies and institutions. It is simply and 
solely a matter of training and exijerience, and 
unless a man has been occupied for an extended 
period on municipal engineering work he caiuiot by 
any possibility be rightly called a municipal engi- 
neer. A civil engineer is not necessarily a muni- 
cipal engineer any more than a doctor is necessarily 
a medical ofticer. Similarly with regard to con- 
sultants, the consulting engineer is a specialist, and 
this implies that he has made a special and ex- 
tended study oT some particular branch of engineer- 
ing, such as waterworks, sewerage, or electx-ical 
work. He is an export in some ("uticular work, 
and it is obvious that he is sailing under false 
colouis if he calls himself an expert unless his know- 
ledge and experience of the particular work he 
undertakes are extensive. It is very desirable that 
eiigijieers in private practice who tuiderlake to do 
wurk upon which- public money is .spent should be 
carefully registered, not simply as engineers, for 
that term is too vague, but as water engineers, 
gas engineers, sewerage engineers, tramway engi- 
neers. Ac, as the case may be. It is, after all, a 
simple matter for a man wlio poses, say, as a gas 
engineer, to sliow that liis experience is sucli as to 
qualify him to give advice on that subject; if he 
cannot he is not tit to advise as to the spending of 
public money on gasworks. Municipal engineers 
can help their consulting brethren on this point 
greatly by urging their authorities to see that their 
consultants on any ])articular work are really s|)e- 
cialists for that work, and not for something else. 
They can also assist very materially by joining ener- 
getieally as a l)od.v in any scheme for combination 
whicli nuiy be forthcoming for the better organisa- 
tion of the profession. 


(1> The proper qualifications of the nuinicipal 

(2) The luoper qualifications of the consulting 

(3) How to i)revent local authorities from em- 

(o) Incompetent persons in municipal engineers' 

positions ; 
(M Incompetent persons as consulting engineers. 

(4) The inclusion or exclusion on municipal work 
of persons whose training and experience is insuffi- 
cient to qualify them as engineers. Should these 
persons be considered as juniors qualifying for the 
position of engineer, or how should thev be re- 
garded ? 

(5) The position of the municipal engineer who is 
doing consulting work without receiving proper pav- 

(G) The position of the consulting engineer who 
works without receiving proper payment. 

(7) The ways in which the consulting engineer and 
the municipal engineer may help each other. 

(8) Tlie lietter remuneration of muni<?1pal engi- 
neers, and the combination of botli classes of engi- 
Hi-crs fur the improvement of their iirofession. 

A discussion, which we report herewith, followed 
the presentation of the foregoing paper at the recent 
meeting of the Institution of Municiiaal Engineers. 


Mr. Arthur .1. Martin wrote as follows: — 

"Many thanks for your interesting paper. I am 
sorry that I shall not be alile to hear it lead and 
discus.sed. With your opening statement I cordially 
agree. fTliere is no room for any antagonism between 
the consulting engineer and the municipal engineer. 
Whatever superlicial points of difference there may 
be, their real interests are identical. There is no 
impassable barrier between the two spheres of work. 
.Any municipal engineer may become a consulting 
engineer, and it would be very poor policy for him 
to undermine a calling in which he may ultimately 
engage. The consulting engineer, on the other hand, 
cannot afford to depreciate or lower the prestige of 
that branch of his profession with which municipal 
authorities are most in contact. It would be a great 
mistake to magnify the points of difference betvveen 
one body of engineers and another, and any attempt 
to deal with them in a spirit of antagonism would 
lie suicidal. I can conceive no more grievous mis- 
fortune for our profession than a conflict between 
the various branches of it. W'e have vital interests 
which need protection, but a profession divided 
against itself is powerless to look after its own in- 
terests. If, therefore, as you state in your paper, 
there are questions outstanding between one Ijrancli 
of the profession and another, let us deal with them 
by way of friendly discussion and an honourable 
understanding. It would be fatuous to look for a 
liermanent solution along any other lines. The need 
for protecting the pviblii; against incompetent men 
who pose as engineers is urgent, liut the British 
(lulilic is morbidly suspicious of 'rings,' and in 
their present temi)er I fancy they would rather that 
a hundred local authorities were victiimised by un- 
qualified engineers than that one man who by any 
stretch of imagination might be considered an engi- 
neer .should be excluded from practice. Any pro- 
posals in the direction of registration should there- 
fore be framed on the most moderate lines, and with 
the utmost consideration for those men of undoubted 
ability who have not had the advantage of a regular 
engineering training. The questions of remunera- 
tion and conditions of emiiloyment are very difficult, 
and it would be a mistake to try to legislate on 
them withnut .some consultation with the various 
associations representing the local authorities wlio 
emjjloy us. They are reasonable men for the nic.ftt 
l>art, and .should fall in with any regulations framed 
as much in their interests as our own. But they 
would certainly resent anything which looked like 
an attempt to restrict competition or put up fees : 
and it is sheer waste of time for one side to try fo 
make rules for the game if the other side won't con- 
sent to abide by them." 

Mr. W. M.4TTHEVVS Jones (Chester) said the author 
of the paper had touched on some aspects of the 
relations existing between the municipal engineer 
and the consulting engineer. The con.sulting engi- 
neer, as a rule, was calle.l in by the council, and at 
once became toii dog. He knew nothing, as a rule, 
of the local conditions. He pumped the municipal 
engineer to find out all about these, and when he 
knew all he wanted to know he considered he was 
the man to carry out the work. He (Mr. Jones) 
thought some steps should be taken with a view to 
some sort of combination to stop undesirable men 
from getting such a position. Recently an architect 
was employed by a local authority to carrv out a 
sewage scheme for an outside district, at a" cost of 
£8,(XK). He had many friends on the council, and 
Uiat was why he got the job. A Local Government 
Board inquiry was held, and the man appointed told 
the inspector what he had done. The inspector 
found out that he had been advised by some London 
engineer, and that the architect could not explain 
the details of the scheme. The council, of course, 
were to blame for employing this man, and councils 
should be stopped from doing this sort of thing. 

Jtav -1. 191' 



Another :iutliuiit.v I'liiiiloyed a well-known Lmiilon 
ongineei- to ciiiry ont the sewage scheme. The first 
estimate was i;-ir),0(H), ami it worked out at CTD.ODO, 
and was not a success, extensions of the works 
having l>ecoine necessary. The council discussed 
what was best to he done, whether to call in another 
engineer (which the surveyor advised) to comiilete 
the works or not. It was said in effect: "If we 
emi)loy another engineer we shall have to pay him 
his coinrTiission, and as soon as he got that he w.ll 
clear out. We must engage the borough surveyor, 
and thus have somebody we can kick." The borough 
surveyor was considered quite capaljle of carrying 
(Hit the sclieme, and the council asked him to do it. 
It should he properly defined where the consulting 
engineer sliould he called in— for what sort of job — 
and where the borough surveyor should he called in. 
The present state of things was very unfair, because 
there were certain niemhers of the council who said 
to the sm-veyor "You should do this," while others 
said "You should do tliat," with the result that the 
surveyor was between the devil and the deep .sea. 
He said at once that the consulting engineer should 
be called in. He would go further and say that 
medical officers should he stopped from interfering 
with the borough surveyor. In many cases the 
medical officer took upon himself to test drains, 
supervise drains, and serve notices. He called upon 
the surveyor to supply men to carry out the work, 
and the work of the surveyor had thus to be done 
under the supervision of the medical officer, wiu) in 
theory might know something, hut who in practice 
knew absolutely nothing. 

Mr. Horace Cubttt,\. (London), asked if 
the term "consulting engineer" as used was not a 
misnomer. .V lot could he said nowadays for the 
existence of capable consultants in any liranch of 
constructional work, for they who wei-e engaged in 
that work came across special classes of work where 
they would he glad to have the advice of someone 
who specialised. Tlie consulting engineer, however, 
.IS he appeared in municipal work, rather seemed to 
go contrary to his name. Instead of acting as con- 
sultant, the practice was for him to have charge of 
and carry out works over the heads of the pernuinent 
officials, in.stead of acting with those ofhcials, and 
advising tfiem what from his experience was the 
best thing to do. He was interested in what the 
author of the paper said about registration. Archi- 
tects had heen dealing with that matter, and had 
come to the conclusion that the only way they coidd 
get registration was by limiting it as much as ijos- 
sihle. The engineer, like the surveyor, .seemed to 
be in rather a worse position, for the term "engi- 
neer" was so comprehensive. The surveyor had 
moie trouble in defining his position than tlie archi- 
tect, and the engineer had far more trouble in ex- 
plaining what he was than the surveyor. The man 
who looked after a gas engine at a factory was an 
" engineer," and it appeared therefore that engineers 
in trying to get registration were up against a diffi- 
cult job. The Ciovernment would not interfere with 
people carrying out constiuctiomil work. They 
might prohibit [leople from asserting that they 
belonged to a certain class, hut they would not pro- 
hibit them from doing any work. Then there was 
the question of combination, which was a very im- 
portant matter in all professions. The only point 
was wliether this institution (the Institution of 
Municipal Engineers) had a strong case when com- 
l>ination was mentioned, inasmuch as they were a 
striking instance of the effectiveness of breaking 
away from combination. He seriously thought now, 
when the institution had olitained a certain position, 
and a great many of its aims, that there was a great 
deal to be said for the view that in due course muni- 
cipal engineers should come together and go forward 
with the greater strength which they would possess 
acting together, than that they should continue to be 
represented by two sets of bodies. He felt in a way 
that he was a little bit of an outsider in regard to 
the subject of Mr. Shenton's paper, as now he no 
longer held a municipal appointment, and he did 
not consider himself sufficiently competent to advise 
other people, except on architectural matters, as re- 
gards which, such was the pluck of the average engi- 
neer that, no matter what his training had been, he 
felt perfectly competent to put up any class of build- 
ing \\ithout asking anyone's advice with regard to it. 

Mr. A. H. Dykes (hon. secretary of the Association 
of Consulting Engineers) thought the last speaker 
liad rather hit the nail on the head when he stated 
that the term "engineer" was so comprehensive. 

.\s Mr. t'ub:U liad truly said, anyone could call 
himself an engineer, .-ind there was no likelihood of 
getting any legishilive action which would deline 
what an engineer was. It had been liis fate to con- 
sider the question of delin'ug one branch of engineer- 
ing-that of the consulting engineer- for he held the 
position of hon. secretary of the Association of Con- 
sulting Engineers. The definition of a con.sultiug 
engiiieer finally arrived at by the association was 
that such a person should i50ssess the necessary 
<pialificati(ui of one or more of the various branches 
of engineering, that he should devote himself to 
advising, that he should have his own office or staff, 
and that he shoidd not he directly or indirectly 
affected by connuercial interests to such an extent 
as would affect his judgment in his advisory posi- 
tion. This was designed to provide that the con- 
sulting engineer should he so situated as to be able 
to give impartial advice, and not have commercial 
ties which miglit infl\ien<-e his acfon. It was a fact 
that the term "consulting engineer" was a very 
loose one indeed, and that nothing prevented a man 
from calling himself a consulting engineer. It 
.seemed to the large body of consulting engineers that 
ihe time had come that they should hand them.selves 
together to form an association l)y which the public 
miglit know that 'if they applied for advice to the 
meml)ers they would be able to obtain it from men 
in a position of independence. The association 
made no attempt to prevent anybody calling them- 
selves consulting engineers ; what they relied upon 
was in bringing together a body of men whose quali- 
fications were above reproach, and whom the public 
and local autliorities — and he spoke as a memlier of 
a local authority and a member of conunittees — 
might appeal to for the right class of man. This 
was one way in which they were educating the 
public in this matter. He was rather struck with 
the suggestion that there w-as an antagonism between 
nuuiicipal engineers and consulting engineers, but 
he w-as bound to say that in his own practice he 
had never experienced this. The municipal engineer 
nowadays was a man who was occupied a great deal. 
He generally gave very full value for the reniunera- 
tion he received. He might be called upon to under- 
take a scheme which might possibly be outside his 
usual work, involving a large amoiuit of Parlia- 
mentary work, and experience of CTbnunittces of 
the Houses of Parliament. In nine out of fen- 
he had to do Ibis without additional lenuuieration, 
and he and Irs staff were involved in a rush of work 
outside their ordinary duties, much of which had 
to be put on one side for the time being. This was 
not good for the work of the nuuiicipal engineer's 
department. It might also happen to the nuuiicipal 
engineer that his committee were divided on the 
subject at issue, and strong sides might be taken for 
and against the proposed works. If the engineer, as 
he must, took a line on one side or the other he 
sometimes involved himself in trouble with certain 
memhers of the local authority. This sort of thing 
sometimes happened, he did not say it always did. 
In' the circumstances many niunii'iiial engineers 
came to the conclusion that it was better to call in 
the services of an experienced consulting engineer. 
If the local authority did not call in a man of expe- 
rience that was their fault — one could not prevent 
them. That would iirohably happen as long as the 
world went round. If they did call in a man of 
exijerience he should be a considerable help to the 
municipal eng'neer, for the two could work together 
f(jr the mutual good of the undertaking and for tlie 
benefit of the locality for which they were acting. 
He couUl not see at .all why there should be any 
friction by the consulting engineer being called in. 
Naturally the consulting engineer paid a great deal 
of attention to the local knowledge and exjjerience 
of the municiiial engiieer, and they could put their 
heads together and devise the scheme. There was 
no reason why friction should arise in such circum- 
.stances than there should be in the case of the town 
clerk and counsel. If a difficulty arose with respect 
to a local question in tlie town clerk's department, 
the town clerk frequently suggested that the council 
should take counsel's opinion. He wanted his own 
opinion strengthened and confirmed by consultation. 
In the same way the engineer should be entitled to 
ask for expert assistance and to collaborate with the 
consulting engineer upon debatable engineering 
points when they arose. He did not think there 
could be any question of the municiijal engineer's 
time being unfairly taken up with the work of the 
consultant. If the engineer could carry out the 



July 4, 1913. 

work, and icceivcd tlie iJioiier reuiuneratiuii, nobody 
could objei't. It wa.s for him to decide whether the 
work was pail of the duties of his engagement. What 
he objected to was tlic municipal engineer being 
asked to do a large amount of work for which he 
received no remuneration, and if by a chance any- 
tliiiig went wrong he got a good deal of blame, with- 
out getting any credit if everything came out all 
right. A.s regarded llie qualification of municipal 
engineers, that was for the profession itself to de- 
cide. The nicu composing a body were obviously 
best able to decide what the (lualifications of the 
members should be. as the members of 
the Consulting Kngineers" Association laid down 
what were the (jualifications of meml)ers of 
their association. There was no difiiculty. 

.-aid t!ie author ot the paper, in decidin-r 
whether a man was a qualified engineer. '' It is 
not," he said, "at the present time a question of 
e.\aniinations passed, of pupilage, or of uienibership 
of .societies and institutions. It is simidy and solely 
a matter of training and experience, and luiless a 
man has been occupied for an extended period on 
municipal engineering work he cannot by any iio.s- 
sibility I'e rightly called a municipal engineer." 
But how was an outside body, how was the public 
to know, and to be able to judge what were the ex- 
perience and qualifications of engineers.' He appre- 
hended that could only be arrived at by taking the 
views of some recognised associabion, and that was 
the v)urpose intended to be served by the Institution 
of Municipal Engineers. The Association of Con- 
sulting Engineers iilaced a large amount of power 
in the hands of the members, and before any mem- 
ber could be admitted his nominatiion Inul to be 
pas.sed by the committee, and afterwards conflrnied 
iiy the full association. It was insisted that a mem- 
ber .should be a corporate member ot the In-stitutiou 
of Civil Engineers, or of the Institutions of Elec- 
trical or Mechanical Engineers, which bodies, it 
might be stated, were gradually making the qualifi- 
cation for admission stronger and stronger. 

Mr. Horace Boot (London) remarked that with 
respect to the question of the consulting engineer 
and the municiijal engineer they would agree that 
one should very largely involve the other. Those 
who had been in municipal life knew that many knotty 
problems came up for consideration, and if it were 
the i)ractiee of all engineers in municipal employ to 
appeal more frequently to a higher authority, or 
ratlier to the specialist in a particular branch, as the 
sagacious town clerk did on every conceivable 
occasion, the better it would be for the municipal 
engineer. The town clerk never accepted any respon- 
sibility upon his own head. Whenever a difficult 
iiuestion arose with respect to which he might be 
blamed, he advised the corporation to take counsel's 
opinion, although he was probably quite as com- 
lietent as counsel to give an opinion. Being a lawyer 
he wisely said to himself. "Why should I, receiving 
a salary, take upon myself a responsibility for which 
I am not paid ? " He had so educated his council 
that they thought him an exceedingly wise man for 
the position. It was to be hoped they would see a 
similar state of things with the municipal engineer, 
who was undoubtedly a most over-worked and under- 
paid official, and the most knocked about by the 
council, because, of course, every comicillor "knew 
something about" engineering — being builders and 
contractors in various ways. What borough engi- 
neers had to put up w-ith through the ignorance of 
their masters was such that no "official should take 
office without insisting that he should be properly 
remunerated. If he was desirous of improving his 
position financially by doing work outside the scope 
of his engagement he should be paid some sort of 
percentage or receive a stated remuneration. What 
was Ins position if he did not receive this ? Not 
only was he carrying on the multifarious duties which 
were more than one man could look after even with 
an efficient staff, but he ran the risk of his council 
pointing to something which they criticised as a 
faihire. That was unfair to borough engineers, and 
if this institution could do anything in the matter it 
should try and bring home to councillors a sense of 
their duty to the ratepayers— viz., to see that public 
money was spent in a proper wav, and some of it 
given to the surveyors. The town clerk always 
managed to get more money for his services than the 
eiigineer, for what reason he, as an old municipal 
othcial. liad never been able to ascertain, seeing 
that 90 per cent of the duties of the town clerk could 

bo performed by any ordinary skilled clerk. If the 
engineer suggested tliat outside assistance should be 
obtained there seemed to be an idea that he was not 
sufficiently conqietent, though this might not be the 
ca.-e at all. If engineers as a body could combine 
to present a .solid front councils would in time look 
up to them as they did at present to the town clerk 
when that official suggested that counsel's opinion 
should be taken, and they would be a happier lot. 
and instead of any hint of antagonism the consulting 
engineer would lie, as he ought to be, the greatest 
friend of the bjroiigh engineer. With thegreatest respect 
to borough engineers who desired to lead a happy 
life, especially in small towns, he would ask 
them not to be so much afraid as they were in 
obtaining outside assistance. By this means they 
threw the responsibility upon the man called in and 
shared in his success, while if things went wrong 
the liorough engineer scored tremendously, because 
he would be called upon to put right the things that 
had gone wrong. So far as he could see the paper 
was a very valuable one. It tackled a subject whicii 
few engineers had the pluck to tackle simply 
there was a suspicion of antagonism in it. The author 
referred to registration, and one of the si>eakeis stated 
that the term "engineer" might mean anything, 
hence the necessity for registration. It appeared to 
him (the speaker) disgraceful that a fitter in a 
shop, who might be a good mechanic, should call 
him.self an engineer, and so mislead the public as 
to his qualifications. It was a standing disgrace to 
the Institution of Civil Engineers that they had liot 
had the pluck or courage to tackle this problem. It 
was lor them as premier institution to show the vay 
and take steps to prevent the term "engineer" beiufi 
utilised in the wide sense it was. The "engineer" 
who was a mechanic w-as no more an engineer than 
the ordinary layman was a cleric. He was a trades- 
man with a trade, and though he might be quite a 
good mechanic it was wrong to describe him as I'.n 
engineer. With respect to the cases mentioned by 
Mr. Jones these were the fault, not of the borough 
surveyor, who was probably not consulted, but of 
the council in choosing whom they liked. As to the 
question of remuneration, that was intended to be 
dealt with by the association at some future date. 
They all as engineers considered themselves very 
badly paid, but how were they to increase the re- 
muneration and make themselves worth more was a 
wide subject, and could be left for consideration to 
another evening. 

Mr. Louis Care (Euislip-Northwood) seconded the 
vote ot thanks, and said he was in the fortunate 
position of having a council who listened to his sug- 
gestions, but he agreed this was not always the case. 
If a surveyor had a decent council there would as 
a rule be no trouble with respect to calling in con- 
sulting engineers on certain matters on which they 
.specialised. This was particularly advisable in the 
case of small di.striets. He had called in a consulting 
engineer with respect to sewage works, and be 
certainly did not feel tlaere was involved any question 
of a loss of professional standing. He had known of 
cases, however, where the calling in of advice had 
proved unfortunate for the surveyor. He thought that 
the position called for action by a strong body of 
united societies whose representations could be 
placed before the local authorities in the hope that 
they would be considered, and that the grievances of 
surveyors who had been badly treated would be 
remedied. He had per.sonally been able to help two or 
three unfortunate surveyors who had had to leave 
their district owing to the way they had been treated 
over trivial matters. At the present time he had 
the question of a cemetery under consideration. He 
had provided the design for the ceniet-jry, but he 
considered that the council might very well call in 
an expert to improve upon his ideas. The council 
looked at the matter fairly, and had decided to call 
in the services of an expert to decide upon the 
question of laying out, including the constru -lion of 
roads and drains He believed in the consulting 
engineer, and that the surveyor should not take 
responsibility for too much, and he felt that as time 
went on they would come to take a right view of 
the joint action of the borough and consulting ens-'i- 

Mr. H. C. H. Shenton. in reply to the discussion, 
said that one or two .speakers seemed to think he 
had stated that he had noticed antagonism between 
the consulting and the municipal engineer. What 
he had done was to ask the question whether such a 

JjiLY 4, 1013. 



thing existed, chiefly because though he had not come 
across it himself lie h<ad occasionally heard surveyors 
speak in a manner which liinted that they had l)een 
rather badly treated by the consulting engineer. He 
considered that the renuirks of Mr. Jones were 
extremely valuable. That gentleman had alhided to 
particular cases where the consulting engineer became 
top dog and generally made himself absolutely ob- 
jectionable to the municipal engineer. The case.^ Mr. 
Tones had quoted showed the importance of obtain- 
ing the services of a consulting engineer who actually 
had a special knowledge of the work he was called in 
to advise upon. He (Mr. Shenton) had known of a 
case in which a railway engineer undertook to build 
a cold storage block, and made a great mess of it, 
tlie result, of course, of attempting to do something 
lie knew nothing about. The interference of the 
medical officer had been referred to. and to these 
might be added tlie analytical chemist and bacterio- 
logist. This was a great nuisance to the .surveyor, 
iuid recalled the advice they had lately received 
from the Local Government Board with respect to the 
intercepting trap and the harmlessness of sewer gas. 
Then they had the Royal Commission telling them 
that crude sewage might be purified by salutic,and the 
researches of Dr. Houston with respect to the typhoid 
germ. Mr. Cnbitt stated that the term "consultingengi- 
neer" was a misnomer, and he was certainly struck 
with that remark. Advising from town on a large 
number of sewage schemes involved mvich more 
financial re.sponsibility than was generally under- 
stood, and work could be much better done by men 
on the spot. It would, of, be more profitable 
for a consulting engineer to be consulted and paid 
■for his opinion than to have to control con.structional 
work 260 miles away. As to registration "engineer" 
was such a vague term that to register it was im- 
possible. But it was an easy thing to register the 
" sjis engineer," or "water engineer," and they could 
count on their fingers men who were fit to be called 
consultiiig engineers on these subjects. Mr. Dykes 
seemed to think that the only method of really 
getting over the difficulty was to form a strong 
as.soeiation of engineers. This might be so. Imt it 
was not easy to get enough members together to make 
such an association useful. They could not persuade 
all municipal engineers or eonsultuig engineers. 
or even a large i)roportion of them, to join an associa- 
tion. In time a large number might be got together 
and something could be done, but in the meantime 
they had to wait. It would not in any way liinder 
such work to deal with some combination for regis- 
tration first of all. It would doulitless be a long job; 
but anything that could be done should be done in 
such a direction. H-e might say that he was delighted 
with the remarks of Mr. Boot; his illustration of the 
way the town clerk induced the council to take 
coiuisel's opinion was splendid. It was hardly to be 
expected that the borough engineer would lie able 
to do likewise; if he did it would be a very nice thing 
for the consulting engineers. 

Problems in Engineering, with Solutions.*— The Eng- 
lish journal The Sueveyor and Municipai. and 
CorNTY Engineer carries on a section devolixl lo 
various questions which might be put in an examina- 
tion for the position of municipal engineer in an 
English town or city. The questions are given one 
week and answers provided by various corre.spondents 
given in subsequent issues. The volume noted above 
is the first one to be made up from these questions 
and answers. As is well known, the position of muni- 
cipal engineer in England is one of most varied 
activity, so that the subject covered by the questions 
and answers extends through the whole field of engi- 
neering. For example, the chapter lieadings are as 
follows: Mechanics and Hydrostatics; Strength and 
Elasticity of Materials; Theory of Structures; Sur- 
veying and Levelling; Water Supply and Hydraulics; 
Sewerage: Sewage Disposal; Road Making and Tram- 
ways; Building Construction and Materials; Law and 
Miscellaneous. While the questions and most of their 
solutions are distinctly British in character, the wide 
range of subjects and the method of treatment make 
the book of some value to American engineers. 
There is a good deal to be said in favour of the ques- 
tion and answer method of instruction. — Eiigiiveerinij 

• Seine Questions and Answers reprint«a from the Assistants' and 
Students' Section of Thk Suevetoe and MnKiciPAt and County Enoi- 
HB»E. First Series, 1909-10. Edited by Sydney G. Turner, Asaoo.K. 
IirsT.o.i. Ijondon: St. Bride's Press, Limited. Price Sa.nett. 



The annual congress of the Royal Sanitary Insti- 
tute will be held at Exeter from Monday to Friday 
next, under the presidency of Earl Fortescue, k.c.b!. 
Lord-Lieutenant of Devonshire. The order of pro- 
ceedings will be found set out in our issue of May 23rd. 


At the conference of engineers and surveyors which 
will take place next Tuesday an address will be 
delivered by the president, Mr. Thos. Moulding, 
M.iNST.c.E., the city engineer and surveyor of Exeter. 
A discussion on the subject of town planning will 
be opened liy Mr. J. S. Brodie, m.insi.c.e., lx)rough 
engineer of Blackpool, and consideration will also be 
given to the following papers: — 

" Notes on the Application of Reinforced Concrete," 
by G. R. B. Pimm, Assoc. m.inst.c.e. (London). 

"Marine Baths; with Special Reference to the Pro- 
posed Medical Baths at Torquay," by Henry A. 
Garrett, _ Assoc. m.inst.c.e., borough engineer. 


On Thursday Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, m.inst.c.e.. 
will deliver an address as president of the Engineering 
and Architecture Section. The following papers will 
afterwards be discussed by the meeting: — 

"Water Supplies from Rivers." by Wm. Phelps 
(Shepton Mallet). 

"Reclamation of the Exe Estuary from 'The Point," 
Exmouth, to Lymp.stone," by Samuel Hutton, engi- 
neer and surveyor to the Urban district Council. 

" School Buildings and their Future," by James 
Jerman, f.r.i.b.a. (Exeter). 

"Rural Building By-laws," by H. D. Searles Wood, 
F.R.i.n a. (London). 

"Lighting and Ventilation of Hospital Wards." 
I)y A. Saxon Snell, f.r.i.b.a. (London). 

"The Training of Engineers Engaged on Work 
As.sociated with Sanitation." liy Prof. .J. Radcliffe,, p.r.met.soc. (^Manchester). 

The following re.solution will be propo.sed by Mr. 
H. D. Searles Wood, f.r.i.b.a.: — 

" That the council of the Royal Sanitary Institute 
l)e requested to urge upon the Local Government 
Board the desirability of the establishment by the 
board of a tribunal of appeal from the decision of 
local authorities on jjoints relating to practice in 
the working of the liuilding by-laws, and should 
they consider that Parliamentary sanction is necessary 
for the formation of such trilmnal, to take steps 
tfl obtain .such authority." 

The section will resmue its delilierations on Friday 
morning next, when the following papers will conic 
mider consideration: — 

"The Disposal of 'Sewage from tlie Districts 
situated at or near the Coast of the Bristol Channel, 
from the River Usk to Lavernock Point," by Prof 
10. A. Letts, (Belfast). 

"The Occurrence of the Fresh Water Alga Prasiola 
Crispa on Contact Beds, and its Resemblances to the 
Green Seaweed Ulva Latissima," by Prof. E. A. Letts. (Belfast). 

"The Evolution of Sewage Disposal," by \. 3. 
Martin, m.inst.c.e. (London). 

" Chemical Precipitation at Sewage Disposal Works, 
Wakefield," by .7. P. Wakeford, Assoc. At. inst.c.e., 
C'ity Engineer of Wakefield. 

"The Chemical and Bacterial Condition of Rivers 
Above and Below the Sewage Effluent Outfall," by J. !■;. 
Purvis, M.A., and A. E. Rayner, m.a., m.b. (Cam- 

"Land Filtration Effluents." by W. Cliffonl. 
assoo.m.inst.c.e. (Wolverhampton). 

"The Functions of the Non-Bacterial Poi>ulation 
of the Bacteria Bed," liy J. Crabtree. intro- 
duced by G. J. Fowler, (Manchester). 

"Preliminary Note on the Bacterial Clarification of 
Sewage," by G. J. Fowler,, ;ind E. M. Mumford, (Manchester). 

On Wednesday morning at the conference of muni- 
cipal representatives Mr. Reginald Brown, m.inst.c.e., 
engineer and surveyor t« the Soiithall-Norwood Urban 
District Council, will introduce a discussion on tlie 
housing question. 

At the conference of Sanitary Inspectors, Mr. K. 
Plummer Davies, surveyor and sanitary inspector to 
the Tisbury Rural District Council, will, on Friday 
next, open a discussion on " Sanitary Administration 
in Rural Districts." 



Jdlt 4, 1913. 



Some interesting particulars with regard to the 
fut\ire repair and renewal of the wood-paved roads in 
Cainberwell appear in a report which the borough 
engineer. Mr. VVm. Oxtoby, m.inst.c.e., has recently 
submitted to the Works and General Purposes Com- 
mittee of his council. 

Mr. Oxtoby remarks that the wood paving gene- 
rally has worn better than was expected, and has, 
in the earlier cases, far outlived the term of the 
loan. For instance, Albany-road, originally laid in 
18%. has .served for seventeen years; and although 
it has been relaid (partly with the original blocks 
and partlv with old blocks from Rye-lane recutV it 
has not been renewed, although the original loan 
was for ten years. Another example is the main 
road from Camberwell-green to Queen's-road, which 
was originally laid in 1899, fourteen years ago. while 
the loan was for ten years only. "It will be seen, 
therefore," the borough engineer observes, '"that in 
many cases no loan charges have been paid for some 
years. This relates more to the earlier roads paved 
with wood, but in the more recent ones I fear that, 
owing to tlie altered conditions of traffic, such satis- 
factory results will not be recorded. I do not antici- 
pate, however, that any will want renewing with new 
material during the existence of their respective 

When wood paving was first laid in Cainberwell it 
was expected that when it became necessary to relay 
with new blocks a further loan would be sanctioned 
and could be obtained for the cost of the work; but 
the London County Council have since intimated 
that only in very exceptional cases and for periods of 
two or three years will loans be sanctioned for such 

This decision was placed before the Finance Com- 
mittee in May, 1905, and reports were submitted by 
the borough treasurer and Mr. Oxtoby pointing out 
the hardship that would be occasioned in Camber- 
well by the throwing of heavy expenditure on to the 
rates in certain financial years in consequence of the 
renewals of the \\ood paving falling unequally. Tiicy 
then advised the institution of a sinking fund so 
that the expenditure might be evenly borne each 
year, but the council were informed that they had 
no power to do this, and although the assistance of 
other borough councils was sought towards legalising 
such a sinking fund, the projwsal did not receive 
sufficient support to warrant its being pressed 
through. Had such a fund been instituted at the 
time, the borough engineer points out, the present 
position would have been less serious. 

Mr. Oxtoby continues : '" If the wood-paved roads 
arc renewed with new wood blocks as they wear out. 
the only method of meeting the cost is to pay it out 
of current rate raised for the purpose. Of course, 
the short j)eriod loans referred to above might pos- 
sibly be obtained, but these loans are intended to 
relieve the financial cxjicnditure, where extra heavy 
charges for renewals fall due in one year, by spread- 
ing the jiayments over years where no such liability 
occurs. Al the present time, however, I can .<.ec r.o 
possibility of such relief occurring during the next 
few years. No provision has been made in the past 
for future renewals, and several wood-paved road.- 
mi:st of necessity require renewing during the next 
few years, in addition to the list suggested later on 
in this report. Consequently there is no alternative 
but to charge the cost against the revenue of tlic 
.vear in which the expense is incurred. 

"In many cases the life of the existing paving 
can be prolonged for from four, to six years by taking 
up the blocks, cleaning them, and relaying 
them with faces reversed on new concrete 
. . . but no loan can be obtained for this work, -ind 
the cost nuust again be borne by the current rate. 
. . . In the event of the foregoing suggestions not 
being adopted, the roads might be left as at present, 
occasional i>atcliiiig and repairing being done as 
required; but I must point out that the cost will be 
exceedingly heavy ami will increase each .vear. 1 
cai.iiot recommend this .system, for altiiough large 
sums may bo expended upon the work the roads will 
always l)e rougli, patchy, and unsatisfactory, and it 
is merely postponing the date when the whole will 
have to be taken up and renewed." 
The borough engineer advises repairs to the wood 

paving in six roads, at an estimated cost of £3,353, 
and the Works Committee, having regard to the 
question of the " best material to replace the exist- 
ing paving from traffic and financial points of view," 
recommend the laying of special dressed Norway 
granite setts, 4 in. in depth. They propose that in 
the financial year 1914-15 these setts be laid at 
Camberwell-green, Camberwell-road, Church-street, 
High-street, part of Hill-street, Peckham-road, and 
Queen's-road, at an estimated cost of £31,018. The 
borough engineer has informed the committee that, 
in addition to the roads requiring repair and renewal 
in the financial year 1914-15, certain other roads will 
require renewal in the financial year 1915-16, and, 
having in view the fact that the Road Board would 
be more likely to give a substantial grant upon a 
comprehensive scheme being presented to them for 
work spread over successive years, the committee 
have instructed Mr. Oxtoby to report on the .subject. 
This report and the recommendations based thereon 
deal with a proposed expenditure upon various 
roads, amounting in the aggregate to £72,409, the 
materials to be used consisting of creosoted wood 
i)locks and Norwav granite setts. 

Sewage Farm Profits. — The Rumford Urban District 
Council realised £3,636 from the sales of celery grown 
on the sewage farm this season. 

Swimming Bath for Finchley Finohley Urban 

I'ouncil liMve decided to construct a swimming bath 
in Sou re--!aiie. at a cost of about £4,500. 

Price Lists Wanted. — The county surveyor of 
Sutherland will be glad to receive trade illustrated 
price lists and catalogues, addressed to the county 
sui-veyor's office, Golspie. 

Corporation Official's Invention.— For an invention, 
which is said to improve marine engines so that a 
material increase in speed is obtained, Mr. William 
•leffreys, an attendant at the Southend-on-Sea public 
library, has received £3,000. The device which has 
just brought him so nnich profit has occupied his 
.-|';ire t'me for the jiast five years. 

Royal Institute of British Architects. — A special 
general meeting (adjourned from June 16th) will be 
held on Monday next, at 8 p.m., to resume considera- 
tion of the draft revised schedule of professional 
charges. The next examination of licentiates desiring 
to qualify for candidature as Fellows will take place 
in Januaiy. Full particulars may be obtained on 
application io the secretary. 

Road Board Finance. — In the House of Commons on 
Monday the Chancellor of the Exchequer was asked 
what was the total amount of money handed over to 
the Road Board in 1912-13, and how much was 
allocated by the board to London in that year. Mr. 
Lloyd George said the total amount paid into the 
Road Improvement Fund from His Majesty's 
Exchequer during the years 1912-13 was €1,17-2,205. 
The board do not allocate money to London, but make 
advances by way of grant and loan on applications 
from individual highway authorities. The aggregate 
of such advances made and indicated to highway 
authorities within the administrative County of 
Loudon in the financial year 1912-13 was £108,012. 

Public Health Law (By Sydney Ct. Turner. St. 
Bride's Press. Limited. 24 Bride-lane, Fleet-street, 
E.G. Price IDs. 6d. nett). — A manual for municipal 
and county engineers and surveyors, town clerks, 
clerks to district councils, and other officers, and to 
members of local authorities. The book is designed 
to be six^cially useful to officials in the preparation 
of reports and in the administration of the law, and 
to members of local authcrities in the discharge of 
their public duties. It is also of value to students 
preparing for examinations as municipal engineers 
and in public health law. The subjects treated of 
from a legal point of view include the meaning of 
"sewer" and "drain," sewage disposal, sanitary 
fittings, river pollution, infectious diseases and hos- 
pitals, new streets and buildings, private streets, 
highways, open spaces markets, slaughter-houses, 
housing. &c. This is, we believe, the first time these 
matters have been dealt with each in a separate 
chapter, which makes the book easy for reference. 
There are no reprints of Acts in cxienso, but under 
each topic are given the Acts and clauses which refer 
to it. . . . We should say the work ought to occupy a 
place in every sanitary authority's office.— iwa/ 
(I'ovcniiiuitl Journal. 

Jt'i.v 4. ini3. 



A Manual op Cement Testing. By W. A. Richards 
and H. B. North, Price 6s. iiett. London: 
Constcable & Co., Limited. 
Tliis volume is a laboratory manual on cement 
te.sting, and is intended to encourage uniformity of 
lirastice according to the American standard method.* 
of testing. It will thus be seen that in estimating 
the usefulness of the work to British engineers the 
differences between the American and BritL.-ih 
standard specifications must be borne in mind. 
Under either specification it is evident that in order 
to insure uniformity of results in testing, each test 
nmst invariably be made in precisely the same 
manner and under exactly the same conditions; in 
other words, the tests must be so conducted as to 
eliminate as far as possil)le tlie personal factor. 
The authors have endeavoured to secure this end by 
setting out the precise laboratory metliods to be 
adopted in the routine tests for fineness, specific 
gravity, soundness, tensile strength, and so forth, 
while the later part of the work deals in detail with 
the chemical analysis of cement. Although it is, of 
course, imijossible to conduct relial)le tests without 
experience, a sound knowledge of the underlying 
principles is essential, and we can thoroughly re- 
commend the work of INfessrs. Richards and Xortli 
as a thoroughly x""actical detailed manual, which. 
by reason of its clear style and arrangement, will 
be found useful to all who are concerned in the 
practical work of testing. 

Moi>ERN Sanitary Enoineerino and Plumbers' 
Work. By A. Herring-Shaw and H. F. V. New- 
.some. Vol. I., price 2s. nett. Vol. II., price 
2s. 6d. nett. London: Longmans, Green <!«, Co. 
These books contain a series of progressive organ- 
ised scale drawings in connection with sanitary engi- 
neering and (ilumbers' work. The work, which will 
be completed by a third volmne. contains detail 
drawings of every variety of plumViers' work, the 
practical value being considerably enhanced by the 
free use of figured dimensions. The first volume 
contains sixteen plates illustrative of jointing and 
fixing of pipes, the construction of traps and over- 
flows, sanitary fittings, flushing cisterns, taps Mid 
valves, hot-water services and boilers, roofwork, and 
drainage fittings. The second volume contains twenty 
plates dealing with house drainage and sanitary fit- 
tings, hot and cold water supply, lead work, and so 
forth. Wo can imagine no better exercise for the 
student than the examination and copying of these 
excellent plates, while builders, architects and sani- 
tary engineers will find in the work a grajihic reprc- 
seutation of the most modern practice. 
National and Municipal Finance. By Walter 
Jones, J. p., M.i.MECH.E. Price Is. nett. Lon- 
don : Frank Palmer. 
In this little book the author seeks to show that 
Imperial taxes are excessive and local rates are 
oppressive. He asks why they are so burdensome, 
and indicates his view as to how tliey may be re- 
lieved. The book has been written with altruistic 
motives in the spare hours of a busy life. Many of 
the proposals— c-!/., the redemption of the National 
Debt in twenty-live years— are. to say the least, 
drastic in character. Nevertheless, Mr. Jones has 
made an earnest contribution to the discussion of 
the "condition of the people" question, and has 
produced a book which will l)e read with interest by 
many who are interested in .social i)robloms. 
The Social Guide, 1913. Edited by Mrs. Iluyli 
.\dams and Edith A. Browne. Price 2s. 6d. neti. 
London: A. & C. Black. 
This is ihe fourth annual issue of the Social Guide, 
and it will doubtless be welcomed as warmly as its 
predeces.sors by those who are seeking infornuxtion 
in regard to the principal social functions of the 
year. Prefaced by a calendar of events, the main 
body of the book is devoted to detailed information 
concerning a large variety of social matters. A very 
useful auniial. which is becoming increasingly 


are requested to note that " The Surveyor " telephone 
number is now City 1046. 

• Any of the publications reviewed, or referred to aa 
received, will be forwarded by the Bt. Brides Press, Limited. 
on receipt of publiBhed price. 



Some interesting points were decided by the 
Court of Appeal in Stanley Brothers, Limited, v. 
Nuneaton Corporation. The facts of the case may be 
briefly summarised. The company were the owners 
of a collier.v and brick and tile works, which (prior 
to the agreement mentioned below) were supplied 
with water partly from the company's own sources 
and partly from a supply taken from the corporation 
(tlie water authority for the district), at 8d. per gallon. 
In 1897 the company abandoned two old shafts whicli 
liad theretofore been in use, and sunk a new shaft, 
with tlie result that their own water supply was in 
excess of their requirements. In 1900 they entered 
into an agreement with the corporation for the pur- by the latter of the company's water supply 
upon the terms {inter alia) that in the event of the 
company being unable to obtain sufficient water 
for the purposes of their works from all their available 
sources of supply the corporation would supply them 
with water at cost price not exceeding 2d. per l.OOi) 
gallons. Notwithstanding this provision in the agree- 
ment, the company continued to take water from the 
corporation at 8d. per 1,000 gallons from 19U0 to 1910, 
when tlieir attention was called to the clause in 
question. They then claimed a return of 6d. per 
1,000 gallons as money paid under a mistake of fact, 
and the matter was referred to arbitration. The 
arbitrator found that the company were hond-fuh 
ignorant of their legal rights until 1910, but stated 
a case lor the opinion of the court as to whether, 
in the circumstances, the mistake was one of law 
(in which case the money would be irrecoverable) 
or of fact (in which it could be recovered). Mr. 
Justice Uailhache in the court below held that, 
whether the company had forgotten the existence 
of the clause in the agreement, or whether they had 
made a mistake as to its meaning-, their ignorance 
was not such a mistake of law as precluded them 
from recovering the overpayment. 

The Court of Appeal overruled this decision, and 
allowed the corporation's appeal. Lord Justice 
Vaughan Williams said that he thought the money 
was paid under a mistake of law, but he did Jiot 
decide on that ground, but on the ground that the 
company's right to demand water at the lower rate 
would only come into force on their giving notice 
that all their available sources of supply were 
exhausted, and that they required water for their 
brick glazing; and that, admittedly, mi such notice 
had been given. 


/';-e.sic(c;i(— Mr. R. J. Thomas, m.insi.c.e. 
County Surveyor, Buckinghamshire. 

District U/iairman~\. T. Davis, m.inst.c.e.. County 
Surveyor, Shropshire. 
A meeting of the institution will \>o held in the 
West Midland District at the Tciwn Hall, Leek, to- 
morrow (Saturday). 

U a.m.— Reception in the town liall liy the chairman 
of the Leek Urban District Council, Mr. 
Thomas Mason, jr. p. 

Paper by W. E. Beachani, engineer and 
surveyor, "on "Leek and its Municipal 
Works," which will be taken as read. 
1. 15 iJ. 111.— Lunch at Swan Hotel. (Tickets 2s. 6d. 

each.) . . . 

2. .30 |i. 111. —Assemble at town hall previous to visiting 
the following v.'ork.s— viz. : Public baths, 
butter and poultry markets, Nicholson In- 
stitute, public library, technical schools, 
and gymnasium. 
4 11.111.— Afternoon tea at town hall, by invitation. 
4.rj) p.m.— Inspection of lire station. Globe-yard im- 
provement, and Belle Vue-road, electricity 
works, gasworks, including coal hsi o'luig 
plant, and sewage disposal works. 
F. C. CooK, assoc.m.inst.c.e., 
M.uiicipal Offices, "'•"■ ^'''"■''" ^"-"'"''J- 




Jur.y 4. 101.1 


Tlie fortieth annual general meeting of the in?ti- 
tution and the thir.l town planning conference will 
he held by kind invitation of the town conncil in tho 
Tnwn Hall Great Yarmonth, on Wedneslay, 
Thnrsday. FHday and Saturday, .July 16th. 17th, 18th 
and 19th. 


Wcdncsdaij, July IGlli. 
') 15 a m -Meeting of the subscribers to the Orphan 
Fund in a committee room of the town 
9.4.-) a.m.— Council meeting in the supper-room of 

the town hall. 
lo:{() a.m.— .Annual general meeting. The members 
will be welcomed by the mayor and other 
members of the corporation. 

Annual report of council (to be taken as 
Election of auditors and scrutineers. 
General business. 
Presentation of premiums. 
Presidential address. 
12.4.') |).m.— .Adjournment for lunch. 

Town i)lanning conference in the a-scniMv voorn 
of the town hall. 

Section 1 . 
Chairman-The president (Afr. J. W. Cockrill. 
M.iNST.c.E., .4.R.i.r..A., borough stirveyor. 
Great Yarmouth). 
S.."?!! p.m.— The delegates and members will he wel- 
comed hv the mayor and corporation. 
Opening address by the president. 
The following papers (which will be 
taken as read) will be discussed during the 
conference : 
(l)"The Preparation of Town Planii;!'...' 
Schemes," by .T. E. Wilkes, member. 
town planning engineer, Dunfermline. 
(2) "Legal A.spects of Town Planning," by 

.T. L. Jack, town clerk, Dunfermline. 
(.3) " Description of Birmingham Schemes." 
by H. E. Stilgoe, m.inst.c.e., member, 
city engineer, Birmingham. 

(4) "Early Examples of Town Planning in 

the (Uty of Edinburgh." by A. H. Camp- 
bell, M.INST.C.E., memlier, city engineer, 
4.30 p.m.— Conference adjourns. 

7.;j(1 p.m.— Dinner to the council and past-presidents 
of the insti.tution liy the invitation of the 
mayor at the Royal Assembly Room, Albert- 

Thur.<(1aii, Juhj 17 Ih. 
Section 2. 

Chairman -Mr. J. S. Pickering, m.inst.c i 

10 a.m.- Conference resumed. 

(5) "('ities Beautiful by the Sea," by T. S. 

Brodie, m.inst.c.e., member, borough 
engineer, Blackpool. 
(C)"The Small Dwellings Acquisition Act, 
1899," by .1. L. Redfern, member, borough 
surveyor. (Jillingham. Kent. 

(7) "fl'he Housing Question," by Reg. Brown. 

m.inst.c.e., member, surve.vor to the 
Southall-Norwood. Urban District Council. 

(8) "Factors Causing Bad Housing." by 

G. H. Hartfrec, member, surveyor to the 
Alton Urban District Council. 

(9) "Description of Town' Planning Schemes 

and Housing Ln Sheffield," by C. F. Wike. 
m.inst.c.e., member, city survevor, 

(10) " A Description of the Ruisli|)-Northwood 
Town Planning Scheme," by W. Lo\iis 
Carr, member, engineer and siu'veyor to 
Ruislip - Northwood Urban District 

12.4,') |i. in. —Luncheon to members and their ladies 
and delegates at the invitation of the mayor 
at Goode's As.sembly Rooms, Marine Parade. 

2..10 p.t[). — Conference resumed in the assembly 

.\NNr.\i. MEETiNfi.— Roads Section .3. 
Chairman — The President. 
2..'?0 p.m. — The following papers upon road matters 
(^which will be taken as read) will be dis- 
cussed in a committee room of the town 
hall: — 

(11) "Road iMaintenance and Improvement — 
Present and Future," by H. Collins. 
ASSOC. m.inst.c.e., menrber, deputy city 
engineer, Norwich. 

(12) "Road Maintenance — Present and 
Future," by C. Vawser, Assoc. m. 
iNST.c.E.i., member, engineering assistant, 
Herts County Council. 

(13) "Road Maintenance — Present and 
Future," by H. F. GuUan, m.inst.c.e., 
member, superintendervt of works, Bel- 

(14) "Road Maintenance — Pre.sent and 
Future," by S. J. Harpur, member, engi- 
neer and surveyor to the Mae.-teg Urban 
District Council. 

(15) "Modern Road Maintenance." by R. 
Drummond, member, county road sur- 
veyor, Renfrewshire. 

(16) " Road Construction and Maintenance 
under Modern Traffic," l>y W. J. Had- 
field, member, deputy city surveyor. 

(17) Drainage as Affecting Highway Traffic." 
by W. Gregory, member, district sur- 
veyor, Herts County Council. 

(IS) "Damage to Jfacadamised Roads by 
Mechanically -propelled Vehicles," by 
H. T. Wakelam, m.inst.c.e., member, 
county engineer, Middlesex. 
4.;W p.m. — Town planning conference closes. 
4.30 ii.iu. — Road section adjourns. 
(i..'i() p.m. for 7 p.m. — Reception in the minor hall. 
Roval Aquarium, by the president and Mrs. 

Annual diinner in the minor hall. Tjidies 
are especially invited to be pre.'^ent. 
Friday, July ISIh. 
10 a.m." The following paper (which will be taken 
as read), and any load papers not reached 
on the previous afternoon, will be dis- 
cussed : — 
(l;)) "Dry-weather Flow of Sewage," by S. S. 
Davson, ineniber. Ministry of Public 
Works, Cairo. 
Adjournment for lunch. 
2..;o p.m. — Visit to the works of the water company 
at Ormesby Broad, by invitation of Sir 
R. H. Tnglis Palgrave, F.R.s.(the chairman), 
and the directors of the Great Yarmouth 
Water Company. Tea will be .^^erved in the 
grounds. Works are in progress at Ormesby 
consisting of subsidiary re.servoir of a 
capacity of 2t».000,000 gallons. 

Mrs. Cockrill will be "At Home" at 
"Northbury," 12 Euston-road, Great Yar- 
mouth, from 3.30 to .0.45 p.m. 
5.;;i) p.m.— Arrive town hall. 

Sal unlay, July I'JIh. 
9.15 a.m.— Assemble at Beach Station, Midland and 
Great iNorthern Railway, and jjioceed to 
Potter Heigham, where launches will be 
entered for a trij) over the Broads. Re- 
freshments will be .served on board. Boats 
can only be obtained for 200, an early 
notice should therefore be given. 
'_'.lo |i.m.— .\ special train will be at Wroxliam Sta- 
tion to convey members to Brundall on the 
river Yare. 

The party will visit the grounds and 
gardens of the " Banks of the Yare " 
estate, where members are invited to after- 
noon tea by the proprietors. Messrs. 
Boulton & Paul. 

The mejnbers will at Brundall. 
To this point the president is providing all 
tickets and other accommodation. 

Exhibition op Pi,ans and Mouki-s. — An exliibitlon 
of plans and models of town planning schemes, 
kindly lent by members and others, will be hcM 
during the meeting in the town hall. 

Chas. .Tones, m.inst.c.i:.. 

Hon. if'ecrvlari/. 

JULT 4, 1913. 



Town Planxin'g Competition. 
Mr. Thomas Adams, town planning a.sslstant. 
Local Government Board, has kindly con.sented to 
net a.^ a.s.sessor in the comiietition to be held in con- 
nection with the conference. Drawing.s for the coni- 
petition should be sent in forthwith to Mr. J. W. 
Cockrill, l)oroiigh jiuveyor. Great Yannouth. 


A Tiieoting of the institution will be held in tli< 
Xorth-Ea.stern District at Harrogate on Salin.hiy. 
Octolier 4th. 

Thomas Cole, 

92 Victoria-street, S.W. Serretary. 


Official and similar advertisemania received up to 4.30 p.m. on 
rtturstlays w II bo inserted In tho following day's lasue, but ih^tr 

retionitiif far llitir desyaIcK are rfrom/nf ii JeJ to arratiije that they 
ikall reach Thk Survetoe office hy noon on Wednesdays to tmurt 
their inelmion in the veekln litt of nmmariet. Xuch adi:ert„ementi 
may, in eaee. of emergency onl, , he tele: honed (No. IS-M Molllor;,,, 
iuf>ieet to later eonfirm ittnv by letter. 

CLERK OF WORKS.— .July 5th.— Curpoialion of 
Cheltenham. — Borough Engineer. 

ford Rural District Council. £80 per annum.— Mr. E. 
Clements, clerk. 

ASSISTANT ENGINEER.— July .5th.— Cori>oration 
of St. Helens. £2 per week.— Mr. Arthur W. Bradley, 
liorough engineer and surveyor. 

SURVEYOR.— July 5th.— Bakewell Rural Districl 
Council. £125— £1.50 per annum.— Mr. A. Hawcs, 

CLERK OF WORKS.— July 5th.— Corporation of 
Manchester. £4 4s. per week.— Mr. J. M. McElioy, 
Manager, Tramways Department, 55 Piccadilly, 

DRAUGHTSMAN.— July 7th.— Corporation of Bir- 
mingham (Electrical Department). £130— £1C0 per 
annum. — Mr. R. A. Chattock, city electrical engineer 
and manager, 14 Dale-end. 

Urban District Council. £70 per annum. — Mr. H. 
Lyus, clerk. 

July 7th. — Wood Green Urban District Council. 
£05- £100.— Jlr. W. P. Harding, clerk. 

SANITARY INSPECTOR.— July 7th.— Hampstead 
Borough Council. £150 per annum. — Mr. A. P. 
Johnson, town clerk. 

CLERK OF WORKS.— July 7th.— Anniield Plain 
Urban District Council. £2 10s. per week. — Mr. T. L. 
Watchman, clerk. 

SEWER FOREMAN.— July 7th.— Corporation t.f 
Birkenhead. 45s. per week. — Mr. Charles Brown- 
ridge, borough engineer. 

ENGINEER'S ASSISTANT.— July Ttli.-Corporation 
of Worcester. £130 per annum.— IMr. T. Caink. city 

INSPECTOR OF NUISANCES.— July 8th.— Glutton 
Rural District Council. £1.30— £150.— Mr. J. Sumner 
Dury, clerk. Temple Cloud, Bristol. 

CLERK OF WORKS.— July 8th.— Leyton Urban 
District Coivncil. £.3 per week. — Mr. E. H. Essex, 

CLERK OF WORKS.— July 8th.— Neath Rural 
District Council. £2 10s. per week. — Mr. W. E. 
Clason Thomas, engineer. 

VALUER. — July 9th. — Dewsbury Assessment Com- 
mittee. — Mr. C. P. Pickersgill, clerk, Union Offices, 
Wellington-street, Dewsbui-y. 

ROLLER DRIVER.— July 9th.— Bethnal Green 
Borough Council. 38s. per week. — Mr. C. G. E. 
Fletcher, town clerk. 

ROAD FOREMAN.— July 10th.— Corporation of 
Chelmsford. £2 — £2 5s. per week. — Mr. George 
Melvin, town clerk. 

ROAD FOREMAN.— July 12th.— Reigate Rural 
District Council. 28s. per week. — Mr. A. J. Head, 

ROAD FOREMAN.— July 12th.— Hornsey Town 
Council. £2 5s.— £2 10s.— Mr. E. J. Lovegrove, 
borough engineer. 

ROAD SURVEYOR.— July 12th.— For the Western 
District Committee of the Stcwartry of Kirkcudbright 
County Council. £130 per annum, with £10 for 
upkeep of cycle, and £5 for office rent. — Mr. W. 
McConnel, district clerk, Gatehouse of Fleet. 

—Corporation of Richmond (Surrey). £90— £130.— 
Mr. H. Sagar, town clerk. 

HIGHWAY SURVEYOR.— July KHh.— Hinckley 
Rural District Council. £100 per annum. — Mr. John 
W. Preston, clerk. 

Hinckley Rural District Council. £120 per annum. — 
Mr. John W. Preston, clerk. 

July 17th. — Corporation of Daventi-J'. — Mr. Frederick 
Willoughby, town clerk. 

—July 21st.— Milton Regis Urban District Council. 
£175 per annum. — Mr. John Dixon, clerk, Town Hall, 
Milton Regis, Kent. 

1st.— Municipality of Alexandria.— The Director- 
General of the Municipality. 

COSTS CLERK.— For the Sheffield Corporation 
Water Department. — Mr. William Terrey, general 
manager, Town Hall. 

ment. £200— £230.— Crown Agents for the Colonies, 
Whitehall-gardens, London, S.W. 

ASSISTANT ENGINEER.— Public Works Depart- 
ment of British Guiana. £600 a year, with travelling 
expenses and subsistence allowance when absent from 
station. — Crown Agents for the Colonies, Whitehall- 
gardens, London, S.W. Quote M. 0,071 on left-hand 
top corner of application. 


Official and similar ad»ortl«emen-8 reoolv^d up to 4.30 p.m. on 
rtiuradays w.ll be inserted In the following day's issue, ia( Ihote 

re,.o,„Me for lhf,r ie.,,atch ar, recommended to -an^e that they 

.hall reach The aoETtroa office by noon on Wednesdays to enture 
their inclu.ion in the ujeekly U.t of tummariet. Such adcerU>en,entt 
may, in cate. of emergency only, be teteihoned (No. 1359 Holborn), 
lubjecl to later confirmation by letter. 

LIVERPOOL.— July 24th.— Designs for a sana- 
torium of 200 beds. Premiuias, 150, 100 and 50 guineas. 
—Mr. Edward R. Pickmere, town clerk. 

CHEPPING WY'COMBE.— September 1st.— Designs 
for town-planning the borough and an area imme- 
diately adjoining. Premiums, £25, £10 and £5. — 
Mr. T. J. Rushbrooke, borough surveyor, High 


Official and similar advsrtlEsmenis recoivsd up to 4.30 p "^ "" 
Ihursdays w.ll bo inserted In the following day's issue, but tho„ 

re, o,„ible lor their de.ralch are recommended to arranoe that they 
.hall reach Th> Scev»v.,e ogiee by noon o» Wednesdays to ensure 
'h^ir i.ic-/».i»« in the xecHy t„t of tummariel. Snch ad erli.ement, 
may, in ca,e. of emergency onU, be telephoned (No. i3o9 Holborn), 
lubj'rct to later confirmation by letter. 


DURSLEY.- July 5th.— For the erection of thirty- 
eight cottages, laying sewers, and making roads, for 
the rural district council.— Mr. A. W. Probyn, archi- 
tect and surveyor, 9 Berkeley-street, Gloucester. 

EDINBURGH. — July 5tii.— For mason's, slater's, 
and plasterers' work at a school, for the school board. 
— Mr. John Stewart, clerk, Edinburgh. 

GUILDFORD.— July 7th.— For alterations and re- 
pairs to schools, for the Education Committee.— Mr. 
C. G. Mason, borough surveyor. 

CUDWORTH. — July 7th. — For the erection of 
various buildings at the gasworks, for the urban 
district council.— Messrs. T. Newbiggin & Son, engi- 
neers, 5 Norfolk-street, Manchester. 

DEVON.— July 7th.— For the erection of a school, 
for the Education Conunittee. — County Education 
Architect, 1 Richmond-road, Exeter. 

HANWELL.— July 7tli— 14th. — For the erection of 
a destructor and disinfector house, chimney shaft, 
and steam disinfector, and vertical boiler, for the 
urban district council.- Mr. S. W. Barnes, surveyor. 



July 4, 1913. 

TROON.— July 7tli. — For the construction of con- 
crete sea wall and embankment, for the corporation.— 
Messrs. J. & H. V. Eaglesham, engineers, 22 Welling- 
ton-square, Ayr. 

>[ALDRNS AND COOMBE.— July 8tli.-For the 
erection of new council chamber and oflices, for the 
urhan district council.— Mr. R. H. Jeffe.s Municipal 
Buildings. New Maiden. 

SOMEliSET.— July Slli.- For the erection of a 
temporary sanatorium, for the county ((mncil.— Jlr. 
A. J. Pictor, Brut on. 

BARNES.— July 8th.— For building a keqjer's 
cottage at Barnes-common, for the urban district 
council. — Mr. G. Bruce Tomes, surveyor. 

DURHAM.— July 8th. — For erecting new schools, 
for the county council. — Messrs. Marshall & Tweedy, 
architects, 17 Eldon-sijuare, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

HILLSBOllOUftlt. — July 8th. — For building 
seventy-two cottages, for the rural district council.— 
Mr. W. Sinclair, clerk. 

DAVENTRY.— July Sth.— For a building for the 
water-softening plant, for the corporation. — Mr. F. 
Willoughby, town clerk. 

TWICKENHAM.— July 9th.— For the construction 
of about 6-50 ft. of stone-pitched inclined embankment 
along the river frontage of Radnor House pleasure 
ground, for the urban district council.— Mr. Fred. AV. 
Peai'ce, surveyor. 

EDINBURGH.— July 9th.— For the extension of 
public washhouses, for the corporation. — Mr. J. A. 
Williamson, architect, AVorks Office, City-chambers. 

WALLSEND MARSH (Kent).— July 9th.— For 
raising, widening, and refacing with clay about 
l.OSOyds, of sea wall, for the commissioners of sewers. 
—Messrs. J. T. AVelldon & C. Stokes, clerks, 11 Bank- 
street, Ashford. 

GREAT BERKHAMPSTEAD.-July 10th.— For the 
construction of an open-air swimming bath, for the 
iirban district council.— Mr. E. H. Adey, surveyor. 

STEPNEY.— July lOth.— For the erection of an iron 
and steel high-tension electricity generating station, 
offices, niessroonis, and lavatories, for the borough 
council.— Mr. M. W. Jameson, borough engineer, 
Municipal Offices, Whitechapel, E. 

MID-LOTHIAN.— July 11th.— For additions to 
Dalkeith police station, for the county council. — ^fr. 
A. G. G. Asher, county clerk, Edinburgh. 

MID-LOTHIAN.— July 11th.— For the erection of 
a police station, for the county council. — Mr. R. M. 
Cameron, architect, oS Great King-street, Edinburgh. 

KINGSTON - UPON - THAMES.— July 12th.— For 
repairs to a school, for the corporation. — Mr. R. 
Hampton Clucas, borough surveyor. 

PADDINGTON.— July 12th.— For the construction 
of abutments, with steps and appurtenant works of 
new footbridge, construction of steel work of footbridge 
over canal, or with ferro-concrete, for the borough 
council. — Mr. E. B. B. Newton, borough surveyor. 

AIIDLETON (Co. Cork).— July 12th.— For sinking 
a well and erecting a pump, for the rural district coun- 
cil. — Mr John Stanton, clerk. 

HEREFORDSHIRE C.C— July 14th.— For the 
erection of a secondary school for girls at Hereford, 
for the county council. — Mr. G. H. Jack, county sur- 
veytir and architect. Shire Hall. Hereford. 

HEREFORD.— July 14th.— For the erection of a 
girls' school, for the Education Committee. — Chairman 
of the Education Committee, Shire Hall, Hereford. 

TWICKENHAM.— July 1 Ith.— For the erection of a 
school, for the urban district council, — 5Ir. F. W. 
Pearce, surveyor. 

MOUNT.UN ASH.— July 1.5th.-F.,r carrying out 
Contracts Nos. .">, 6, and 7, of the Abercyon water 
scheiae, for the urban district council. — Mr. W. G. 
Thomas, surveyor. 

WALTHAMSTOW.— July 1.5th.— For repairs and 
improvements at public schools, for the Education 
Committee. — Mr. H. Prosser, architect. 

MANCHESTER. -July 15th.— For the erection of 
jiublic washhouse and baths, for the corporation. — 
City Architect, Town Hall. 

LEEDS. — July ICth.- For iron copings and pali- 
sades required in the erection of boundary walls. 

palisading, and formation of playground, for the 
Education Committee. — Education architect, Calverley 
street, Leeds. 

AVEST RIDING.— July 17th.— For repairs to public 
schools, for the county council. — !Mr. T. Graham, 
Education Offices, Obelisk-chambers, Barnsley. 

ISLINGTON.— July ISth.— For the erection of a 
greenhouse at the cemeteiy, East Finchley, for the 
corporation. — ]\Ir. Patten Barber, borough engineer. 

STAFFORD.— July 19th.— For the construction of 
120 houses, for the corporation. — Mr. AV. Plant, 
borough engineer and surveyor. 

MONAGHAN. — July 22nd. — For the construction 
of works of water supply, for the urban district 
council. — Jlessrs. Swiney & Croasdaile, engineers, 
Avenue-chambers, Belfast. 

AVEST SUSSEX.— July 2Sth.— For the erection of 
a school, and additions to a school, for the Joint 
Education Committee. — Jlr. H. P. Roberts, county 
education architect, Thurloe House, High-street, 

SHEERNESS.— July 29th.— For the construction 
of a covered service reservoir, settling and clear w^ater 
tanks, and approach roads, and sinking a borehole, 
for tlie urban district council. — ]\Ir. F. AV. S. Stanton, 
engineer, 3 A'ictoria-street, AA'estminster. 

AVELTON (No date). — For rebuilding a road bridge, 
for the rui-al district council. — Mr. AV. G. AV^atkins, 

Iron and Steel. 

HOUGHTON -LE- SPRING.— July r,ih.— For the 
supply of cast-iion spigot and socket pipes, for the 
urban district council. — Mr. J. W. Holbrook, engineer 
and surveyor. 

ILFORD. — July Sth. — For the supply and erection 
of iron fencing and gates, for the urban district 
council. — Mr. H. Shaw, engineer and surveyor. 

ISLE OF AVIGHT.— July 9th.— For the extension of 
a water main, for the rural district council. — Mr. 
H. B. Cullin, Brooklauds, AVootton. 

ECCLES.— July 12th.— For the erection of engine- 
room, supply of machinery parts and cast-iron pipes, 
and supjily of gas engine and suction producer gas 
plant, for the Sewage Disposal Committee. — Mr. G. AV. 
AA'illis, sewage works engineer, Peel Green-road, 

OUNDLE.— July 12th.— For providing and laying 
4-in. and 3-in. cast-iron water mains with valves and 
hydrants, for the rural district council. — Messrs. G. & 
F. AA'. Hodson, engineers. Bank Chambers, Lough- 

BROWNHILLS.— July 14th.— For the supply, erec- 
tion, and maintenance for twelve months of gas engine, 
suction gas plant, and three throw pump, capable of 
lifting 22,-500 gallons per hour, for the urban district 
council. — Mr. Robert Green, 37 Waterloo-street, 

ECCLES.— July 21st.— For the supply and fixing 
of mechanical stokers, for the corporation. — Borough 
Electrical Engineer. 


SEAFORD.— July .5th.— For the supply of 1,000 
tons of granite flake, for the urban district council. — 
Mr. B. A. Miller, surveyor. 

STRETFORD.— July 5th.— For paving work in rock 
asi)halt, for the urban district council. — Mr. E. 
Worrall, surveyor. 

LUTON.— Jidy 5th.— For the supply of broken 
granite, for the corporation. — Jlr. J. AV. Tomlinson, 
borough engineer and surveyor. 

GRIMSBY. — Jidy 5th. — For road widening and 
improvement, for the rural district council. — Surveyor 
and Engineer. 

AVANDSWORTH.— July 7th.— For making up and 
paving Shanuock-street. for the boi-ough council. — 
Mr. P. Dodd. borough surveyor. 

HETTON-LE-HOLE.— July 7th.— For the supply of 
tarred slag, fine tarred slag, and slag, for the urban 
district council. — Mr. J. Harding, surveyor. 

ROMFORD.— July 7th.— For the supply of blue 
Guernsey granite of various sizes, for the rui-al district 
council. — Mr. G. Lapwood, highway surveyor. 

July 4, 1913. 



KENSINGTON.— July 7th.— For the supply of 
1,000 tons of uncrushed shingle, for the borougli 
council. — 3Ir. W. Cliambers Leete, town clerk. 

WEMBLEY. — July 8th. — For providing foundation 
and sub-crust ready to receive a surface coating of 
" Quarrite " paving and of kerbing, and providing 
surface-water drains, for the urban district council. — 
Mr. Cecil R. W. Chapman, surveyor. 

BROMLEY. — July 8th. — For making up certain 
roads, for the corporation. — Borough Engineer. 

HAMMERSMITH. —July 9th. —For repairing 
margins of carriageway, for the borough council. — 
Mr. H. Mair, borough surveyor. 

TWICKENHAM.— July 9th.— For paving portion of 
a road with creosoted deal paving blocks, laid on 
concrete, and re-surfacing with asphalt macadam or 
bituminous-bound granite of two roads, for the urban 
district council. — Mr. Fred. W. Pearcc, surveyor. 

CHELMSFORD.— July 9th.— For paving High- 
street and portions of Moulsham-street and Spring- 
field-road, containing about 9,000 sq. yds., with 
creosoted deal blocks, for the corporation. — Borough 

HALE. — July 9th. — For making up a road, for the 
urban district council. — Mr. T. Blagbuin, surveyor. 

ROCHDALE.— July 9th.— For work of making u^i, 
for the corporation. — Borough Surveyor. 

LAMBETH.— July 10th.— For laying creosoted deal 
blocks, for the borough council. — Mr. Henry Edwards, 
borough engineer. 

LAMBETH.— July lOtii.— For the supply of paving 
setts, for the borough council. — Mr. Henry Edwards, 
borough engineer. 

COWDENBEATH.— July lOth.— For laying grano- 
lithic pavement, for the corporation. — Mr. J. S. Rae, 
burgh surveyor. 

STOURBRIDGE.— July 12th.— For paving l,.t70s(i. 
yds. of the High-street with creosote deal blocks, aiul 
relaying 630 sq. yds. of e.xisting blocks, for the urban 
district council. — IMr. Frank AVoodward, surveyor. 

.\TCHAM.— July 12th.— For the hire of a lO-ton 
steam roller, for the rural di.strict council. — Mr. E. 1*. 
Everest, clerk, St. John's-liill, Shrewsbury. 

HERTS.— July 14th.— For works of paving and 
kerbing, for the county council. — Mr. L'rban A. Smith. 
county surveyor, Hatfield. 

BURY. — July 14tli. — For making up certain streets, 
for the corporation. — Borough Engineer and Surveyoi-. 

For the construction of roads and sewers, for the urbaii 
district council. — Mr. A. J. Rousell, surveyor. 

WATFORD.— July 15th.— For the supply of 4,9.j0 
tons of broken granite chippings and dust, for the urban 
district council. — ^Ir. D. Waterhouse, engineer and 

BUSHEY.— July 1.5th.— For making up Part II. of 
Belmont-road, under the Private Street Works Act. — 
Mr. Ernest E. Ryder, surveyor. 

CASTLEFORD.— July 17th.— For works of street 
improvement, for the urban district council. — Sir. AV. 
Green, surveyor. 

ROTHERHAM.— July ISith.— For making u|i a road, 
for the corporation. — Mr. E. B. INIartin, borough 

ILKESTON.— July 22nd.— For making up Heanor, 
Burns, Green, AVhitworth, Westwick, and Nesfield 
roads, and three avenues off Stanton-road, for the 
corporation. — Mr. H. J. Kilford, borough surveyor. 

FEATHERSTONE.— July 26th.— For private street 
work, for the urban district council.— IMr. S. Chesncy, 
engineer and surveyor. 

WEST SUSSEX.— July 28th.— For tar-paving play- 
grounds, for the Joint Education Committee. — Mr. 
Hadyn P. Roberts, county education architect, Thurloe 
House, High-street, Worthing. 


MANCHESTER.— July 7th.— For the construction 
of main drainage work, for the Rivers Committee. — 
City Surveyor. 

AVEYMOUTH.— July 7th.— For scavenging the 
parish of Wyke Regis, for the rural district council.— 
Mr. H. A. Huxtable, clerk. 

BLAYDOK-ON-TYNE.— July 8th.— For the removal 
of contents of ashpits, for the urban district council.— 
Mr. H. Dalton, clerk. 

NEATH. —July 8th. —For the construction of 
sewerage and sewage disposal works, for the rural 
district council. — Mr. AV. E. Classon Thomas, engineer 
and surveyor. 

SALFORD.— July 8th.— For works of sewering and 
flagging, for the corporation. — Borough Engineer. 

HAY. — July 8th. — For laying sewers and manholes, 
for the rural district council. — Mr. J. Gunter, clerk, 

ABERDEEN.— July 8th.— For the construction of 
a sewer, for the corporation. — Mr. AV. AA'yack, burgh 

HOLLINGBOURNE.— July 9th.— For the construc- 
tion of a sewer and manholes, for the rural district 
council. — Mr. H. M. Apps, sanitary inspector, Sutton 
Vallance, near Maidstone. 

RAJISBOTTOM.— July 10th.— For the supply of 
2,800 cub. yds. of clean clinker for bacterial perco- 
lating filters, for the urban district council. — Messrs. 
J. Diggle & Son, 14 Victoria-street, Westminster, S.AA''. 

REIGATE.— July 10th.— For the supply of 
330 lin. yds. of straight and radiated 30-in. diameter 
concrete tubes, for the corporation. — Borough Surveyor. 

BOURNEMOUTH.— July 11th.— For the erection of 
a public convenience, for the corporation. — Mr. F. AA'. 
Lacey, borough surveyor. 

CHADDERTON.— July 11th.— For tlie construction 
of 1,375 yds. of 3-in. and 18-in. steel tube sewers, and 
77 yds. of 24-in. earthenware pipe sewers, with storm 
overflow chamber, and manholes, for the urban district 
council. — Jlessrs. J. Diggle & Son, 14 Victoria-street, 

STAINES.— July 12th.— For laying cast-iron pipe 
sewers and appurtenances, for the urban district 
council. — Mr. E. J. Barrett, engineer and surveyor. 

BROAVNHILLS.- July 14th.— For relaying stone- 
ware pipe sewer and alterations to existing tanks at 
Mosspits, for the urban district council. — Mr. Robert 
Green, 37 AA^aterloo-street, Birmingham. 

ALNAVICK.— July 14th.— For laying socketed 
earthenware pipes, for the rural district council. — 
Jlr. H. AV. AValton, clerk. 

LEEDS.— July 14th.— For sewering, draining, and 
kerbing streets on new estates, and other sewer and 
drainage works for three years, for the corporation. — 
Jh. AA^ T. Lancashire, city engineer. 

DUBLIN.— July 15th.— For the extension of under- 
ground conveniences, for the corporation.— Mr. M. J. 
Buckley, borough surveyor. 

AVINSFORD.— July 16th.— For work of sewerage, 
for the urban district council.— The Surveyor. 

AVHARFEDALE.— July 17th.— For the construction 
of sewerage, for the rural district council. — Mr. E. J. 
Silcock, engineer, 10 Park-row, Leeds. 

LEEDS.— July 21st.— For constructing a sewer, for 
the corporation.— Mr. AV. T. Lancashire, city engineer. 

MADRAS.— September 9th.— For the supply and de- 
livery of English stoneware pipes and specials, vary- 
ing from 4 in. to 21 in. internal diameter, and aggre- 
gating a total length of about 143 miles, for the cor- 
poration.— Messrs. James Mansergh & Sons, agents, 
o A^'ictoria-street, AA'estmin.stor, S.W. 

STANLEY (Durham).— For the construction of a 
settling tank, for the urban district council.— Mr. A. 
Routledge, surveyor. 

MATLOCK.— For the supply of about 5,700 cube 
vards of good, hard, clean and gauged clinker for 
bacterial percolating filters, for the urban district 
council.— Messrs. James Diggle & Son, 14 Victoria- 
street, AA^estminster, S.AV. 


CHEPPING AA'YCOMBE.— July 8th.— For a supply 
of best anthracite coal, for the corporation.— Mr, T. J. 
Ru.shbrooke, water engineer. 

CRAJILINCiTON.— July 8th.— For the erection of 
military paled fence and gates, for the urban district 
council.— Mr. AV. T. Coulsdon, surveyor. 

BROMLEY.— July 14th.— For painting and tar- 
paving at schools, for the Education Committee.— Mr. 
Fred. H. Norman, clerk. 

ISLINGTON.— July 18th.— For the installation of 
a heating apparatus to a greenhouse at the cemetery, 
for the corporation.— Mr. J. Patten Barber, borough 



July 4, l!U;j. 


Th6 Editor invites tk« co-oj)eratxon of SuRVETOR readers viith a vievi 
to makiuij the in/omiation giveA under this head as complete and 
accurate as possible. 

fiROMSGEOVE.— For the construction of sewers and sewage 
disposal works, for the rural district c< iincil.— Mr. W. 
Fiddian, Old Bank Offices, Stourbridge : — 

J. White, junr.. Handsworth £2.710 

A. T. Cowell. Kidderminster '2,617 

Currell, Lewis & Martin, Birmingham 2.349 

Martin & Element, Smethwick 2,246 

Jukes & Co., Tipton, Stafis 2.217 

Childs & Withers, Worcester * 2,065 

DOVER.— For forming a roadway and Iniilding boundary 
wall, for the corporation.— Mr. W. C. Hawke, borough 
engineer : — 
Acme Flooring and Paving Company, Limited, 

liondon £2,379 

Paramors, Limited. Margate 2.086 

(i. P. Trenthara, Limited, Bii-mingham 2,045 

Morton Pickett, Dover 1,789 

FAEN WORTH.— For tlie erection of a lire station, for tlie 

urban district council.— Mr. J. Hopwood, clerk of works : — 

S. J. Hodpkiss, Longcauseway, Farnworth. 

HPJBDEN BRIDGE.— Accepted for the reconstruction of 
footpaths, for the urban district council.— Mr. T. Wadding- 
ham, engineer and surveyor : — 

Reconstruction of Footpaths. — C. Wade, Luddendeufoot. 

New Stables.— H. Mortimer & Son. Hebden Bridge. 

Paving Works f2.000 sq. yds.).— 11. Kenyoii. Hebden Bridge. 

Paving Works (supply 350 tons Lancashire settsK— Brooks i- 
Brooks, Cloughfold, near Manchester. 

HORSFOKTH. — For making np a street, for the urban 
district conncil. — Mr. H. Eaven, surveyor : — 
J. Parkin, Horsforth, £1,704. 

LEISTON-CUM-SIZEWELL.— For the supply of water mains, 
for the urban district council. — Mr. J. Baldry, surveyor : — 
British Manuesmann Tube Company. London-wall, London, 
113d. per foot. 

MANSFIELD. — Accepted for laying sewer and manholes, 
for the corporation. — Mr. T. P. Colliuge, borough engineer 
and surveyor : — 

Nottingham-road Sewer.— J. Greenwood. Mansfield, £489. 

Carter-lane Sewer. — C. Fulcher, Mansfield, £129. 

Making np Holden-street. — J. Greenwood, Ma.nsfield, £313. 

Making up part of Burns-street. — C. Fulcher, Mansfield, ,£170. 

MAEGATE.— Accei)ted for the supply of fencing, for tlie 
corporation. — Mr. E. A. Borg, borough surve.vor : — 
W. Macfarlane & Co., Glasgow, £254. 

MERTHYE.— For the execution of private street works 
the corporation —Mr. A. J. Marshall, surveyor : — 


J. Jones, Merthyr 

D. Jones, Dowlais ... 
I. Murray Dowlais ... 

— Sutherland, Abercynon 

'I\ Farley. Stourbridge. Worcs 

S. Prothero. Merthyr Tydfil « 

Engineer's estimate, £286. 


T. Fai'Iey, Stourbridge, Worcs 

E. Owen. Cefn 

5. Prothero. Merthyr Tydfil 
J. Jones. Merthyr Tydfil 

— Sutherland. Abercynon 
D. Jones. Dowlais ' 

6. Cleary, Merthyr Tydfil 

Engineer's estimate, £1'20. 



MEE'l'UYR. — Accepted for the supply of limestone, 
macadam, gravel, limestone chippings, granite or basalt 
macadam and chippings, tar-macadam and chippings, for 
the corporation.- Mr. A. J. Marshall, borough surveyor :— 
Abercriban Quarries Company, Pontsticill.— Cwmbargoed 
£77; Pontsticill. £19: Dowlais. £176; Mountain Hare' 
£103; Merthyr. £65: Cyfartbfa. £75; Abercanaid and 
Pentrebach, £155; Troedyrliiw. £165. 
T. Edwards, Taffs Well.— Merthyr Vale. £220 
Abercriban Quarries Company, Pontsticill.— Aberfau. £110 
T Edwards. TafTs Well.— Treharris. £183; Llancaiach, £39 
Abercriban Quarries Company, Pontsticill.— Ccfn, £26. 

Granite or. Basalt. 
Central Wales Granite Company. Liidlow.-Mertbyr, £1,8.35. 
T. Lant, Builth Wells.— Pentrebacli, £415. 
Central Wales Granite Company. Ludlow.— Dowlais, £542 
'^- ^\'i}- .I^"'i*'' WeUs.-Troe.lyrhiw. £575; Merthyr Vale. 
£391; Treharris. £395; Nelson. £203. 
Limestone Tar-JIacadam. 
Abercriban Quarries Company, Pontsticill.— Dowlais £371 ■ 
Merthyr, £187; Troedyrhiw. £78; Merthyr Vale ^■78' 
Aberfan, £49; Treharris. £385; Pentrebach, £50. ' ~ ' 

^Im^J}^ '/'"■.."""■'■'L'"^ "thTTonthern sewage disposal 
scheme, for the urban district council.— Mr. G W Bird 

surve.vor: — "nu. 

T. Smart. Nottingham (•■! rn 

J. J. Shardlow, Leicester r,,;,, 

Wellermaii Brotliers. Sbeffiel.l '^"qj- 

T. W. Piduth. London .Vsm 

Parker & Sharp. York .Vr",,, 

W. Norman, Ripley- ,];5Bn 

^?f l!"'^^''';;:^""' making-up work, for tlie corporation — 

Mr. S. S. Piatt, borough surveyor:— 
Contract No. 391.- W. Shepherd & Sons, Milkstonc-ro:id 

Contract No. 392.-S. Kearsley, Walmsley-road, Leigh. 
Contract No. 393.— S Keareley, Walmsley-road, Leigh. 

STOUEBEIDGE.- For the erection of a ferro - concrete 
bridge, for the urban district council. — Mr. F. Woodward, 
surveyor : — 
Hobrougb & Co., Southgate-street, Gloucester, £312. 


Secretaries and others xcill oblige by sending 
fortiiCom\ng meetingu 

arly notice of dates ej 


5. — Association of Managers of Sewage Disposal Works : 
Annual General Summer Meeting at Stoke. 

5. — Institution of Municipal and County Engineers : Meet- 
ing at Leek. 

7-12. — Royal Sanitary Institute : Annual Congress and 

Exhibition at Exeter, 
16-19. — Institution of Municipal and County Engineers ; 
Annual Meeting at Great Yarmouth. 


Offlctai and similar advQrti^enients recalved up to 4.30 p.m. on 
Thursdays be inserted in tha fol!oiv:ng day'i iSbue, fmt thof^- 
r-«». QnnbU fur Ikeii lUj/a/c-.i. are re,om,a<r,i'l,d to arrange Ihat they 
th.xll reach Th« Sdkvkvor ufftre by nnan on Wed.iesday^ li emure 
Ikatr inclK'ion in the u-fckly list of tunmarici,. Surh ad erltsemenls 
may, in entt) of pmerqrncy unlii, be leUiho'inl {No. 13yj ilolbo 



I 1,1 letli 



The .\sse^siiieiit Committee of the Dewsbury Union 
invite applications from competent portions to survey 
and re-value certain classes of rateable property in 
each of the 13 Parishes of the Union — viz., Batley, 
Birkenshaw, Birstal, Dewsbury, Goinersal, Heck- 
mondwike, Liversedge, Mirfield, Morley, Ossctt, 
Kaveu.sthorpe, Soot hill Nether and Thornhill. The 
remuneration to be by a fixed suiii for carrying out 
the work. 

Partieuhir.s of the Conditions of Contract and the 
different classes of property and the number of items 
may be obtained on application to the undersigned 
by enclosing a stamped addressed foolscap envelope. 
Persons desirous of Contracting must send written 
applications stating the total sum thoy will require 
for carrying out the work, accompanied by testi- 
monials of recent date, to me, the undersigned, not 
later than W a.m. on Wednesday, the 9th day of July, 
1913, and those selected will receive due notice of the 
day of appointment. Canvassing the Guardians will 

No allowance made for estimates, and the lowest or 
any Tender not necessarily accepted. 

(By order) 

Clerk to tho Assessment Committee. 

Union (JJlices, Wellington-street, 

June 23, 1913. 





(Amended Advertisement.) 

.\lililications are invited for the appointment of a 
Conespundonce and General Clerk, at a commencing 
salary of £6-5 per annum, rising to a maximum of 
ClUO per annum, subject to approved and satisfactory 

Preference will be given to candidates who liave 
liad experience in a Municipal Engineer's Office. 

Applications (on Forms to be obtained from the 
undersigned), endor.sed "Correspondence Clerk," 
must be received by me not later than 5 p.m. on 
I^Fonday, the 7th July, 1913, accompanied by copies 
of three recent testimonials. 

Canvassing, either directly or indirectly. Avill lie 
an absolute disqualification. 

(By order) 


Clerk of tlic Coiuu'll. 
•I'.nvn Hall. 

Wood Green. 

June 26, 19J3. (,595) 

The Surveyor 

Hub Municipal anb Countis Bnoineer. 

Vol. XU\'. 

JULY 11, 1913. 

No. 1,121. 

Minutes of Proceedings. 

Tht' reports on the subject of 
Points from the town planning dealt to a larM 
""Xp^rfs'*"^ extent .vith matters .vhich are 
controvuvsial, or, if they are not 
to be so regarded, must be considered such as 
demand the exercise of a large amount of judo-ment 
if useful compromises are to be arrived at. To the 
engineer the planning of a town with a view to the 
establishment of effective lines nf communication 
may sometimes seem to be of greater importance 
than it really is, having regard to the jiurpose of 
the town as a place of residence and of liusiness : 
and it is possible to over-estimate the importance 
of that part of business which consists in moving- 
goods and transporting persons, while under- 
estimating the importance of the effective display 
of goods, facilities for making purchases, and pro- 
vision for the carrying on of the business of mer- 
cantile and financial oflices in reasonably comfort- 
able, well-lighted, and quiet surroundings. The 
architect, on the other hand, is souietimes apt to 
over-estimate the importance of certain aesthetic 
and practical considerations, and in other cases 
favours a scheme of planning whidi wiiuld make 
the cost per head of the drainage and water supply 
systems very high. It is sometimes forgotten, too, 
that, unlike water pipes, seweis must be laid at 
suitable gradients, and, as pointed out in sevei'al of 
the papers, the sewerage system is tlierefore one of 
the ruling factors in town planning. A point that 
has been noted by Mr. Schmidt and Mr. Verstraete 
is that due i-cgard should be paid to the orientation 
of streets, the former pointing out the signifi- 
cance of this faetoi- as legards the fi-onts and 
backs of houses, and the lattei- insisting upon the 
principle that streets should never run due north 
and soutli. This writer's remarks on the rectangular 
and other systems of planning are worth careful 
attention, but engineers will protably regard as 
more important tiie consideration that the nature of 
the site rather than any formal "system" will 
determine the scheme of streets and open spaces. 
J[i\ de ^ aere draws attention to the importance of 
planning with regard to prevailing winds, and we 
believe that it is now recognised that factories or 
works which produce smoke or obnoxious fumes 
should be located at the end of a town opposite to 
that from which prevailing winds blow. The point 
seems, however, to demand some further considera- 
tion, since smoke and smells are most troublesome 
when cairied across a town by slow, creeping winds 
or very gentle cnrients and are much less tiouble- 
some when they are driven along by strong winds, 
especially if it be laining at the time. A perusal 
of the papers suggests the consideration that in 
town planning the procedure to be adopted should 
depend upon whether the town may be planned as a 
single city of permanent form, to be extended if 
necessary by the establishment of more or less 
remote and defined satellites, or whethei-, on the 

contrary, it has to be so planned tliat it will be 
capable of gradual growth from its edges. Recent 
developments in methods of transport suggest that 
the planning of a mother city, with a view to the 
subsequent creation of distinct satellites, may some- 
times be desirable, the principle being already 
recognised by the school of town planners who desire 
to establish or to reserve lings of open country 
around existing towns and to provide for extension 
by the establishment of satellite villages. 

Several reporters discuss the question of gradients 
suitable for city streets, and Mr. Everard considers 
that a new road should never be designed with a 
gradient of less than 1 or 2 pei- cent., an important 
matter of principle to which reference has been 
made in these pages. In conclusion, it may be 
pointed out that the papers on town planning form 
a very useful collection, dealing with the subject 
from many points of view ; and the attention of city 
engineers may specially be directed to the papers by 
Mr. Verstraete, Mr. dc Vaere, and Mr. Lewis, in 
which they will find passages which throw light on 
some of the less studied principles of town planning. 

Some time ago we expressed 
The "Wire-'bus" tijg ^jg^ tliat on good, hard 
Maintenance. ™^'l'^ the tendency of railless 
trolley vehicles to form ruts 
would not be a matter of great importance. Where 
these vehicles run on important routes radiating 
from large towns such a tendency will be reduced, 
not only by the strength and hardness of the road 
crust and pavement, but also by the frequent 
swervings necessary in a road with a large amount 
of traffic. Ou country roads the tendency to form 
ruts will be greater, and might alone be held to 
justify the adoption of the contiibntory principle. 
If we also consider the amount of interference with 
rural road conditions involved in the ex-ection of 
poles and wires, and the fact that the source of 
power is not taxed for road, we find 
enough difference between the ti-ackless trolley 
vehicle and the free motor omnibus to justify the 
recognition of the principle of contribution in the 
case of the former without extending it to cover 
that of the latter. The Road Board already has 
power's to make, towards the cost of improving 
motor omnibus routes, such contributions as may, 
in many cases, considerably reduce the subsequent 
cost of maintenance, and, rather than adopt the view 
that motor omnibuses should make direct contribu- 
tions towards the cost of maintenance, we hold the 
opinion that the Act should be so amended that, 
when necessary, the Road Board can contribute 
towards such costs. It would be a narrow policy to 
restrict the running of motor omnibuses otherwise 
than by debarring them from roads which are 
unsuited for such traffic. The vehicle which is 
actually tied to a particular route is in quite a different 



July 11, 1913. 

case. Capital bas been spent on that route, and 
power can be supplied to it to any required 
extent. It is to the interest of the promoters 
to carrj' as many passengers as possible over that 
particular road, and branching involves the expendi- 
ture of additional capital. Motor omnibus services, 
on the contrary, can be branched to any extent, and 
may be confined, without loss of economy, to a few 
hour's in the day. In summer vehicles can be sent 
further afield, and diversions can be made on single 
occasions to deal with large gatherin-s of people. 
Another important advantage of the free vehicle 
service, especlallv from the road surveyor's point of 
view, is that it can be diverted when roads are under 
repair . , 

The contributory principle, in the case ot raiUess 
trolley-'buses, has beeu recognised in the decision of 
Parliament as regards the Bills of the Chesterfield 
Corporation and the Rhondda Tramways Company. 
A Select Committee of the House of Conmons has 
required the former to pay the Derbyshire County 
Council the whole of the extra cost which will be 
incurred in maintaining and repairing the route 
taken by the " wire-'buses"— if we may suggest the 
term— in so far as the extra cost can be attributed 
to those vehicles The Rhondda Company has, 
however, only to pay one-third of such increased 
cost and, anyhow, not more than |d per car mile. 
In both cases the undertaking will be required to 
pay one-third 'of the cost of such widenings as may 
be necessary on account of the institution of the 
services. The reasons for the difference between the 
proportions of the maintenance contributions 
demand some consideration, and it may also be well 
to consider whether it would not be better, in every 
case, to put such contributions on a car-mile basis : 
but, for the moment, the most important fact before 
us is that the coutrilsutory principle is now recog- 
nised, and will soon be in force in Derbyshire and in 
South 'Wales. 

Rivers Pollution 

and the 

Protection of 

Water Supplies. 

■With regard to trade wastes, some replies express the 
opinion that these should not undei- any circum- 
stances be allowed to pollute a stream, while others 
believe that under certain circumstances some 
deo-ree of pollution, involving even malodorous and 
unsightly conditions, may be permitted. The whole 
of the opinions thus recorded are extremely interest- 
ing', and deserve careful study by all who are 
interested in this subject, and if a similar set of 
opinions could be obtained from all our own sanitaiy 
officers, surveyors, chemists, bacteriologists and 
sewage works managers by some competent oi-ganisa- 
tiou such as the Institution of ilunicipal and 
County Engineers or the Royal Sanitary Institute, 
and a careful digest prepared of the results, it 
would undoubtedly be of great assistance to those 
who will be engaged in considering the Bill which 
we understand is, sooner or later, to be laid before 

On several occasions during the 
past }-ear or two we have re- 
marked in these columns that, in 
spite of the large rivers and other 
bodies of water available for the 
discharge of sewage in the United States of 
America, the question of the pollution of rivers and 
water supplies has been gradually becoming more 
and more acute. In this connti'v we have appointed 
Royal Commissions to deal with the matter, and we 
are now waiting, with more or less patience, for the 
recommendations of the last of these Commissions 
to be placed on the statute book. In this connection 
it is not out of place to ask whether we are again to 
be disappointed and another Parliamentary session is 
to pass without anything being done in this 
direction ':* 

In America such a comprehensive method as oui- 
" Royal Commission ' has not so far been adopted to 
investigate this subject. Possibly Americans have 
become wise by our experience, and intend to adopt 
other methods which will secure more immediate and 
])ractical results. Among these must undoubtedly 
be reckoned the summaiy of replies given to a sei'ies 
of questions sent out by Mr. Paul Hansen, engineer 
to the State Water Survey of Illinois to some 
seventy or eighty sanitary officers, engineers, 
chemists and bacteriologists. These questions were 
submitted with the view of formulating the best set 
of general jjrinciples, or working h>']3otlieses, tliat 
up-to-date experience and available facts will permit 
for the purpose of forming and guiding popular 
opinion. On another page we print these questions 
together with extracts from a digest of the rejilies, 
for which we ai-e indebted to our esteemed contem- 
porary the Eii'jhieerimj liccord. 

It will be noticed that in the matters of dividing 
the country into watershed areas, with central 
control, the opinions agree with the recommendations 
of our Royal Commission. On the other hand, thev 
do not coni-ider it feasible to fix by law the limits 
within which stream (lollutiou may be permitted. 

The London 
Traffic Problem. 

To a deputation representing 
the Royal Institute of British 
Ai'chitects. the Surveyors' Insti- 
tution, the Institution of Municipal and County 
Engineers and the London Society, and another 
representative of forty-eight local authorities in 
Greater London, the Garden Cities and Town 
Planning Association and the Greater London 
Advisory Town Planning Committee, among other 
bodies, the Prime Minister on Thui-sday of last week 
gave a sympathetic I'esponse on the problems of the 
co-ordination of town-planning schemes around 
London and the appointment of an authority to deal 
with this as well as the question of traffic. Without 
some agreement among authorities, town-planning 
schemes maj- fail to attain their objective so far as 
the construction of adequate arterial roads is cou- 
cei-ned, and upon this question public opinion will 
probably agree with ilr. Asquith, that a useful pur- 
pose would be served by the repi-eseiitatives of local 
authorities meeting in conference under the guidance 
of the President of the Local Government Board to 
discuss the subject. We notice that one daily paper 
objects that this can only mean delay, and that what 
is wanted is the passing of a short Act of Parliament 
giving powers to the Local Government Board. 
But matters of this kind can hardly be dealt with 
in this hasty fashion. In a sense it would be re- 
versing the proper order of things, for, obviously, if 
an agreement is to be " hammered out" between the 
parties — this was the phrase used by the Prime 
ilinister — it is important to have piior consultat on 
on essential points in dispute as well as fi'ee dis- 
cussion on matters involving a conflict of local 
interests. It is rather curious to observe that the 
newspaper critics, who are not unwilling to deal 
somewhat drastically with this question, display at 
the same time a somewhat confusing measure of 
sympathy with the claims of the borough councils 
to veto the tramway schemes of the London County 
Council. The creation of a Traffic Authority for 
London, the other subject alluded to by I\Ir. Asquith, 
is not the simple matter tliat it is so generally con- 
sidered, especially if the authority is to be invested 
with anything approaching plenary powers of expen- 
ditui'e or the ordering of expenditure. But it is 
becoming a less difficult problem in view of the 
trend of public opinion towards bi-oadeuing the 
basis of the financial responsibility of the heavier 
forms of motor ti'affic foi' the u]ikeep of the i"oads. 

The Royal 

Sanitary Institute 


The Annual Congi-ess of the 
Royal Sanitaiy Institute was 
opened this week at Exeter, 
and i.>ii Tuesday Mr. Thomas 
Moulding. M.ixsT.c.K., the city engineer, presided at 
the confeience of engineei-s and surveyors which is 
a usual feature of these gatherings. By way of 
introduction to his address Mr. Moulding commented 
on the strong light of criticism which is brought to 
bear upon the work of municipal engineers, not, 
indeed, in any spii'it of complaint, but rather in 

July 11, 1913. 



nriler to emphnsist' the \alue which attaches to 
lioiiest coiunieut. "(.'riticisms, however unpleasant, 
are not unwholesome, and it behoves the enajineer, 
especially in the municipal line, to see and hear 
wliat is being said about his work by the person 
commonly termed the man in the street, to enable 
liim to gausfe the wants of the ratepayer." The 
main body of the address was concerned with the 
three subjects of road-making, housing and .sewage 
disposal, all of which it will be generally agreed 
are of supreme importance at the present time. In 
regard to road-making, Jlr. Moulding looks for a 
real sohition of present difficulties in improved 
methods of construction rather than in mere surface 
treatment, and in this connection he pointed to the 
value of e.xperimental and research work. The im- 
portance to any community of good and adequate 
housing accommodation is a topic which ought not 
to require much labouring in these enlightened days. 
Unfortunately, however, the ordinary ratepayer is 
apt to class a housing scheme as " uuremunerative," 
leaving entirely out of account the benefits which 
are derived by all sections of the population by a 
healthier working class and a lower death rate. 
These are matters which cannot be measured in 
pounds, shillings and pence, but which are none the important public assets. Mr. Jloulding there- 
fore did well to express clearly the opinion, both 
as engineei- and ratepayer, that every opportunity 
should be grasped by local authorities to abolish 
•slum dwellings and to provide in their place good, 
substantial dwellings at reasonable rents, together 
with wide streets so as to give as much fresh air as 
possible to those who by foi-ce of circumstances are 
compelled to be town dwellers. 

The subject of sewage disposal, to which the last 
part of Mr. Moulding's address was devoted, was a 
peculiarly appropriate topic in Exeter — the scene of 
the pioneer work of Mr. Donald Cameron in connec- 
tion witli the septic tank. Mr. Moulding paid a 
graceful tribute to his eminent predecessor, and 
made an interesting announcement as to possible 
improvements to he made in the Exetei' works. 
A very interesting address concluded with a plea 
for both efficiency and economy in municipal engi- 
neering woi'k, regard being had first and foremost, 
however, to etiiciency. 

Sewage and 

Some lime ago reference was 
made in these columns to tlie dis- 
posal of sewage bj- disehaiging 
it into fishponds. An experiment on tliese lines 
has now been in operation at Strassburg for three 
years, and a depiitation from Hamburg recently 
inspected these woi'ks and reported favoui'ably upon 
the results attained. In the German contemporary 
from which these particulars are taken it is actually 
stated that, contrary to other previously existing 
view^s, the self-purifying capaeitj- of water is greater 
when its velocity of flow is slow than when its 
cui'rent is rapid, as in the lattei- case fewer o)gan- 
isnis are enabled to establish themselves and give 
rise to the development of animal and vegetable 
life which takes place in a pond. A Diiector of 
Fisheries, in describing this metlind, expressed the 
opinion that it possesses great advantages ovei' dis- 
posal by broad irrigation or by percolating filters, 
and it is claimed that the financial result,") are 
excellent. In addition to the breeding of fisJi, ducks 
and rabbits are kept, the latter for the purpose of 
feeding upon the luxui'iant growth of grass on the 
banks of the pond. The fish, such as carp and pike, 
taken from this pond had a fine appearance, and no 
fault could be found with their taste when cooked. 

When refen-ing to this matter on a previous occa- 
sion we did not venture to assume that the idea 
would be taken seriously, but there is evidence that 
it is receiving considerable attention in Gerrnanj-. 
In a recently published book it is stated that it has 
been ascertained by experiments that fish of the carp 
family survived in a pond which recei vedse wage to the 
extent of one-tentli of its volume every four to eight 

days witliout causing accumulations of sludge at the 
bottom. It is also estimated that wliile an acre of 
land can only deal with the sewage from 10(1 people, 
a half-acre pond stocked with carp could continu- 
ously receive the sewage from SOU persons withf)ut 
causing foul decomposition. While we are well 
aware that fish will thrive in well-purified sewage 
effiuents, we are not satisfied that crude sewage can 
be discharged for any length of time at the rates 
mentioned into a pond without causing a serious 
nuisance, or that, even if fish such as carp and tench 
could survive these conditions, there would be any 
sale for them as food. Further expei'ience is neces- 
sary, and it will be wiser and more agreeable that 
others should make the experiments. 

The programme for the foi tietli 
Institution of annual general meeting of the 
Municipal and t i-i *• r nr ■ ■ i i 

County Institution oi Municipal and 

Engineers. Countj^ Engineers was issued last 
week, and the arrangements 
which have been made are .so attractive that some- 
thing like a record attendance should result. The 
meeting, which will last four days — from Wednesday 
to Saturday of next week — will take ]dace at Great 
Yarmouth under the pi'esidency of Mr. J. ^V. 
Cockrill, ji.iNST.c.E., the borough surveyor ; and in 
connection with it there will be held the third Town 
Planning Conference promoted by the institution. 
The value of the meetings and conferences organised 
bj' the institution is frequently recognised by the 
local authorities of the towns in which they are 
held, and it is pleasing to observe that on this 
occasion there will be an official welcome lij^ tlie 
Mayor, not only of the members of the institution, 
but also of the delegates to the conference. It 
would be quite impossible to enumerate here the 
titles of the nineteen papers which are to be read, 
full particular.s of which are in the programme to 
be found in another column. We may say, however, 
that the names of the authors are an aunjle 
guarantee that they will be thoroughly instinctive 
and will form a sound basis for discussion. During 
the meeting there will be some interesting visits and 
excursions, while several social functions, including 
the annual dinner, have been arranged. An exhibi- 
tion of plans and models of town-planning schemes 
will be held in the town hall. Altogether the 
programme is so excellent that a very lai'ge number 
of members and their friends w'ill no doubt be 
attracted to Great Yarmouth. We feel that we are 
only expressing the feelings of our readers in wish- 
ing the new jaresident a highly successful annual 
meeting as a prelude to an equallj' successful year 
of office. 

:;= « * 

.,. , ^. , The difficulty of tracing under- 

The Location of i i • i 

Underground Pipes- ^™""'^ ^""{^K ™*/"« when no 
exact record has been kept ot 
their position is considerable, and the work of find- 
ing them is sometimes too costly and difficult to be 
practicalile. The value of the simple electrical 
devices which enable the modern water engineer to 
trace such mains accurately without disturbing the 
ground is great. It is. for instance, quite an easy 
matter to connect one of the wires of a battery to a 
house stopcock and the other to a hydrant or valve 
on the town main and thereby to induce a current 
of electricity along tlie service pipe running between 
the main and the house. The pipe then becomes a 
conductor, and when an electric coil is bi'ought within 
the electric field of this conductor, a current is in- 
duced in the coil which will cause a sound in the 
telephone receiver connected to the coil. This 
sound will increase or dimmish as the coil approaches 
or recedes from the underground conduotoi", but will 
cease when directly over it. Such a device as used 
in the City of Chicago was described recently in 
Eni/i'neeniiy News of New York. Small batteries 
such as those used in an automobile are used for 
creating the necessary current. It is needless to 
dwell upon the obvious advantages of the method. 



July 11, 1913. 

Institution of IVIunicipal and County Engineers. 


At the meeting of the Institution of jMuniciij;il ami 
County Engineers held on Saturday last at Leek. 
Staffordshire, the chair was ocoupied by the pre.-^ident, 
Mr R. J. Thomas (Bucks comity), and there were also 
present Messr.";. W. Plant (Stafford), .T. H. Walters 
(Condeton), W. B. Madin (Kushden), W. E. Beacham 
(Leek), A. M. Kinnison (Leek), F. C. Cook (Nuneaton, 
hon. district secretary), J. Lobley (Stoke-on-Trent), R. 
Burslam (Congleton). E. J. Goodacre (Nuneaton). S. 
Gibson (Biddulph). J. R. Hadfield (Uttoxeter), W. 
Slater (Leek), T. A. Taylor (Leek), J. V. Medley (Stoke), 
G T. Stevenson (Leek). T. Mason (Leek), T. H. Booth 
(Leek), H. Henshaw (Leek). R. M. Carr, H. Garside 
(Macclesfield) and C. \Vat.son (Leek). 

Mr. Thomas Mason, j.p., chairman of the district 
council, gave the meniliers a very sincere and hearty 
welcome to the tnwn of Leek. He was .sorry that tlio 

Mr. Thomas Mason, j.p., 
Cboirman of the Leek Uibau District Coinioil. 

number of members was not much larger, but perhaps 
their unfortunate geographical position had mucli to 
do with tliat. Leek was a very unpretentious, un- 
assinning part of the county of Stafford. Perhaps 
their great draw-back had been their modesty. 
Although they were not in the full glare of the "flash- 
light, they would find that Leek had a history which, 
according to its size and its capabilities, was not of 
an unimportant character. He hoped, representing 
as they did large counties and nuinicipalities, tliey 
would see something to commend and to criticise in 
a friendly way, in order that they at Leek might im- 
prove their town. They were small among the com- 
nujnities, but they showed signs of that progress which 
was largely due to gentlemen of their profession, 
whereby they were seeking to beautify and improve 
their town so as to make it a jilace satisfactory to 
look upon and dwell in, and tending to comfort and 
long life. There was one thing in which they did 
hold their own with the best communities— that was 
in the question of water. They had a water supply 
which was second to none in the kingdom, and which 
was cheaper than most in procuration and distribu- 
tion. The water undertaking was under his charge as 
chairman of the Water Committee. That was a pro- 
gressive town. Their duty and aim was to keep up 
the town with efTieiency and maintain its repute as a 
clean, healtliy town. 

The President, on behalf of the institution, thanked 
the chairman of the council very sincerely for his 
cordial welcome to Leek. They appreciated every word 
he had said about the town of Leek. He wished to 

say it was not at all the fact that because a town 
was small members of their institution did not learn; 
indeed, his own personal feeling was that, as the 
majority of their members represented the smaller 
towns, it was to them an education to go to towns 
of that size rather, possibly, than to tlie larger towns, 
where the w-ork was not .so evident and the details 
.so elaborately worked. He found there admirable 
drawings, whicli were most creditable to their engi- 
neer: and he, personally, was certain in the visits they 
would pay to works they would learn something of 
advantage to the councils they served. The first re- 
quirement of a town was good water at a reasonable 
rate, and from tlie remarks of the chairman of the 
council he gathered that Leek was fortunate in that 
respect. He liad not lieen in Leek before. l)ut he in- 
quired from friends at Aylesbury who knew the town, 
and they assured him when he came to Leek he would 
see a nice, clean town, well managed, and desirable 
iu every respect for imitation by towns of equal size. 
From what he had seen already he was assured that 
their promise would be fulfilled. They greatly appre- 
ciated their reception that day, not only as an institu- 
tion, but as an indication that ]\Ir. Beacham, who 
was an honoured member of their institution, had 
the confidence and respect of the council he served. 

Mr. T. Mason (Leek) said the town was largely 
indebted to Mr. Beacham for the improvements of 
the past ten years. The town recognised him to be 
a very capable officer, and respected him. Much 
of their improvement was due to his lirains and 
guidance and suggestion. 

Mr. F. C. Cook read the minutes of the last dis- 
trict meeting at Birmingham on .Jaiuiary 23rd, which 
were confirmed. 

Mr. Cook read letters of apology for non-attend- 
ance from Messrs. A. D. Greatorex (West Bromwieh), 
E. H. Crump (Hinckley). Brettell (Rowlev Regis), 
G. W. Lacey (Oswestry), and S. S. Platt (Rochdale). 


^Ir. F. C. Cook read a letter from the secretary of 
the institution (Mr. T. Cole) with reference to the 
formation of a Mutual Defence Fund. 

The Pbesident explained that the letter had been 
circulated to all the districts with the object of 
getting the views of the members. At the annual 
meeting in Yarmouth a fortnight hence Mr. Prescott 
would read a paper on the question, and most of 
the districts had practically posti)oned expressing 
their views until they had heard the paxaer of Mr. 

Mr. F. C. Cook thereupon proposed that they 
defer the consideration of the proposal until the 
next district meeting, and this was agreed to. 


Mr. Cook next read a letter from the Nortli- 
Eastern District suggesting the liolding of movable 
meetings of the council of the institution. He took 
it that the suggestion was made so that provincial 
members might have more opportunity of attending 
the meetings of the council than at jiresent. 

JMr. W. B. Madin (Rushden) thought it would be 
desirable if the council would hold their meetings 
in provincial towns. Some of the members lived a 
long distance from London, and it was a consider- 
able expense to them to attend the meetings. 

The President said if the district made any re- 
presentation it would be considered by the council. 

Mr. Madin exi)lained that he was not a member 
of that district, but of the Eastern District. 

Mr. W. Plant (Stafford) said there were a good 
many points for and against this question, and he 
thought it should be referred to a more representa- 
tive meeting. 

The President: Tlie matter is entirely in your 

Mr. Cook said he quite agreed with Mr. Plant. 
Tliey had only heard one side of the question iip to 
now— that of the North-Eastern District. He thought 
it should be deferred until a more representative 

On the proposition of Mr. Plant, seconded by 
^Ir. E. J. Goodacre (Nuneaton), this was agreed to. 

.ji'Lv 11. nu.j 




Ml-. J. H. Walters (Congleton, proposed a vote 
o£ condolence with Mrs. Carter Bell on the death 
of her husband. 

The President felt certain it was the unanimous 
desire of the members to accord this vote of 

The vote was passed in silence. 

Consideration was afterwards given to the follow- 
ing paper: — 

By W. E. Beacham, 

Surveyor iiu'l Wiiter Eiitriueer to tlie Urlmn Distj-ict Council. 

[Mr. Beaeliam U a uutive uf MuiimoutbsUirc. His scholastic educa- 
tion was completed at the Newport CoUeKiuto ScUfol, and he was 
articled and received his early professional traininji in the same town. 
He has Bixccessively held appointments at Newport and Abercaru 
(Mon.;, Barry (Glamorganshire), and Rochdale. In 190i) he was 
appointed assistant Itorough turveyor of Stoke-on-Trent, but leliu- 
quished this appointment in favour of that of engineering assistant to 
Mr. S. S. Piatt, borough sui-veyor of Kochdale. In 190H ho received 
the appointment of !^^rveyor and waterworks engineer to the Town 
Council of Leek, beiuf^ selectad from among 142 applicants. He has 
had coui-iderable experience in municipal and architeciul'al work, 
having been engaged upon schemes of sewage disposal, water supj'lj', 
mail! sewerage works, street-making, designing and erecti' n or the 
various buildings associated with municipal government, private and 
public improvements, and during the past ten years has designed and 
carried out by direct laloiir many works of public improvement in the 
town of Leek, besides being responsible for all architectural work in 
connection with the council, in addition to acting as engineer of the 
water undertaking. He possesses the diploma of the Institution of 
Municipal and County Engineers, also that of the Eoyal Sanitai-y 
Institute, and is a member of these and other bodies.l 

When, the author received the intimation from the 
.secretary of the West Midland District that (he 
Executive Connnittee tliought that a meeting should 
be held at Leek, it was regarded more in tlie light of 
a compliment that was desired to be paid to the 
town and its representatives than to ))imself as its 
engineer and surveyor, and thougli the view was 
expressed that after the completion of ten years of 
service the author could not point to works of any 
great magnitude, it n:ust not be assumed that real 
municipal progress had not been made ; but, seeing 
that the institution had never met at Leek, and 
considering the importance of the town, the author 
was prevailed upon to trouble you with this paper, 
in the hopj of proving that there arc works of 
interest to the members of the institution even in 
the smaller towns. The author is sure that liis 
council ap]>reciate the compliment paid, and hoiie, 
with him, tliat tlie visit may iirove of interest tu 
the members. 


Leek is known throughout the county of Stafford- 
shire as " The capital of the Moorlands," and lias 
figured largely in the pages of history. In earliest 
records (according to Sleigh's "History of Leek"). 
Leek, or Leke, is variously written r!e Lrria ivl Lfi/m. 
As to the origin of the name of the town, authorities 

incline to the opinion that it is derived from the 
Cymric hcJi, a stone, which the natui-e of the country 
in its immediate neighbourhood seems to corroborate, 
rather than from leak, which is equivalent in its 
meaning to water, and from which are evidentl.v 
derived Lech, a river in the Netherlands, Luh. 
another river in South Germany, and Leuk in Swit- 
zerland, noted for its hot springs, or from the old 
Norse liik, Anglo-Saxon lie, a corpse. Leek in the 
old Celtic meant a desert place, and this derivation 
is favoured by the vast tracts of wild moorland, with 
their infinite distances of lirown waste, rolling 
mists, and snow-capped Roches. In Domesday Book 
it is thus referred to: "The King holds Lee, and 
Earl Algar (son of the celebrated Godiva of Leofric. 
Saxon Duke of Mercia) has held it. There is one 
hyde (which some suppose to be 120 English acres, 
and others, again, very much more), with its 
appendages." In the time of Edward the Confessor 
>t was valued at £4. 

In August. 1723. tlie Manors of Leek, Leekfrith. 
and Rudyard were sold to the Lord Chancellor Mac- 
clesfield for £10,354 7s. 8d. The great Lord Chan- 
cellor was born, so Lord Campbell writes in his 
" Lives of the Lord Chancellors," on ,Tuly 23. 1666. 
in an old stone house, still remaining at the top of 
the market-place. The present lord of the manor is 
tlie seventh Earl of Macclesfield. The ancient parish 
<linrch, dedicated to St. Edward the Confessor, 
boasts of a noble Norman tower, and of two 
Catherine-wheel windows, one of which is engrave<l 
in Bloxam's "Gothic Architecture." 


Our oldest rocks (according to the late Sir Thomas 
Wardle's " Geology of Leek ") are those of the lower 
carboniferous s.vstem, underlying the coal measures 
liorizon, yielding Yoredale sandstone and shales and 
millstone grits, all more or less capped with brick 
boulder clay of the glacial period, containing water- 
worn pebbles and boulders of older rocks. The soils 
resting on these clays are more or less c!aye.v, and 
are unlike the soils which lie upon the Triassic or 
new red sandstone beds which occupy and rest un- 
conformably in a jialseozoic trough in the Churnet 
valle.v at Leek. Between these two great formations 
in this locality — i.e., the lower carboniferous and 
the Triassic — a vast thickness of rock has been re- 
moved by -denudation, including the whole of the 
millstone grit formation of about 2,000 ft. thick, ex- 
cept (lortions which have been left as at the Roches 
(the source of the town's w^ter supply) in the north. 
Ladderidge in the .south. Rudyard in the west, and 
Wetley Rocks in the east. 

The prevailing colour ol the sandstone of the Leek 
district is deep red. though the colour varies, and 
in some parts is found nearly white. The redness is 
due to the presence of peroxide of iron. Under the 
microscope it appears to be very small and ijartially 
rounded pebbles, nearly uniform in size; they are 
grains of crystalline white quartz. The sandstone is 
considered to have covered this district more gene- 
rally than it does now. Its subsequent partial re- 
moval by denudation is sujiposed to have left the 
surface in those graceful undulations of hill and 
dale which give so great a charm to the scenery of 
the neighbourhood. The beautifully rounded hills 
of this formation on the south and west sides of the 
town are strikingly characteristic of the period to 
which they belong, and enable the spectator readily 
to distinguLsh between them and the more abrupt 
elevations of the surrounding millstone grit. The 
eastern side of the town stands on the millstone 
grit, the line of junction with the new red sand- 
stone being in Market^street. a few yards from our 
place of meeting, and runs due .south. From this 
formation various qualities of stone are obtained. 
From the Waste and Kniveden quarries stone used 
for wall building, road mending, and other like pur- 
poses are obtained, while from the Morredge quarries 
Roche stone is obtained, and may be seen in most 
of our public buildings, being used for quoins, 
window heads, sills, and all kinds of dressings. The 
highest elevation of grit in the district are the 
Roches, 1,670 ft. above sea level. The centre of the 
town is 643 ft. above ordnance datum, varying from 
748 ft. at the eastern boundary to 484 ft. at the west. 


The town of Leek, with the townships of Leek. 
Lowe, Leekfrith, and Tittesworth, as defined by the 
Leek Improvement Act. 1855, comprises a circle 
3,000 yds. in diameter, the centre being the lamp 



July 11, 191.^ 

pillar in the middle of tho IMarket-place. The area 
is l,4(i(i acres. The population, estimated at the 
passing of the Leek Improvement Act in 1855, «a.~ 
9,500, at the last Cens\is it was 16.654, to-day it is 
estimated at 17,000. The imniber of inliabited houses 
in the town is 3,796. giving an average number of 
persons per house of 4-39. The health of the dis- 
trict is good, as the death-rate for the year ending 
December, 1912, was only 16-6 per 1.000. The total 
rates are 6s. 8d. in the £, and include county council 
and education rate of 3s. 8d., and general district 
rate (including 4d. in the £ for water) of 3s. The 
rateable value of the town is £62,.334. 


With regard to its staple trade, an old Staffordshire 
ballad ha.s said — 

" For silken fabrics rich and rare. 
What city can with Leek compare?" 
And to-day Leek is (thanks to the enterprise of its 
manufacturers) a thriving hive of industry, and is 
noted the world over for the quality oi its produc- 
tions. The silk trade of Leek seems to have 
originated with some French refugees after the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and 
although the nature of the industry has changed 
somewhat since then, in that the making of broad 
silks is not now very general, a very considerable 
trade is carried on in the making of the finer lines 
of silk goods, such as sewing silks, bindings, braids, 
ties, &c., and, from the number of new silk mills 
and extensions to existing ones which have just 
been carried out, there is every prospect that the 
trade of the town will still largely increase. Silk 
dyeing is also carried on to a large extent, and 
forms one of the principal branches of the industry, 
the local water being especially suitable for the 


Prior to the year 1825 the streets and highways 
were managed by highway officers appointed at 
vestry meetings, but on May 20th of that year an 
Act for lighting, watching, cleansing, and improving 
the town was assented to by King George IV., which 
contained the following interesting recital : " Wliereas 
the town of Leek in the county of Staffordshire is 
large and populous, and a place of extensive trade 
and manufacture, and greatly increasing, and is also 
a great thoroughfare for travellers, and where many 
fairs are held, &c." Such Act was administered by 
commissioners until 1855, when the Leek Improve- 
ment Act was passed, which gave extended powers 
to the commissioners. It also increased the area of 
the town from 1.200 to 1,500 yds. from the centre of 
the market-place. Such commissioners as were from 
time to time appointed under the Act remained in 
office until the Local Government Act of 1894 was 
passed, when urban district councillors were ap- 
pointed. The total number of streets in Leek, ex- 
cluding private streets, is 115, with a mileage of ISJ. 
In addition to which there are 3J miles of main roads 
which the url an council, under sec. 2 of the Local 
Governrnent Act of 1888, decided to retain the powers 
and dvities of maintenance over. 

They are paved approximately as follows: — 

Lancashire setts 2J miles 

Granite 328J yds. 

Tar-macadam 15 miles 

Stone m.icadam 9J miles 

The principal streets in the town are paved with 
Leicester granite and 5-in. Lancashire grit setts on 
concrete foundation, which tend to give them a 
cleanly appearance, and is suitable for the heavy 
traffic to and from the mills, while up to the author's 
appointment the secondary streets were made of local 
stone macadam. This stone, though cheap, was com- 
paratively soft, and did not wear well, and upon the 
author's advice a second quality Leicester granite 
was substituted, wliich wears much better, gives off 
less dirt, and is generally appreciated, liecause it is 
being recognised that cheapness is not necessarily 
real economy, and that, though first cost of a harder 
and better stone is about 50 per cent more than local 
stone, the longer life and saving in scavenging will 
repay the greater initial outlay, and it is hoped that 
local stone will eventually be altogether superseded. 
The cost of local stone delivered on the streets was 
6s. per ton. whereas second quality Leicester granite 
is 8s. 3d. at the .station. 

The use of tar-macadam is increasing in the town 
though up to 1903 the only length of carriageway laid 
was that in front of the town hall; but the author 
in the restoning of certain flat streets, advised the 

stripping of the old local stone macadam down to the 
pitching and the laying of tar-macadam in two coats. 
Sin. deep, bottom of li-in. to 1-in. gauge and Sin. 
deep, and top f-in. to f-in. gauge and 2 in. deep after 
rolling. The stone was limestone obtained from the 
Froghall quarries, treated at the works, and cost, at 
the canal wharf, lis. and 12s. 4d. per ton respectively. 
Each coat is rolled with a 10-ton roller, and the street 
is opened for traffic in a few days after rolling. The 
author's experience is that a 10-ton roller is too heavy 
for tar-macadam, and he prefers a 6 or 8 ton roller; 
but as the council do not possess their own roller, 
and are compelled to hire, it is not always possible 
to make the best job, because the streets have to be 
rolled to a finish in order to liberate the roller, and 
oftentimes it is impossible to obtain a roller when the 
weather is favourable on account of their being so 
far away and engaged on their own work. 

By reason of the gradients of the streets in the 
town some doubt originally existed as to the desir- 
ability of using tar-macadam to any great extent, as 
the bulk of the heavy traffic into the town is from 
the station, and as the main approach has a gradient 
of 1 in 19'33, and the horses are shod with heel and 
toe in order to overcome the gradient, it was feared 
that when the traffic got on to tlie tar-macadam 
streets great damage would be done, and disinte- 
gration of the surface would commence, but it is 
found that the streets that have been so laid stand 
very well. One length of street, quite flat, over which 
there is considerable heavy traffic in connection with 
a corn stores and coal depot, was laid with Welsh 
granite treated at our own yard with tar, but at the 
end of about five years was very badly damaged, and 
clearly showed that tar-macadam is not altogether 
suitable when subject to heavy traffic, even on a flat 
gradient. The reason granite was tried on this street 
was because it was known it would be subject to 
heavy traffic, and being harder than limestone and 
possessing better wearing qualities, it was thought 
the experiment should be tried. The author thinks 
this is a street that should be sett paved in future, 
but is satisfied that tar-macadam is very suitable 
for secondary streets with flat or slight gradients and 
subjected to light traffic only, and is extending in 
this direction as streets become ready for stoning; 
1;V miles of this material has been laid as carriage- 
ways, and the cost works out at about 2s. 6d. per square 
yard. Recently a portion of one of the main streets 
of the town which had been laid with Macclesfield 
setts was repaved with 4-in. to 5-in. Lancashire grit 
setts, which worked out at 7s. 6d. per square yard, ex- 
cluding concrete foundation. The main roads of the 
town (known as the county roads), with the exception 
of the station approach to the town, which is part 
paved with Leicester and Lancashire setts, are all 
of granite macadam from the Clee Hill quarries. The 
stone cost 12s. lOd. per ton at the station. 


The footpaths in the town generally are laid with 
Macclesfield flags with kerbs from the same place, 
but the author, soon after commencing duties at Leek, 
had to lay the whole of the stoneware conduits in 
connection with the installation of the electricity 
undertaking into the town, and found it exceedingly 
difficult to take up and relay both flags and kerbs 
on account of their tendency to laminate. It is the 
practice now to use Lancashire kerbs and flags which 
can be easily taken up and relaid. The street channels 
and crossings were also laid with cubes, but the 
author favours the use of 12-in. by 4A-in. flat channels 
laid on concrete bed, which makes the better job, 
and the crossings are laid with a similar material, 
grooved to afford a foothold for horses. In the private 
streets of a secondary character 2J-in. artificial flags 
are being laid. A Leicester flag made by Messrs. J. 
Ellis & Sons has been standardised, and all the foot- 
paths laid out in connection with new streets by estate 
agents have these flags specified. The cost of arti- 
ficial flags at Leek is 3s. lOd. per square yard, and 
Lancashire sawn flags 5s. Lancashire kerb, 10 in. by 
8 in., cost 3s. 6d., and 12 in. by 6 in., 3s. per lineal 
yard, while Macclesfield cubes, formerly used in the 
channels, cost 3s. 6d. per square yard, as against 
2s. 5d. for 12-in. by 4i-in. flat Lancashire channelling 
per lineal yard. The footpaths to the main roads 
nearest to the centre of tlie town are flagged or tar- 
paved, while the lengths beyond to the boundary are 
gravelled or ashed; but an arrangement has been 
come to whereby we hope to extend the tar-paving 
in lieu of ashing, which will be much appreciated by 
the users. Our cost of maintaining the main roads 
is submitted to the county surveyor before payment. 

jii.Y 11. ini3. 



an.l wo consider we are treated with every considera- 
tion and in the matter of widening or improvements 
an arrangement is generally come to before the worx 
is done 'between the urlnm and county councils 
whereby the cost is met jointly. 


Thc^e formerlv were laid out by the e.state owner 
and completed with fu.itpaths before any buildings 
were erected, and immediately upon their completion 
the builders commenced building operations and 
considerable damage was done by means of drain 
connections, gas and water services, &C-- and tlie 
estate owner was called upon to again put the streets 
in order previous to their being taken oyer. The 
author favours the idea of simply laying out the street 
with sc-vers, kerbs, and pitching put in only, ■•^"d 
when buildings are completed the street to be made 


Plate No. 1.— During the past ton years the author 
has carried out a considerable amount of street works 
of an important character by direct labour. The 
first of these is known as the " Globe Yard Improve- 
ment Scheme." The necessity for better communi- 
cation between the centre of the town and the west 
end (a district which has rapidly increased by reason 
of the enterprise of the silk manufacturers whose 
works are located at that end of the town) was becom- 
ing urgent and the council entered into negotiations 
for the purchase of " The Fields Kstate," which con- 
sisted of a private residence and 11,196 yds. of land, 
to"ether with the "Globe" public-house and other 
property, which cost to acquire £11,755. The build- 
ings standing in the way of the streets shown on the 
plan which accompanies this paper were pulled down 

Gi,oBE-T.\iiD Improvement Scheme, Leek. 

(Plate 1.) 

up and adopted by the council. The specification 
for the formation of the road usually adopted is 8in. 
to 12 in. of hardcore, with 5 in. of metalling "i two 
coats, 12 in. by 6 in. or 10 in. by Sin. dressed Lan- 
cashire kerb laid on 4 in. to 6in of cement concrete, 
12 in. by 4i in. flat channels similarly laid, and 2i ui. 
Lancashire or artificial flags for the footpaths. The 
minimum width of footpath allowed is 6 ft., ana 
carriageway 24 ft., but under the Model By-law., 
which are" before the Local Government Board tor 
approval, power is sought to vary m either case. 
Where the council make up the street previous to 
adoption they do so under sec. 150 of the Public 
Health Act, 1875, and the work is carried out by ad- 
ministration. The cost per lineal yard of frontage lor 
half the width of street works out at about £1 6s., 
not including sewering. 

,„ order to obtain^ccessfroni ^J^^^^^ 
Sheep Market and "^^ ^^;«f^\ ^"galisbury-street fol- 
street wa.s laid °^t ,f "■ J^^ft wide, and provided 
lowed, and was made 38 to ^-"•;"" ' ^,^g direction 
outlet from West-sreetoSneyd-streemt.^ ^^ 

of the station, and Field-stieet i«ni ^ ^^^^^.^ 

''''^''l^a K'fixTd^'and'tlVremSing land was 
were laid, keros nxeu, a ,,.i,nip with the excep- 

then allotted for -^^^-^^ef^^^^^ buildings 
tion of six plots, have ^\°''''. ^ , j ^ expenditure 
TuL It .raU"S'.."in".M ent o,V. }.» 

:i„s.d-by lie i.»».i o«,;™s ?rii s 



JXTLY 11, 1913. 

macadamised, but when the whole of the frontege is 
built upon a more durable material will probably be 
laid. The cost per foot of frontage for half width of 
street in the case of High-street and Salisbury-streat 
was 17s. 6d., and Fields-street 16s. 

The question of the erection of a new General 
Post Oflfice for the town raised the matter of the 
widening of a narrow passage of 10 ft. called Strang- 
mans Walks (since called Strangmaii-street), as the 
Government had purcha.'^ed property, including a 
public-house and property adjoining, and did not 
contemplate increa.<ing the width of such passage, 
so the council stepped in, and, after i)rolonged nego- 
tiations, acquired property enabling the width to be 
increased to 36 ft., and thus provided another outlet 
from St. Edward-street to Field-street, and eventually 
tliis street will be continued to the corner of Salis- 
bury-street and Sneyd-stieet. The total cost was 

The ne.xt street work of importance was the widen- 
ing and improvement of Belle Vue-road, or, as it is 
more recently known, " Kingsway," which connects 
the west end with the main road to ilacclesfield. 
This was originally a narrow road of about 10 ft. 
wide, which ended in a passage about 4 ft. in width. 
Property had been acquired by a local body called 
" The Town Lands Trustees " (the holders of certain 
properties in the town the revenues of which are 
from time to time to be devoted to carrying out 
works of improvement for the benefit of the free- 
holders of Leek and Lowe, after the necessary funds 
have been expended in the upkeep of their property), 
so far back as forty years ago. They completed the 
purchase of the last property necessary for the 
carrying out of the scheme in l!X)t, and the author 
was instructed to prepare plans, sections, and esti- 
mates of cost. The scheme involved the pulling 
down of thirteen cottages and the widening of the 
road to 36 ft. and 4<3 ft., including the erection of 
retaining walls and the making of a dropped foot- 
path to accommodate a number of cottages lielow 
the road level. The gradients vary from 1 in 10 to 1 
in 34. The Local Government Board's sanction was 
obtained after the usual inquiry, and the author car- 
ried out the scheme by direct labour, the Town 
Lands Trustees out of their income meeting the 
annual repayment of principal and interest. The 
cost of the improvement, excluding land, was £2,370. 
and the road as widened was opened for vehicular 
traffic on September 13, 1906, by the late SirTliomas 
Wardle, chairman of the Town Lands Trustees, and 
Henry Allen, Esq., the then chairman of the council. 

The next improvement taken in hand was to get 
rid of an exceedingly dangerous corner which existed 
at the junction of Compton and Brook streets. The 
"Lord Raglan" imblic-house and five cottages were 
acquired, and the street was widened from 26 ft. to 
44 ft., at a cost of £1,600, including the acquisition 
of the projierty. The buildings were all removed, 
and one of the cellars of the public-house was uti- 
lised for the putting down of an underground con- 
venience, which added another £250 to the cost of 
the improvement, but it is still regarded as one of 
the best improvements from the public safetv point 
of view carried out in the town in recent years. The 
improvements works were carried out by the regular 
staff, but the convenience was erected by contract. 

The latest and by no means least important street 
improvement was that carried out at tlie corner of 
Brook-street and Russell-street by the removal and 
taking down of part of the •' Sea Lion '■ public-house 
and the widening of the street from 22 ft. to 36 ft 
Permission was ohtaiued from the Licensing Bench 
to take 111 the adjoining premises for licensing pur- 
poses upon the removal of part of the public-house 
and the council expended £800 in effecting this im- 
provement, being again assisted by the Town Lands 
Irustees to the extent of £300. 

Proposals for the pulling down of several proper- 
ties and the widening of street corners are still under 


For the purpose (,f street cleansing .seven men 
are employed, and the whole of the street^ of the 
town are swejit at least twice a week, and ba.k 
pas.sages at least once a week: while the street-^ in 
the centre of the town are constantlv swept bv two 
men. provided with liandcarts for the collecting of 
droppings, &c. ^ 

The removal of is carried out bv the 
council and a weekly collection is made. Formerlv 
hxed ashpits were generally allowed, but of late years 

the council are calling upon householders to pro- 
vide movable galvanised iron bins of sufficient size 
to contain a week's accumulation of refuse. Trade 
refuse is also removed, without any charge being 
made, but is not mixed with the ordinary house 
refuse. Four horses and carts are regularly em- 
ployed in this department, and four men assist as 

Some years ago the council acquired land for the 
purpose of erecting a refuse destructor, but a pro- 
posal was made to cart the refuse to the low-lying 
land part of the sewage farm with the view of same 
being levelled up, and no further steps have been 
taken in the direction of erecting a destructor. The 
land at the sewage farm is laid out in terraces, and 
previous to any house refuse being deposited about 
1 ft. to 1 ft. 6 in. of the top soil is stripped off and 
land drains laid ; the refuse is then deposited and 
filled up to a height of 5 ft., the top soil is then re- 
placed, and afterwards sewage carriers are cut, and 
the house refuse tip acts as a filter with very re- 
markable results. A few years ago when one of 
these acre beds had been filled up in this way, a 
sample of the effluent was sent for analysis to Mr. 
•J. Carter Bell, of Manchester, with the result given 

Ceriific^te of Analysis. 
All results are expressed in grains per gallon. 

Appearance in tube ... . Clear 

Smell when heated to 100 deg. F Nil 

Total solid matter at 212 deg. i' 136 

Total mineral matter at 356 deg. F. ... 131 

Lobs . , 5 

Chlorine in chlorides 6*5 

Nitrogen m nitrites Heavy traces 

nitrates ... 0-329 

Free ammonia _. ... 2*4 

Albximinoid ammonia 0'08 

Oxygen absorbed in 3 minutes at 60 deg. F. 0-0 4 

,, ,, 4 hours at 60 deg. F. 0*12 

Microscopical examination of deposit ... Organic 

Suspended matter Trace 

Alkalinity as free lime Nil 

The council therefore felt justified in continuing 
the work of raising the level of these terraces, and 
while not necessarily increasing their filtration area 
were able to dispose of their house refuse in a coni- 
parativel.v inexpensive way. but it occurred to the 
author that, instead of further increasing the depth 
of the tip, it would be more advantageous from a 
sewage disjiosal point of view if the level of the 14 
acres of clay and peat land which had been formerly 
used for broad irrigation, but had to be abandoned 
on account of the poor quality of the soil for sewage 
purification, could be raised by means of the house 
refuse and so increase the available purification 
area, and this is being done, and it is hoped the 
same satisfactory result may be obtained. At the 
piesent time 4,779 loads of house and trade refuse 
are being collected and disposed of annuallv at a 
total cost of £829 8s. lOd.. which is equal to 3s. 5id. 
per load, and includes stripping off soil, carting 
away, and resiueading over the refuse. 


In 1891 the council acquired 8.(HJ0 sq. yds. of. land 
in Cruso-street, and established a depot, erecting 
stabling for eight horses, loose box, harness-room, 
mess-ioom, cartsheds, sheds for storing material, 
workshops, smithy. &c., at a cost of £2,570, and in 
1904 erected a substantial house for the road fore- 
man at a cost of £250. .\t the piesent time the 
council own eight horses, four being used for house 
refuse removal, three on highway work, and one for 
sewage farm Provender account for half- 
year ending March 31, 1913, £173 19s. 2d., which 
works out at 16s. 9d. per horse per week. 


The .'streets are lighted by gas. there heiiig about 
386 pultlic lamps fitted with incandescent burners. 
The annual cost is £1.158, which includes cost of 
gas, lighting and maintenance, and works out at 
£3 per lamp per annum. 


Pre^ ious to the passing of the Leek Improvement 
.\ct. 1855. the drainage arrangements of the town 
left veiy much to be desired, and upon the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Charles Slagg (the author of several 
treatises on sanitary engineering and kindred sub- 
jects) as town surveyor, in 1857. the main drainage 
of the town was designed, and upon being sub- 
mitted to Mr. Robert Rawlinson (afterwards Sir 
Robert Rawlinson). of the Local Government Board, 
was reported upon as being considered well adapted 
for the town. Such scheme provided for two out- 
falls, one for the south and the other for the north. 

.luLV 11, 1913 



the population at that time being aliout 8,000, half of 
which drained to each district, and tlie work of laying 
down such scheme was proceeded with, and completed 
between the years 1859 and 1862. No treatment 
works were i)rovided, the sewage being distributed 
over large tracts of land, and ijurified by broad 
irrigation before admission to tlie river Clnnnet. 
The death-rate of the town at that time was 29-.3 jjer 
1,000. The amount borrowed was Jlj,30<), the last 
instalment of which has long been paid off. 

In 1892, as the result of complaints from tlie owners 
(if tlie land on which the sewage was used of the 
deterioration of the value of the sewage during wet 
seasons by the mixture of storm water, and the possi- 
bility of having to treat the sewage l)y some more 
modern method than Ijroad irrigation, a scheme of 
separatini: the storm water from the sewage was pre- 
pared by the laying down of separate sewers, and 
about three-fourths of the whole town is dealt with, 
and the sum of 13,000 was borrowed and expended 
for the purpose, and in the laying out of new streets 
duplicate sewers are called for. Another sum of 
£1,000 will lie required to complete this work. 

The method of dispo.sing of the sewage of the town 
by means of broad irrigation was taken exception to 
by the county council in 1896 under the Rivers Pollu- 
tion Act, 1874, and pressure was brought to bear on 
the town to adopt some more effectual means of puri- 
fying .same, and the south district was the one to 
be taken in hand. A firm of consulting engineers 
were called in, and after visits to .several towns where 
purification of sewage by intermittent downward 
filtration and broad irrigation was in operation, the 
council purcha.sed 36 acres of land, part of the Barn- 
fields estate, and proceeded to lay same out on the 
broad irrigation principle and intermittent downward 
filtration, the works, including purchase of land, cost- 
ing £10,000. The sewage was allowed to pass through 
two very small detritus tanks, and then on to 7 acres 
(if land, the subsoil of which was sand and gravek 

In addition to 7 acres of intermittent downward 
filtration area, 14 acres were laid out on the broad 
irrigation principle, but the subsoil here was partly 
clay, peat and alluvial, witli the result that after 
.some years of experience it was found that this land 
in the winter became sick, and in the summer months 
cracks were plentiful, anil the sewage found its way 
into the imder-drains and went into the river in its 
impurified state, and the imder-drains, being con- 
nected with the main carrier from the intermittent 
filtration area, conveyed this unpiaified sewage into 
this carrier, and thus deteriorated the already fit 
effluent from the better land. In 190.'i the county 
council a<j;ain complained of the condition of things, 
and the author was called upon to consider the ques- 
tion and report to the council as to the best means 
of meeting the complaint. A full description of the 
works as proposed and in course of construction 
appeared in The Suhvevor for September 14. 1906, 
so that it is unnecessary for me to dilate upon them 
at any length now, but will content myself with 
.stating that the w'orks as carried out included the 
laying down of two septic tanks, each 100 ft. long by 
26 ft. wide, of an average depth of 6 ft. 6 in., being 
8 ft. at the inlet end and .''i ft. at the outlet end. built 
with Staffordshire blue bricks, and coped with York- 
shire coping, concrete floor falling to central channel, 
and leading to sludge well at inlet end. 

Scum boards, floating arms, and all other neces- 
sary mechanism was provided, with sludge pump for 
lifting sludge on to the sludge-drying beds. The 
tanks are in parallel, and the original roughing tanks 
provided were altered so as to work separately, and 
are changed over once a week for the removal of road 
detritus, (.tc, the sticks, paper and .suchlike being 
held back by screens at inlet end, and is removed 
by hand. From these roughing tanks the sewage 
passes to the two septic tanks which were designed 
to receive 101,000 gallons each, the dry-weather flow 
for this district, dealing with a population of 8.000. 
being 200,000 gallons, so that practically a full day's 
accommodation was provided. From the septic tanks, 
which can either be worked together or separately, 
the septicised sewage gravitates to the artificial filters. 
or can be diverted on to the 7 acres of land laid out 
originally, and still worked on the intermittent down- 
ward filtration principle, and as a good effluent had 
always been obtained from this land it was thought 
inadvisable to do away with it for purification pur- 
poses, but rather to supplement it with filters, and 
thus seek to put out of operation the 14 acres of broad 
irrigation land where the subsoil was unsuitable. 
The filters, four in number, were constructed on the 

north-west corner of the broad irrigation land, being 
connected with the septic tanks by means of a pipe 
ciirrier. They are 60 ft. in diameter and octagonal in 
shape, with walls of 14-in. and 9-in. brickwork, and 
are banked up with earth, the excavation from the 
septic tanks. The area of each filter is 330 sq. yds., 
making a total of 1,320 sq. yds., by a depth of .') ft. 
The floor is of cement concrete 10 in. thick, as the 
ground was filled up about 2 ft., rendered to a smooth 
surface. Along the centre of the floor of each is a 
9-in. by 6-in. channel for the purpose of collecting 
the effluent, and from this main channel are smaller 
ones 1^ in. by 1 in., about 15 in. apart, running to the 
extreme end of each bed, so that it is possible to 
take a sample of the effluent of each bed. At each 
corner of the bed formed by the walls are air ducts 
run up 01 6-in. pipes carried above the surface of the 
filters, and covered with a grid and resting on the 
floor liy means of a bend. The idea was that the 
elfluent travelling along the channel to the outlets 
would set up an air current, and would thus draw 
air into the filters; but experiments were tried with 
the view of proving whether or not this really did 
occur, and whetlier any better quality of effluent re- 
sulted. For this purpose two beds were worked to- 
gether, one with open ducts and the other sealed. 
Samples of the effluent were taken and analysed, 
with the result that it was shown that the ducts were 
of no real value as far as the effluent was concerned, 
as the closed ones gave as good an effluent as the 
open ones. The filtering media is broken brick and 
sagger (a waste product well known in this part of 
the county). The main channels are grooved to re- 
ceive a 1-in. perforated tile, on to which the smaller 
channels discharge, and on the floor of the filter, for 
a height of 6 in., is placed broken Staffordshire 
brindled brick, 2-in. gauge. For the next 6 in. is 1-in. 
to i-in. broken sagger, then 3 ft. of i-in. to i-in. gauge, 
and the top foot of i-in. to i-in., the whole washed, 
and all dust removed and carefully graded when put 
in place. In the centre of each bed is a 4-ft. 6-in. 
ciicular brick chamber carrying the distributor, 
which is of the Oandy-Whittaker type fitted with a 
mercury seal. 

The necessary head for working the distributors is 
supplied from a tank built adjoining the filters. In 
this tank is one of Messrs. .\dams' syphons which dis- 
charges at fixed intervals, regulated by inflow of 
.sewage from septic tanks. The sewage gravitates to 
a central chamber formed by the four inner walls 
of the filters, rises up a pipe, and thence to the dis- 
tributors, each of which is controlled by a valve. 
The filtrate from the four filters is conveyed to one 
outlet and thence to the river, or it can be distributed 
over the broad irrigation land. For the reception of 
the sludge which accumulates in the septic tanks a 
sludge-drying bed is provided, into which the sludge 
can be pumped from both sets of tanks. The .size of 
this bed is 100 ft. by 28 ft., giving a superficial area 
of 2,800 sq. yds., by a depth of 2 ft. Along the floor 
is laid a pipe drain with branches every 2 ft. apart, 
laid herring-bone style of butt-jointed pipes. Around 
and upon these pipes is placed a layer of hand-packed 
cinders or clinker ashes of l^-in. to 1-in. gauge, and 
6 in. deep; then another layer of 1-in. to ^-in. gauge, 
and a top coat of i-in. to \-m. ashes, all screened, 
making a total of 2 it. At the outlet end on the 6-in. 
main drain is placed a draw-off arrangement whereby 
the sludge effluent is conveyed into the roughing tanks. 
The sludge is disposed of by allowing an adjoining 
farmer to cart it away for manuring purposes, and 
the demand made is quite equal to the supply, so 
that no cost is incurred by the council in getting 
rid of the sludge. 

In order to separate any quantity above six times 
the dry-weather flow of the sewage a weir was placed 
in the main sewer which passes at the rear of the 
goods station of the North Staffordshire Railway 
and side by side with the storm-water outfall, which 
discharges into a carrier connected direct with the 
river, so that all above the six times pass into the 
storm-water sewer, and on the farm adjoining the 
roughing tanks a manhole is built and a penstock 
fixed and locked, so that only three times the dry- 
weather flow pass to the tanks, and is dealt with on 
land and filters, the other three times being dealt 
with as storm water on the 14 acres of irrigation 
land, so that it is possible to comply with the re- 
quirements of the Local Grovernment Board by dis- 
posing of the storm water on a special and separate 
area of prepared land other than that in use for the 
treatment of the effluent from the ordinary tanks 
and filters. The local sewage is not purely domestic. 



July 11, 1913. 

as it contains, especially at certain times of the day, 
considerable quantities of dye-water wliich is turned 
out from the various mills and dyeing factories con-- 
nected with the silk industry, but it has been shown 
tlmt the dye-water, althougli it contains a quantity 
of logwood, is amenable to septic treatment, and a 
satisfactory effluent is obtained. The amount bor- 
rowed for these extensions was £5,200. The new 
works have now been in operation for 6J years, and a 
nionthly analysis of the effluent is prepared l)y Mr. 
J. Carter Bell, the borough analyst of Sal ford, and 
circulated to the members of the council. For some 
months after tanks and filters were started the 
effluent did not reach a very high standard of 
purity, but they gradually improved, and below are 
given copies of the analyst's report of the third, 
sixth, and twelfth )nonths after, compared with its 
condition in January of this year, from which it 
will be seen that, with efficient management and 
periodical resting of the filters, a high standard of 
nitrification is reached. 

As-iLYSi's Report. 
All results are expressed in graius per gallou. 

Bacterial filter efflueut. 





Appearance iu tube 










Total solids at 212 deg. F 





„ 360 deg. F 






















Free ammonia 





Albuminoid ammonia 





Oxygen absorbed iu 3 min. at 60- 





4 hours „ 





Altaliuity calculated as free lime 










fcuspended matter 





The number of hours each bed has worked during 
every twelve months is 4,380, the number taken in 
the year being 8,760, and the quantity dealt with 
has been 120 gallons per square yard per twenty- 
four hours, or at the rate of 580,800 gallons per acre. 
Experience has proved to us that it is i>ossible to 
deal wiih a strong sewage on fine grade filters, pro- 
vided septic tank provision is adequate, the exact 
quantity that the filters are capable of dealing with 
being carefully ascertained and kept to, and requi- 
site periods of rest given, and all that is necessary 
to do during such periods of rest is to lightly fork 
over the beds, and then allow them to aerate, and 
though our area of filters is very small, the know- 
ledge \\e have acquired of their working is likely to 
be of immense service to us when we come to ex- 
tend, which may be in the very near future, in order 
to relieve the farm of the large quantify of sewage 
put upon the intermittent land, and which is so 
large in volume as to render it exceedingly difficult 
to satisfactorily farm the land, to say nothing of 
what may have to be done at the north end of the 
town, though we hope that such a large expenditure 
as may be involved in the construction of new works 
for that district may be for manv years iwstponed. 
liaving regard to the fact that good use is made of 
the sewage for purposes of irrigation, that there is 
a demand for it, and that its distribution over large 
tracts of land is such that no nuisance or pollution 

The distributors installed have worked continu- 
ously since tlicy were fixed without giving the least 
trouble, and exi)eriments were tried to prove the 
efhciency of tlie distribution, with every satisfactory 
result. It being clearly demonstrated that each 
square yard of filter area received an equal amount 
of sewage. The intermittent land, as will be ob- 
served upon inspection, is all laid out in beds with 
grips or channels every 5 ft. or 6 ft. apart, into which 
the septic effluent is passed, and ox cabbages and 
mangolds are planted, and the produce realises a 
good sum annually, though, like most sewage farms 
the creating of a revenue is not the first tiling looked 
for, l)ut the disposal of the sewage with as little 
nuisance as possible, and though the quantitv of 
.sewage put upon the land is more than is necessary 
to grow the crops, the farm does not suffer for want 
of efficient management. 
The other half of the town is drained to what is 

known as the north district, and the sewage is 
utilised upon about 150 acres of land. The farmers 
in that district attach great value to the proper use 
of the sewage, and a man is kept there whose duty 
it is to constantly wash the meadows with it from 
open and pipe carriers, and being far enough from 
any population no complaints are made. The town 
having extended in a westerly direction, and beyond 
the point where it is possible to connect with either 
the south or nortli outfalls, a main sewer for this 
district is in hand, costing £800, by which means 
the coupling of the western with the northern dis- 
trict is secured. 


In the matter of water supply the town of Leek 
must be considered exceedingly fortunate, thanks 
to the foresight of the old commissioners. In the 
year 1857 the water undertaking was purchased from 
the Earl of Macclesfield for £11,000, the purchase 
money being allowed to remain on mortgage of the 
property. This has long ago been paid off, and con- 
siderable extensions and improvements of the under- 
taking carried out. In the year 1861 the commis- 
sioners found it necessary to adopt measures pro- 
tecting the water rights of the town, in view of the 
fresh powers of the Staffordshire Potteries Water 
Comijauy, and after application to Parliament they 
were able to do this. 

In the year 1862 additional supplies were obtained 
and arrangements made with the inillowners on the 
river Churnet whereby the water should be jsrovided 
elsewhere for that taken, which was done by the 
construction of a surface collecting reservoir at 
Blaekshaw Moor, carried out by Mr. Bateman, c.e., 
at a cost of £2,700. In 1871 the commissioners still 
further increased the supply by collecting certain 
springs at Upperhulme, belonging to the Earl of 
Macclesfield and Sir John Harpur Crewe, Bart., 
and 'in the year 1893 other rights were acquired for 
the sum of .£1,700, while in the year 1904 still further 
rights to collect ^vater were obtained from the 
Condyliffe trustees in perpetuity at £1 a year. 

The works themselves are of the simi^lest possible 
character, and few towns can, I think, boast of a 
better or more abundant supply. The supply takes 
its origin in a series of deep springs iu the millstone 
grit of the Roches, situate at a distance of 4 miles 
from the town at a level of 930 ft. above ordnance 
datum, and is supplied to the town by gravitation. 
Each of the springs, seven in number, are built 
around in brickwork, and protected by means of 
heavy stone covers, securely locked to prevent con- 
tamination of any kind. The water is conveyed to 
the town by means of an 8-in. cast-iron main, and 
the springs are coupled direct to such main, the 
only storage provided being a reservoir situated on 
the outskirts of the town, at a level of 745 ft. above 
ordnance datum, and of 2,000,000 gallons capacity. 
This reservoir only serves when the daily supply 
from the springs is diminished after a long jjeriod of 
drought or very excessive consumption in the town, 
and so the pressure in the mains is kept up. At 
night, when the consumption is considerably 
lessened, the water backs up in the main, shutting 
a reflux valve fitted in the bottom of the reservoir, 
and rises to the height of 790 ft. above ordnance 
datum, and filling a small tank built to supply the 
houses at the highest part of the town, the overflow 
from which is connected to the larger reservoir, and 
again fills this up in readiness for a heavy demand. 
At the lowest of the series of springs at Upperhulme 
a large brick collecting chamber is built, fitted with 
a gauge, by which means it is possible in summer 
time to ascertain the quantity passing to the town, 
and upon which the amount of compensation water 
is calculated, being half a gallon for every gallon 
taken from the springs. This compensation water 
is collected from the moorlands at Blaekshaw, and 
stored in two reservoirs, one of which was con- 
structed in 1862, as previously stated. In addition 
to these two there is a third compensation reservoir 
situated at the east end of the town, which is sup- 
plied by water collected from the surface springs in 
the immediate vicinity, and from an overflow taken 
from the 2,000,000-gallon reservoir at Mount Pleasant. 
At each of the reservoirs gauges are fixed and valves 
set, discharging the ascertained quantity of com- 
pensation water into the streams that supply the 
river Churnet. At a point on the boundary of the 
town the 8-in. main is divided into two 6-in. mains, 
one supplying the higher and the other the lower 
parts of the town. 

^\.i.yij \y\-'\^XM J- 

11I1M\J± 1.^111 111 IX. 

All results are expressed in ^ains per gallon. 

Appearance iu tube Clear 

Smell wheu heated to 100 deg F Nil 

Total solid matter at 212 de<. F 7-1 

„ „ 356 deg. F 7-0 

Loss ... 0-4 

Chloriue iu chlorides 0*7 

Phospboric acid Nil 

Nitrogeu iu nitrites Nil 

„ nitrates 0"06 

Free ammonia Nil 

Albuminoid ann)onin OOO^l 

Oxygen absorbed in 15 minutes at 60 deg. ... 0*0112 

„ ,, iu :{ liours ac 6'J deg. ... 0253 

Hardness, Clark's scale, before boiling ... -t'2 

„ ,, after ,, ... 3'2 

Soap destroyed by 1 eallon of water ... Under 50 

Microscopical examination of deposit ... Heavy traces of organic 

Poisonous metals ... Nil 

This is a first-class water of a iiigli degree of purity. 
The mineral matter is as follows: — 

Carbonate of lime 

,, magnesia 
Sulphate of 

2'H grains per gallou. 
0-25 „ „ 

I'M „ „ 


During tlie past ten year.s there have been many 
improvements effected in the distribution.. Diffi- 
culties were experienced in filling up the higli level 
tank at night, resulting in the necessity of turning 
off at night the whole town for certain hours, but 
this was remedied by removing a gauge, which was 
placed about 2 miles from town at Blackshaw Moor, 
at 810 ft. above ordnance datum, to Upperhulme, at 
850 ft. above ordnance datum, thus obtaining 40 
additional feet of head. Attention was then given 
to the question of turning off in the town for repairs. 
It was formerly the ijraetice to turn off every 
Thursday, and on account of the absence of the 
necessary valves the area affected was much greater 
than there was any real necessity for, and complaints 
were frequent, especially as manufacturers had of 
late become more dependfnt upon the town supply, 
having abandoned their own wells in favour of town 
water. To overcome this difficulty sixty new valves 
were inserted in the mains where required, thus 
enabling each street to be separately controlled, and 
it is not now the practice to turn off the main sup- 
ply exceijt for main repairs, and manufacturers are 
saved great expense in not being called upon to pro- 
vide a large amount of storage. All mains are 
drilled, tapped, and ferrules inserted under pressure. 

Instructions were given to the author in 1907 to 
consider the question of laying an additional main 
8 in. in diameter from the springs to meet demands 
of manufacturers for additional supplies and to pro- 
vide for the growth of the town, but before dealing 
with such a large expenditure as this involved 
attention was called to the necessity of ascertaining 
the amount of waste, and for this purpose the author 
obtained the necessary permission to institute the 
system of waste detection by means of Deacon 
meters. The town was divided into eight separate 
districts, each to be supplied through a Deacon 
meter, and at the same time an 8-in. bulk meter was 
inserted on the trunk main where it entered the 
town at the boundary. From the diagrams it was 
ascertained that considerable waste was going on, 
and steps were taken to reduce it. Four districts 
were put in hand, and meters inserted, the result 
being that since 1908 the question of an additional 
main has not been raised, and during the summer 
of 1911, when most authorities were becoming 
anxious respecting their water supply, not the 
slightest inconvenience was experienced here, and 
we were quite able to meet all the demands of both 
domestic and manufacturing consumers without any 
restrictions whatever, largely increasing our revenue, 
and since we have been compelled to tlirottle the 
supply coming from the springs in order to prevent 
the storage reservoir overflowing its banks. 

House-to-house in.spection is carried on witii the 
use of the stethoscope, all repairs are carried out 
by authorised plumbers, their work inspected before 
being covered up, and a set of regulations strictly 
enforced. The consumption, which was originally 
30 gallons per head, is now in the metered districts 
15 gallons to 18 gallons per head per day. At the 
time of the purchase the price charged for domestic 
supply was Is. in the £ In 1879 it was lid., and 
in that year was reduced to lOd. on all assessments 
at more than £5, and in 1882 a further reduction to 
9d. was made, and in March, 1888, to 8d. on the rate- 
able value instead of the annual value. This price 
obtained 'down to 1910, when it was reduced to 4d. 

in the £, at which it stands to-day, and the smu 
of £1,500 is. annually handed over to the reduction 
of rates after paying all administration charges and 
giving a free supply to public baths and all other 
public The price charged for manufac- 
turing or trade purposes is 8d. per 1,000 gallons, by 
meter, and the demand in this direction is consider- 
ably increasing. \Yhen the Leek Improvement 
Commissioners vacated office in 1895 upon the crea- 
tion of the urban district council, tlie figures relat- 
ing to the purchase and improvement of the water 
undertaking of the towns were — 

Balance owing £2,100 

This amount was paid off in less than four vears, 
since when the undertaking has contributed largely 
every year to the reduction of rates, in addition to 
supplying water at a figure which will rank as one 
of the lo.vest, if not the lowest, in the country. (It 
will be interesting to members of this institution to 
know that the chairman of the Wat«r Committee of 
this council for many years was the late John 
Nesliam Piatt, the father of one of our most re- 
spected members, Mr. S. S. Piatt, borough surveyor 
of Rochdale.; 


In the year 1828 the town was supplied with gas. 
the works having been built in 1826 by a joint stock 
company, the price for gas being 12s. 6d. per 1,000 
cub. ft., which, though it may be considered high, 
was less than paid in Manchester at the time— viz.. 
14s. In the year 1845 the commissioners, under the 
old Act, purchased the works for .£6,194, and under 
the 1855 Act they became vested in the Improvement 
Commissioners, the price of gas being then 6s. per 
1,000 cub. ft., and the annual make 3,500,IX)0 cub. ft. 
Since then the works have been considerably en- 
larged, and in the year 1898-9, consequent upon the 
increased demand, the whole works were rebuilt on 
the most up-to-date principle at a cost of £20,000. 
The annual make of gas has increased to 109,000,iXIU 
cub. ft., and the nett price to consumers is now 
2s. 2d. per 1,000 cub. ft., and up to the year 1910 the 
streets were lighted free, and considerable sums 
handed over to the rates, though no charge is made 
for meters, and services are laid up to the houses 
free. Since 1903 the author has been responsible 
for extensions to the retort-house, coal store, erec- 
tion of coal-handling plant buildings, including sub- 
way under county main road, and new offices, the 
latter of which have just been completed; and it is 
claimed that the town possesses one of the most up- 
to-date gas undertakings in the county. 
(To be continued.) 

Shorland's Patent Exhaust Roof Ventilator The 

Technical School, ilacclestield, is being supplied with 
Shorland's patent exhaust roof ventilators by Messrs. 
E. H. Shorland & Brother, Limited, of Failsworth, 

The Widening of I'leet-street — The widening of Fleet- 
street, which has been carried on by the City Cor- 
poration intermittently for seventeen years as oppor- 
tunities occurred, is now almost complete. It was in 
1896, the Timrs recalls, that the late Commissioners 
of Sewers agreed to a plan for making the street a 
uniform width of 60 ft. In that year, with the co- 
operation of the London County Council, arrange- 
ments were proceeded with for setting back fhe 
premises on the south side between Ludgate-circus 
and Salisbury-court, at a cost of £150,295 18s. 4d. One- 
half the cost of widening main streets within the City 
is borne by the London County Council, as such work 
is regarded as metropolitan improvements. In 1898 
it was decided to continue the improvement at the 
Strand end of the street, at an estimated cost of 
£42,500, and the London County Council again agreed 
to contribute half the nett cost, not exceeding £20,(X)0. 
The widening was afterwards continued from time to 
time, at a further cost of about £19,700. Finally, in 
1908, the corporation were urged to proceed with the 
widening with great dispatch as the slow progress 
made was most detrimental to the trade of the street, 
and conduced to loss to the rates, and the Improve- 
ments and Finance Committee accordingly recom- 
mended that the improvement should be completed 
forthwith, at an estimated cost of £500,000. subject 
to the London County Council's agreeing, as before, 
to contribute half the nett cost of the work. 



July 11, I'Jlo 

Third International Road Congress. 


The second question considered liy Section I. at the 
afternoon sitting on the iirst day of the congress 
related to types of surfacing to be adopted on bridges 
and viaducts. Sir Maurice Fitzmaurice presided 
durin-' the first part of tlie proceedings, his place 
being subsequently taken by Mr. F. H. Berrynian. 

Sir M4.URICE FiTZMADKicE Said the subject under 
disuussion had many points in common witli roads 
and streets which came up to bridges, but in the 
case of bridges these points were more accentuated. 
There were such questions as drainage, the weights 
on the bridges, facilities for repairs both of the road- 
way and the structure underneath— all were very 
important matters for the bridges and not so 
important perhaps for the roads. 

Mr. P. C. Cowan, president of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers of Ireland, introduced the report on 
the subject, and enumerated the lecommendations 
made by the committee. They were as follows: — 

(1) The choice of road surfaciuig over bridges de- 
] lends on the nature and intensity of the traffic, the 
local conditions, such as permissible first cost, kinds 
of material readily available, and the climate. For 
light bridges the choice is generally influenced by 
tlie weight of the surfacing. Public safety and con- 
venience should be first regarded rather than ques- 
tions of comparative cost. 

(2) On short bridges in town or country it is de- 
sirable that the surfacing should be the same as 
that on the adjoining streets or roads. 

(3) In forming the roadway of bridges special care 
should be taken to secure proper drainage and to 
prevent the harmful percolation of water. ^Yith 
longitudinal gradients of at least 1 in 50 the cross- 
section of the surface may be made nearly flat, and 
the added load thus reduced. 

(4) As a general rule, the surfacing of a bridge 
.-ihould be as smooth as possible without being 
slippery. It should be waterproof, capable of re- 
sistance to wear, durable, and of a weight appr(}- 
priate to the structure of the bridge. 

(5) Plank surfacing on bridges is light and its first 
cost is low. Its cost of maintenance, however, i.s 
very excessive, except where the traffic is light. 
Its extreme liability to damage by fire is a serious 
disadvantage. It should not be adopted except in 
remote districts in which there is an abundance of 
cheap timber, and where a more desirable form of 
surfacing is not easily obtainable. Single jjlank 
floors are only suitable for very light traffic. For 
moderate or heavy trafiic two layers of planking, 
the lower of which is creosoted or otherwise pv(V 
tected from ra])id decay, should be used. 

(6) Macadam or ordinary broken stone surfacing on 
timber planking is not satisfactory on account of 
its great weight and its permeability. Macadam is 
therefore quite satisfactory for massive bridges in 
rural districts if the structure has a projier damp- 

(7) Macadam bound witli tar or other waterproof 
material is useful and economical for the surfacing 
of rural bridges with moderate traffic when the 
spans are short or the structure is massive. 

(8) Wood-block paving 3 in. to o m. tluck is vn 
ideal surfacing for bridges in most cases. It is 
light iUid durable, and can be laid on concrete, or 
when weight must be minimised on a timber sub- 
floor, which should Vie creosoted. Special ceie 
should be taken in the selection, treatment and lay- 
ing of wood blocks for bridge paving to avoid 
troubles due to expansion and contraction of the 
blocks or of the metal structure. 

(9) Asphalt in various forms is an excellent sur- 
facing material for bridges of easy gradient on 
which the traffic is not confined to definite lines or 
very heavy. 

(10) Stone paving carried out either with ordinary 
hand-dressed setts or with small setts (Durax, 
Kleinpflaster) laid on concrete, and bound with 
cement or tar, makes excellent and economical sur- 
faeings for bridges with heavy traffic. However, it 
IS only suitable in cases where questions of the 
weight of the surfacing or of noise are of no im- 
portance. The tliickness of the laver of stone inter- 
posed between the setts and the foundations will 

be decided in the same w^ay as with an ordinary 
carriageway in town or country, as the case may be. 
(11) For "movable bridges and for non-rigid sus- 
pension bridges the surfacing sliould be light, and 
easy to attach to the bridge platform. The trials 
made in France and Belgium with light mine cables, 
or other fibrous substances of even less cost, show- 
that such materials impregnated with tarry, bitu- 
minous, or asphaltic materials should be encouraged. 
In commenting on the report, Mr. Cowan said he 
ventured to suggest that those who were interested 
in the subject might very well spend a few hours in 
crossing and reerossing tlie Thames by the bridges 
which span it. The exercise would not take long 
and would reveal a great deal of useful information. 
iM. Abraham Tannenbatjm (St. Petersburg) said 
in his own paper he had set out various conclusions, 
and he thought there would be no harm in adding 
them to Mr. Cowan's conclusions. Certainly they 
would apply to his own country, and they would 
do no country any harm. 

]\Ir. H. T. Wakelam, county engineer of Middle- 
sex, said he agreed with the first recommendation. 
With regard to the second, he should have thought 
it would be in tiie interests of the bridge that all 
surfaces .shoidd be impervious, as well as in the in- 
tere.sts of the adjoining streets or roatls. He agreed 
with the third and fourth recommendations. With 
regard to the fifth, he could only say that he agreed 
with it as far as it went. He could not recommend, 
in any circiunstaiices, a plank deck for a bridge. 
Hivs experience was that it wa's not satisfactory. 
They had lately to deal with two bridges on the 
Thames, and they had found planks very unsatis- 
factory indeed. He should certainly advise no one 
in that room to put plank decking on a bridge in 
any circumstances. There was difficulty in mainte- 
nance, and gieat trouble in the disturbance of 
traffic during repairs, beyond all comprehension 
except to those who had to deal with roads where 
there was heavy traffic. With regard to the eighth 
recommendation, he woidd not advise anyone to init 
down a 3-in. block. He did not think that, with 
the warping and so on, it could be a satisfac- 
tory paving. It appeared to him that wood blocks 
on timber platforms would probably get loose very 
quickly under light traffic. 

Mr. W. CoMPTON Hall, county bridge master of 
Lancashire, said he thought that the resolutions 
were needlessly spun out. Numbers 1,2, 4, 7, 9 and 
10 might be summed up in a biief resolution to the 
effect that the prime factor in fixing the nature of 
the paving to be put on a bridge should be the 
traffic of the district. What was the right surface 
for the road adjoining the bridge must of necessity 
be the right surface for the bridge. He would make. 
of course, certain reservations, but he strongly 
emphasised that, because there were still, he was 
glad to say, a certain number of horse-owners, and 
horse trafiic was certainly entitled to some con- 
sideration. Nothing was more disconcerting than 
to have sudden changes of surface from macadam 
to paving and from paving to macadam. Of course, 
there were cases wlich were entirely eases of 
movables, such as bascules, and movable bridges or 
light suspension bridges, liable to movement where 
sjiecial paving was required. Therefore he was 
entirely in accord w'ith resolutions 8 and 11 com- 
bined, advocating the use of wood paving. Gene- 
rally, he thought he was entirely with Mr. Wake- 
lam. He was opposed entirely to resolution a in 
regard to the use at all of plank surfacing. He was 
strongly in accord with the author of one of the 
papers referring to a minimum thickness of sand 
to be put in stone paving — all kinds of paving in 
fact. One saw in this country 4 in. or 5 in. of dirty 
ashes put on paving, and then they wondered why 
we had dirty roads. With regard to paper No. 14, 
he thought there were a few statements in which 
it ought not to go without question. He thought 
he furnished the author with the statement that 
they had in Lancashire many boilers of 30 or 40 
t<ins drawn on 76-ton locomotives. They had to 
provide for those loads, which were of constant re- 
currence. They had places in Lancashire turning 
out one of these boilers every week, and sending it 

July 11, 1913. 



over tlie roads. The author suggested that it was 
quite siifticient to calculate stress on the bridge 
by a 16-toti locomotive, apparently trusting to 
Providence to get the boiler over. Temporary strut- 
ting, as the author suggested, was absolutely im- 
possible. They had bridges 4<) ft. high. How were 
the.v to get the materials and plant for the purpose 
of strutting a bridge such as tliat ? He also took 
exception to paragraph 5 in the same paper with 
reference to ferro-concrete construction. He did not 
want them to assume he was a prejudiced opponent 
of ferro-concrete, but he thought some of the state- 
ments made should not be put forward. This form 
of _bridge building, according to the paper, had l)een 
adopted in many i^arts, and, so far as had been 
ascertained, results had been satisfactory, and no 
failure had been reported — so the author declared. 
He would tell them their experience in Lancashire. 
The county council built one bridge on the ferro- 
concrete system, and that to-day was an absolute 
failure. WHiere the short arches met the long arches 
there was a crack from face to face, and there was 
a constant flow of moisture. The county council 
also contributed to the improvement of cei'tain 
bridges to which they had no powers to vote money. 
One of these was under grave suspicion. It was 
badly cracked in the parapet at present, and traces 
of moi.sture came through the arch and abutments. 
Another of the bridges was absolutely hopelessly 
cracked. The arch was sunk in tlie crown 5i in. in 
one place and 3 in. in another, and over the spring 
of the very flat arcli there were huge cracks they 
could put their fingers into, while moisture was 
continually flowing. Therefore he thought it was a 
very dangerous thing to assure engineers that there 
were no failures. He hoped it was in one system 
only, but there vere failures, and the matter should 
be watched very carefully. There was also the 
que.stion that if they passed a current of electricity 
through a steel bar encased in concrete the expan- 
sion and oxidisation set up was sufficient lo crack 
the concrete. In the case of a bridge which had to 
carry an electric tramway or an electric cable, stray 
currents had to be taken into account, and he 
thought these matters should be seriously considered 
in adopting reinforced concrete bridges. 

Mr. F. W. FuRKERT (inspecting engineer works 
department, New Zealand) said that in that country 
they had to cut things very fine. If they were not 
to use wood planking it would be impossible to 
build bridges at all. It was a case of wood jjlanking 
or nothing, and the bridges which had been built 
in that manner had been found, to be satisfactory. 
In New Zealand there were two suspension bridges 
with fevro-concreto decks. The plans wore not pas.-ed 
by the Government, but they were bu'lt. .and still 
remained in existence. 

Mr. .1. Walker Smith, chief engineering inspector 
to the Local Government Board for Scotland, sug- 
gested that the second recommendation should be 
onntted altogether. Ordinary macadam-timbered 
planking, he said, Avas not satisfactory. To say it 
was satisfactory for massive bridges was not at all 
necessary. In the first place they woidd not find 
it on massive bridges, and, secondly, it would not 
be satisfactory if they did. With reference to the 
satisfactory i ature of tar-bound macadam, he 
agreed tliat the seventh recommendation was en- 
tirely satisfactory if it were not for the limitations 
found in the last sentence. 

Mr. Cowan, in repl.y, said he thought the dis- 
cussion had shown how difficult it was for them to 
get into an international frame of mind. Delegates 
had expressed opinions with regard to places of 
which they had experience, forgetting that in other 
countries there were peculiar circumstances. 

Amendments were proposed to the fifth and 
seventh recommendations, but were lost, and with 
slight verbal alterations the whole of the recom- 
mendations were then agreed to. and the section 

The followinj: are siunmaries of the papers dealing 
with the question considered by the section: — 

By E. HEIDECKEE, K.K. Oberingenieur in the Ministry 
of Public Works, Vienna. 

Of all the papers on the subject of question 2. none 
is more usefully confined to the matter in hand, the 
author concentrating his attention upon the roadway 
itself and the platform which supports it. Referring 

to difficulties in providing suitable surface drainage, 
he directs attention to different measures which have 
to be taken, according to the nature of the materials 
u.sed. A useful classification of bridges recognises 
three classes, distinguished by limiting widths of 
the carriageway and by the positions of the footways. 
The carriageways of wooden bridges are, in the 
simplest case, provided by cross timbers laid on tlie 
longitudinal beams, these timbers being usually from 

14 to 16 cm, in thickness, and of pine, red larch, or, 
in rare cases, of oak. Such a floor may last about 
six years. A better arrangement is to have double 
planking, the lower layer having a lunger life than 
the upper or wearing layer. The upper planking 
should be laid tran.sversely. A broken stone surfacing 
on planking has some advantages, but tends to rot 
the floor, necessitates stronger trusses, and may lead 
to accidental overloading. 

In the case of iron bridges it luay lje desirable for 
some reasons to make the carriageway in the same 
manner as the adjoining road, but there are often 
grave objections to this. In a particular case it was 
found possible to reduce the weight of a large bridge 
by 1,400 kilogrammes per metre of length by replacing 
the metalled carriageway by wood-block pavement 
bedded on pumice concrete, and thus much greater 
live loads were allowable. In Austria wood-block 
paving is usually of impregnated fir or larch. Such 
paving has been very successful, but has not given 
satisfaction on bridges w'hen laid on flooring-planks. 
When properly made, however, a bridge roadway 
with wood blocks is one of the Ijest. The autlior 
describes the construction of iron carriageway floors, 
especially those in which Zore irons are used. A 
good protective coat for such a floor is a concrete 
layer, the surface of which is sloped for drainage and 
made waterproof. Wood blocks or stone setts may be 
laid on such a floor, the usual height for the latter 
being 13 cm. The author prefers a height of 18 cm. 
in the case of blocks 18 cm. .square in plan, but notes 
that I'i cm. cubes have also proved satisfactory. 
Ranuned asphalt may be recommended when the 
widths between stiff supports are small. 

On account of its great weight, the carriageway of 
concrete alone is only u.sed for small spans, in which 
the trussing is formed by simple rolled sections with- 
out intermediate bearers. For larger spans rein- 
forced concrete may be used, either in the form of 
arching or as a continuous platform. Floors of 
leinforced concrete arches are hardly more costly 
than made with flooring bars covered with 
road metal, and the cost of maintenance will be less. 
Reinforced concrete slabs are used much more fre- 
quently, and, although the weight is greater than 
lluit of flooring: bars, the method is more economical. 
The stillness of such a floor and its weight damp 
liie effects of shock, and it resists cold and damp- 
ness. Footways are usually made of wood or of rein- 
forced concrete, other kinds of flooi'ing having been 
superseded by the latter. Slabs of artificial stone 
are sometimes used. 

The author carefully considers the means which 
have to lie taken to provide for drainage on masonry 
bridges, and concludes with an explanation of the 
table of data which is api)ended. The details of 
construction referred to in the text are explained by 
excellent drawings. 


By G. DENIL, Ing^nieur Principal des Ponts et 

Chau8s6e8, Brussels, and A. BIJLS, Ingenieiir 

des Ponts et Chaussees, Maeseyclt. 

The authors divide their subject into two parts, 
relating respectively to ordinary bridges and movable 
bridges. Attention is here mainly confined to the 
forjner, as of the greater importance in the matter 
of comparative .studies. 

Most fixed bridges <in the authors' experience) 
are paved with stone setts, laid on a layer of sand 
which rests on a damp-proof course. The greater cost 
of a bridge which has to support a heavy, paved 
roadway is to some extent discounted by the reduc- 
tion of vibration. Irregular paving, however, in- 
creases vibration. The height of ordinary paving is 
a drawback to its use where headway is limited, the 
usual dimension being 30 cm. on a bed of sand 

15 cm. thick; and the authors recommend the 
adoption of a thickness of 3 cm. for the sand and 
12 cm. for the setts. The permeability of setts can 
l)e overcome by grouting the joints with hot asphalt 
mastic. Setts properly laid are not crushed even 
when the layer of sand is quite thin, and the floors 
of modern bridges are so designed that the loads are 
well distributed without help from the pavement itself. 




July 11, 1913. 

For traffic which is not too heavy " Kleinpflaster " 
(small random setts) is recommended. ,-,„„, 

It is the usual practice in Belgium to pave b"dge= 
on metalled roads, but the authors consider that it 
is preferable to carry the metalling across the bridge^. 
The change in the surface of the roadway is a dis- 
advantage, especially to motorists and cycbsts and 
it is difficult to make a satisfactory joint between 
the two surfaces. , , , , , „,„^i 

\^phalt paving in the form of slabs has been used 
for a number of brid<.'es in Belgium, but has not 
proved wholly satisfactory. Such a paving is a good 
one from the traffic point of view; it can be laid and 
repaired by ordinary paviors, and occupies very litt e 
of the available headway. Wood paving is very little 
u-^ed for fixed bridges in Belgium, except for those 
of very small span. The footways of bridges are 
often paved with tiles, ribbed or grooved so as to be 
less slipper V, and they have given excellent results. 
It is important that the tiles should be of the best 
quality. In one case such a paving, 3J cm. thick, 
laid with cement mortar, cost 6 francs per square 

The authors give careful consideration to the floor- 
ing of movable bridges, which is usually in two 
courses, the lower consisting of planking of indigenous 
oak or of jarrah laid parallel to the axis, the upper 
course being either planking or block paving. Creo- 
soted northern pine has been used for the under 
planking in order to reduce the weight of the moving 
span of swing bridges. For the upper planking red 
northern pine in now most usually employed, and 
jarrah, which has recently been tried, seems to give 
good results. This wood also gives satisfaction when 
used in the form of blocks. Canadian poplar will 
last from six to nine years on bridges with little 
traffic. A paving of ropes made of aloes has proved 
very satisfactory. These are old ropes which have 
been used in mines, the disused ropes being quite as 
good as new ones. They are laid at right angles to 
the axis of the bridge, nailed with flat-headed nails 
to ordinary planking. It lasted twice as long as 
Canadian poplar on a bridge with a large volume of 
traffic, and recent trials point to its having an even 
greater durability. It provides excellent foothold and 
deadens noise and vibration. It is proposed to make 
trials with ropes impregnated with asphalt or bitu- 


By S. B. DEOWNE, Instructor in Highway Engineering, 

Columbia University, New York City. 

The author keeps strictly to the subject, as indi- 
cated by the terms in which this " question " is set 
forth, and since he does not deal with footways, nor 
with earth-filled bridges, the whole of his jiaper is 
occupied with a study of that part of the subject 
which chiefly needs to be explained or discussed. 
Some useful costs data are given in this paper. In 
order that his point of view may be understood it 
must be pointed out that he considers that with very 
few exceptions the choice of the type of surfacing to 
be adopted is independent of the type of structure 
on which it is laid. 

Plank floors are usually constructed of white oak, 
spruce or yellow pine. A floor of single planks is 
usually from 3 to 4 in. in thickness, such floors being 
used for unimportant bridges of short span. \Vhen 
.such bridges have floors of two layers the lower layer 
is usually about 2i in. thick and the upper layer 
li to 2 in. On city bridges the wearing layer is 
usually 2 in. thick, and the lower laverS or 4 in. 
The width is from 8 to 12 in., the smaller width 
being preferred by some engineers. The author gives 
examples of the behaviour of wood flooring under 
various conditions of traffic. In one case the water 
passing between the planks corroded the steel 
stringers to such an extent that they are now beins 
replaced by wooden ones. Nearly allthe steel bridses 
in the State of Illinois built before 1907 have pla'nk 
floors laid directly on the steel joists. Spruce is often 
used for the wearing layer on important bridses, and 
pine for the lower layer. A plank floor of IJ-iii. spruce 
on a bridge in New Hampshire has been surfaced 
with a bituminous mastic of coal tar and sand, cost- 
ing 45 cents per square yard, and there are other 
cases in which a thin bituminous surface has been 
put down on an old plank floor. An instance is •'iven 
of the paving of an old plank floor with wood blocks 
the old planks being of oak. The author gives par- 
ticulars of a number of cases of paving with wood 
blocks, and points out that in Chicago a ereosoted 
wood block floor on a ereosoted plank sub-floor has 

been recommended by the department of works for 
roadways on all types of bridges. 

Sheet asphalt pavements are laid on both concrete 
and plank floors, and have usually been satisfactory 
except near tram rails. Stone block pavement, the 
weight of which is against its use on bridges, is 
adopted when it is necessary to provide good foothold 
on a grade. Medina sandstone blocks on a concrete 
base have been used for a bridge with a 4 per cent 
grade. They are 6 to 7 in. deep on a 2-in. sand 
cushion. The Charlestown Bridge, at Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, has a pavement of granite blocks on a 6-in. 
pine deck, waterproofed with four layers of pitch and 
roofing felt. 

The author gives the following weights per square 
foot: Plank floors, having a total thickness of 4 in., 
20 to 301b.; wood blocks on a plank sub-floor, 40 to 
50 lb. ; concrete slabs, up to 140 lb. ; stone block on 
concrete, up to 200 lb. Where grade and traffic con- 
ditions permit, a paving of ereosoted wood blocks is 
thought by many prominent engineers to be the 
ideal surface for bridges. 


The author begins his paper with a summary of 
the main requirements of a surfacing to be em- 
ployed on bridges. He then deals with the longi- 
tudinal and cross section of the bridge, and points 
out that a large amount of camber necessitates either 
a heavy load along the axis, " which is prejudicial 
to the resistance of the members of the bridge," 
or a shaping of the bridge to suit the camber, which 
greatly complicates the work. 

Of the timbers used for bridge surfacings, oak. 
fir, beech, elm, and poplar are mentioned. A 
wooden flooring, consisting of a layer of planks 
from 8 to 12 cm. thick, and a surface layer 6 to 8 cm. 
thick costs from 20 to 30 irancs per square metre. 
On roads with only a moderate amount of traffic the 
wearing layer lasts about two years, and the lower 
layer never more than fifteen years. Iron plating 
is sometimes laid on the planks, for the wheel 
tracks, and these may last twenty-five years. 

A very durable wearing layer can be made of 
mine cables, which, as a result, it is stated, of the 
stresses they have undergone, are very hard and 
compact, and cannot be cut with an axe. The 
width of a .strip is from 3 to 5 cm., and they weigh 
about 10 kilogrammes per square metre per centi- 
metre of thickness. They are sometimes laid upon 
the lower planking, but it is better to use an inter- 
mediate layer 3 or 4 cm. in thickness. The cables 
should be tarred on both sides before being put 
down, and after being laid they should be covered 
with coarse sand. This surfacing alone costs about 
20 francs per square metre. The cables are made 
of aloe fibre. 

The author points out that the kind of asphalt 
pa zings usually employed for streets are made in 
the same way on bridges. An unusual method, 
which offers certain advantages, is to emi^loy setts 
of hydraulically-compressed asphalt. These setts 
are 20 by 10 cm., or 14 by 14 cm. in plan, and 4 to 
5 cm. deep. They are laid on concrete, with an 
intei mediate layer of freshly made mortar, 10 to 
15 mm. in depth. In some cases this paving has 
worn badly, and has been very slippery in damp 
weather, but in other cases it has given satisfac- 
tion, and it is believed that the difference is due 
to the materials being of poor quality in the former 
cases and of good quality in the latter. 

Wood-block paving can be used on slopes such 
as are met with on most bridges, and it is both 
elastic and silent. To reduce the thrust of the 
paving the joints may be run with pitch mastic. 
The author describes designs for reducing the weight 
of a bridge decking suitable for wood-block paving, 
and precautions to be taken in order to reduce 
thrust. He describes, with detailed drawings, a 
device for taking up thrust at the kerb, and a design 
intended to resist thrust. 

Ordinary metalling may be regarded as the best 
paving for bridges in the open country, where the 
traffic is light, and where, as in the case of masonry 
bridges, there is no need to reduce the dead load. 
Stone setts have several disadvantages in such 
situations, though they withstand heavy traffic 
better, and on iron bridges the irregularities of setts 
cause shocks which are transmitted to the frame- 
work of the bridge. 

JVLY 11, 1913 



The author concludes that, for movable and siis- 
I)ension bridges, and wlien lightness is a necessity, 
the choice is confined to surfacings of timber or 
cable, the latter being preferable, both for its dura- 
bility and cheapness. Where a greater dead load 
may be allowed, the choice lies between asphalt and 
wood paving. In certain cases ferro-concrete may 
be used instead of ordinary concrete, for the sake of 
reducing the weight. 


County Surveyor, Southampton. 

This is a short and well-written paper on English 
bridges; but the types of surfacing to be adopted 
are not considered, the references to surfacing being 
confined to two paragraphs of a few lines each. The 
autliors refer to the need which has arisen for the 
strengthening of bridges, and difficulties due to the 
existence of many privately owned bridges. They 
refer to three kinds of paint used on iron and steel 
bridges, as protective coatings, and give some indi- 
cation of the standard of strength to which short- 
span bridges are now being built. 

The development in the use of ferro-concrete is 
considered, and reference made to the work of 
specialists and of certain committees, the authors, 
apparently, taking the view that without such 
assistance engineers could not have designed such 
bridges. The danger of making the thickness of 
ferro-concrete slabs only sufficient to satisfy theo- 
retical requirements is pointed out. The report 
concludes with remarks on the position as regards 
the replacing or restoring of old masonry bridges, 
and is accompanied by a diagram of rolling loads 
and equivalents. 






By A. NAGT, Koniglicher Oberingenienr, Budapest. 

This paper is m two parts, relating respectively 
to bridges outside towns and bridges within towns. 
The author points out that on a hard, brittle road- 
way the traffic is more detrimental to the bridge 
itself than it is when the roadway consists of soft, 
elastic materials. Wood and asphalt are therefore 
to be preferred to stone. A jointless pavement has 
the advantage of distributing the load better than 
one consisting of separate pieces. The increase in 
the weights carried by bridges has led to the need 
for giving separate consideration to the roadway. 

The author proceeds to describe the chief types 
of bridges met with in Hungary outside the towns. 
A form of decking which has been much^ used con- 
sisted of rolled joists resting on the cross-girders, and 
supporting a transverse flooring of oak planks, 
which directly carried the traffic. The price of oak 
has nearly doubled since this type was in favour. 
Two cases are cited in which the oak flooring has 
been replaced by reinforced concrete slabs, carry- 
ing a surfacing of asphalt. On iron lattice girder 
bridges of the first and second classes the most 
usual practice is to lay a macadam crust 12 to 15 cm. 
thick upon Zore irons, the latter being laid trans- 
versely and renting on longitudinal stringers. The 
Zore irons are spaced 2 to 3 cm. apart, the gaps 
being covered with road metal of large size. About 
400 bridges of this type have been built in Hungary 
during the past fifteen to twenty years, the spans 
ranging from 10 to 60 metres. The author considers 
that a desirable improvement is the provision of a 
concrete filling between and over the Zore irons 
(which resemble pot^sleepers), and in this case 
asphalt may be used instead of macadam where 
the conditions are suitable. This will not usually 
be the case outside the towns. In the case of bridges 
which can be built in spans of less than 25 or 30 
metres, reinforced concrete has been largely used 
during the past seven or eight years, and in such 
bridges the decking includes a reinforced concrete 
continuous slab. A layer of asphalt is spread over 
this, covered by a layer of concrete 4 to 5 cm. thick, 
which protects it from injury. Over this comes the 
metalling. In some cases a layer of poor concrete, 
1 to 10, forms the surfacing " 

In the towns of Hungary the usual paving mate- 
rials used for Ijridges are wood and asphalt. The 
author describes various forms of decking upon 
which wood-block paving is laid. In the of 

reinforced-concrete liridsjes it is usual to biy as|ilKilt 
directly upon the structural decking, liut an intci- 
mediate layer of concrete is necessary wlien provi- 
sion has to be made for tram rails. 

A layer of asphalt concrete may usefully be em- 
ployed to spread the loads, so reducins the size of the 
Zore irons, and lessening the total dead weight. 
Black spruce is one of the timbers employed for 
paving, and it is impregnated with coal tar at a 
high temperature in closed airtight vessels. Impreg- 
nated beech has been tried, but did not prove satis- 



By A. S. TANNENBAUM. Engineer of Ways of 

Communication, St. Petersburg. 

The author states that he has dealt principally with 
districts which have severe climates and cold, snowy 
winters, and especially those suffering from abun- 
dance of wet, almost all the northern half of Russia 
being subject to these conditions. After discussing 
the conditions generally in Russia as regards the 
development of highways, and of the transport of 
passengers and goods over the roads, the author gives 
some of the data on which the loading of bridges is 
calculated. A schedule of allowable wheel loads has 
not yet been established, but the matter is under 
consideration, and certain figures are taken as a basis 
for the calculation of the strengths of wooden bridges, 
more severe loads being allowed for in the case of 
iron, stone and concrete bridges. 

The best kind of surfacing for bridges cannot be 
discussed, the author points out, except in connection 
with structural features of the bridge, and the mate- 
rials of which it is made. Except in the Caucasus 
and the Crimea, very few stone bridges have been 
built in Russia in recent years, attention being mainly 
directed to steel bridges for railways, while on the 
highways the plentifulness of timber and the .skill of 
Russian carpenters led to timber bridges being pre- 
ferred to those of masonry . After touching upon some 
of the main points in the history of masonry bridges, 
and noting some of the most remarkable of recent 
developments in this class, the author points out that 
the masonry bridge usually presents the simplest form 
of the problem of bridge paving, since they allow of 
the use of the same surfacing as that employed on the 
road. In towns the bridge is often paved in the 
same way as is the street, and paving is also employed 
for bridges on metalled country roads. The author 
has found that a boulder pavement of large stones 
is satisfactory, but the joints should be filled either 
with cement grout or with a mixture of bitumen and 
creosote. A surfacing of ordinary road metal distri- 
butes the loads better than does stone paving, but it 
is difficult and costly to maintain. The various im- 
provements, such as tarring, which are applied to 
country roads should first be tried on stretches of 
road which include bridges. The disadvantages of 
an asphalt surfacing for bridges are its high cost, its 
slipperiness in wet weather, its brittleness in extreme 
cold, softness on hot summer days, and the trouble- 
some nature of the repairs. Its advantages are its 
smoothness, which reduces vibration, small resistance 
to traction, and complete imperviousness to water. 
When the materials are well chosen and are combined 
to suit local conditions, much may be done to combat 
its defects. 

The planks for bridge floors are usually of pine, 
occasionallv fir, and, in the Caucasus, of oak. The 
upper planking is about S^in. thick, the lower layer 
about 5 in. thick, the planks of this layer being often 
about 9 em. apart. For considerable traffic cross 
planking is best, but planking laid lengthwise may 
be preferred for light traflfic. 

It is an advantage to pave the approaches to plank- 
floored bridges, as the materials carried on to tin- 
bridge from a metalled road help in the wear and 
tear of the planks. If adequate measures be taken 
to protect the floor from wet it is a good plan to 
carry the metalling right across the bridge, the best 
device being an asphalt tar board, which is made ui> 
with paste-board and bituminous materials. 

In the case of iron bridges the weight of the floor- 
ing is an important matter, as it affects the weight 
of the superstructru-e itself. A plank flooring is some- 
what expensive to maintain, but it reduces the first 
cost of the bridge. Wood block and stone pavings 
cannot be made watertight, and the concrete layers 
on which thev rest have a tendency to crack. It is 
therefore desirable to place an elastic waterproof 
layer upon the concrete, and asphalted linen, 7 to 
lO" mm. thick, has been suggested. In the case of a 



JcLV 11, 1!)13. 

reinforced-concrete bridge the cheapest surface is that 
provided by the concrete of the decking, tlie surface 
portion being of suitable composition. 

The author describes a number of typical bridges, 
givinf leading dimensions and details of the flooring, 
and he discusses .some of the main points in relation 
to maintenance. 

The report ends with a number of 'conclusions 
based upon the considerations put forward by the 

(To be continued.) 


By One of the Pariy. 

On Saturday, June 28th, a party of about thirty 
members of the congress, including representatives 
of most of the European nations, the United States, 
Canada, Scotland, ami of two London boroughs, had 
a verv pleasant trip tlirough Surrey. A start was 
made from the exhibition at about 10 a.m., and the 
route taken was lay way of the Portsmouth-road 
through Kingston, Guildford and Godalming to 
Hindhead, whence a cut was taken across country 
by way of Farnham, passing through a few miles 
of Hamp.?liire in skirting the Barracks at Alder- 
shot and Farnborough, entering Surrey again at 
Frimley Bridge, and returning to London by way 
of Bagshot, Staines, Kingston and Eichmond. 

The roads passed over were such as to give our 
foreign visitors a favourable impression of English 
highways, for, witli the exception of a few short 
lengths, chiefly on steep gradients, the roads, both 
main and district, were in excellent condition, all 
having bituminous or tarred surfaces, and, notwith- 
standing the fact that the visit had been preceded 
l)y a long period of dry weather, dust was practically 

The first stop was made at West-hill, Wands- 
worth, where Mr. P. Dodd, the genial borough engi- 
neer, showed the party the " Mexphalte " surfacing 
being carried out under his direction by the High- 
ways Construction Company. The next stop was 
made at the Koad Board trial lengths in Putney 
Vale. These were carefully examined by the party, 
and full particulars, of which the foreign delegates 
were careful note-takers, were supplied by Mr. 
Dodd. The party was joined at this point by j\lr. 
\. Dryland, the county surveyor of Surrey, and his 
chief assistant, Mr. F. Grove, who supplied maps on 
which were descriptions and figures showing the 
nature of the road surfaces to be passed over. 

LTpon entering the county of Surrey at Putne>' 
Bridge an inspection was made of the "Trinidad" 
asphalt macadam laid in 1910 and 1911 in Kingston 
\'ale and at the top of Kingston-hill. 

Descending towards Kingston was a length of 
l>itch-grouting, and through the town it was noted 
that the tram margins and the High-street were 
paved with wood. Emerging towards Surbiton. a 
halt was made on the promenade, where the sur- 
facing is of " RoaJamant," laid on the ordinary 
macadam base — and very well it looked. Adjacent 
to this, in Surbiton. a length of Constable's slag 
tar-macadam, laid in 1905, was inspected. The 
party was informed that this length had undergone 
some repair along the centre, but that the greater 
part of it was substantially as laid in 1905. It still 
has a very creditable appearance, with the promise 
of a much longer life. The cost of tliis for the eiglit 
years was given as 5s. 4d. per yard, including all 
repairs and surface dressings, equal to 8d. per yard 
super, per annum— a very moderate cost considering 
the traffic— and the party were informed that its 
maintenance had been considerably cheaper than 
when in water-bound macadam. 

After leaving the trams at Thames Ditton, tlie 
journey was continued to Guildford, the surface for 
the whole distance of nearly 15 miles being juac- 
tically all tar-macadam, chiefly of slag supplied by 
Messrs. Constable, Hart & Co.. and Oakes. Smart * 
Sons, and laid by the local authority. Interspersed 
with the slag tar-macadam were a few lengths of 
tarred granite supplied by the Northern Quarries 
Company and Tarred Granites. Limited, and one 
length of granite grouted with " Koadoleum." 

A move was next made towards the old town of 
Godalming, an inspection being made en rouin of 
■some good lengths of i)itch-grouting laid in 1911 and 
1912. and during tlie present summer, some "Trini- 
dad " asphalt macadam on tarred granite base at 
Broadwater and .«ome "Trinidad" asphalt carpet- 
ing, IJ in. thick, being laid near Godalming 

on the water-l)ound macadam base, prepared 
and strengthened where necessary to receive 
it. The narrow main street of Godalming had re- 
cently been laid with sectional hardwood blocks bj 
the Acme Wood Paving Company, and the travelling 
was smooth and quiet. Emerging from the town 
towards Milford. a halt was called at Ockford on 
a long length of very excellent tar-macadani, com- 
posed of tarred quenast on a tarred limestone base, 
and here a local inventor, :Mr. Barnes, had pro- 
vided for the delectation of the party a parade of 
his tar-spraying machines— much used, it was under- 
stood, in this part of the country. 

The cars were soon under weigh again and run- 
ning over an excellent surface consisting mostly of 
surface -tarred, water-bound Penmaenmawr stone, 
interspersed with another excellent length of tarred 

At the " Royal Huts " the main Portsmouth road 
was left, and travelling by way of Farnham and 
Farnborough. Bagshot was reached. Here, once 
over the railway bridge, we were again on long 
stretches of slag and granite tar-macadam on the 
way to Sunningdale. At the last-named place about 
3 miles were water-bound granite surface tarred 
only, and the heaps of limestone spalls at the road- 
side showed that strengthening of foundations was 
being taken in hand preparatory to extensions of 
the tar-macadam, which was. however, soon in evi- 
dence again through the town of Egham and by the 
side of the medioival Causeway to Staines Bridge. 
Thence to Kingston Bridge the surfaces were not so 
good, except through the Staines rural district, 
where some excellent lengths of tar-macadam, laid 
by Mr. G. Planning, the rural district surveyor, were 
passed over. At Eichmond we passed over wood- 
paved roads until we emerged upon the level space 
about Ham. where we saw two excellent lengths of 
"^Mexphalte" and one of " Pitehmac." At Eichmond 
Town Hall we came \ipon wood paving again, and 
so found our way to town — some to the banquet pro- 
vided at the Hotel Cecil— having spent a long and 
interesting day, full of scenic and jirofessional 

Looking Ijack on the triji. and bearing in mind 
the views expressed in no measured terms by the 
party, it can safely be said that the impression left 
upon the minds was such as will carry into foreign 
lands the fame of our English roads. If what we 
saw is a fair sample of what can be accomplished 
by English road engineers, then indeed we have no 
reason to be ashamed of the way in which the all- 
important road problem is being dealt with in this 


Sutton, Surrey, was among the towns whose roads 
came in for iiis])eetion by the members of the con- 
gress. Mr. F. E. Bristowe was in charge of the 
arrangements for tlie outing, a large number of 
members participating. Sutton was reached shortly 
before mid-day, and the first inspection was of a 
length of " Tarvia " on the Carshalton-road. laid 
about six years ago. The paity afterwards pro- 
ceeded to the municipal offices, where they were 
welcomed by the cliairman. Councillor E. W. 
Wootten, J. p., the vice-chairman. Councillor G. H. 
Hooper, m.d., and tlie members of the council, the 
surveyor. Mr. Wni. Hedley Grieves, also l)eing 
present to receive them. 

Subsequently an inspection was made of a length 
of " Roadamant " laid in June. 1912. at a cost of 
4s. 8d. per super, yard. Adjoining this section is a 
length of "Rocmac." laid in April, 1911. and further 
on there was seen an area of creosoted wood-block 
paving laid by the Improved Wood Pavement Com- 
pany. Limited. Other lengths of "Rocmac" and 
wood paving were later on examined, following 
which an area of tarred slag macadam, in two coats, 
of a total thickness of 3 in., was seen. This was 
laid in July, 1911, by Messrs. Constable, Hart & Co.. 
and cost 3s. per square yard. Continuing their in- 
spection, the delegates were shown a length of 
" Mexphalte," supplied and laid by the Praed Road 
Construction Syndicate. Limited. The cost in this 
case was Js. i)er jard super. On tlie Cheam-road 
two sections of "Quarrite," laid by the Xorthern 
Quarries Company. Limited, at the end of 1911, were 
examined, the cost of the work, the visitors were 
informed, being 3s. 4d. per suj)er. yard. 

In his sjieech of welcome to the delegates, the 
chairman of the council explained that, under the 

.TtiLY 11, 1913. 



ailvioe nf tlic?ir surveyor, Mr. IloiUey Grieve.^, they 
had put down these different eh^.sses of road in 
order to discover t)ie very best kind for the huge 

amount of traffic \vliich passed 

The thaalcs of tlie party for tli. 
l)y the council wei-e expressed liy 
county surveyor of Kesteven. 

the district 

' lacilities granted 
Air. W. B. Purser, 


On Wednesday of htst week a visit was paid to 
8outhport by a nunilier of delegates of tlie congress, 
who included representatives from Prance, Russia, 
and Italy. Tlie party were received by the mayor 
(Councillor Harold Brodrick, m.a.) in the mayor's 
parlour. Afterwards they drove along Lord-street, 
Uuke-street. and the Promenade, pausing at the 
Lifeboat Memorial to examine the road. Thence 
they proceeded along the Promenade, down Nevill- 
street, along Forest-road to the highways dejiart- 
ment. The visitors were accompanied by Councillor 
Mawdsley (chairman of the Highways Conunittee), 
Alderman Harling (vice-chairman), Mr. A. E. .lack- 
son (borough surveyor), and Mr. G. F. Crawford 
(borough road surveyor). The delegate.-- tin ii jjro- 

T.viiMAC Construction, WATLiNf;-STRKET, ni:ar 

ceeded over Rose-hill Bridge, along Sussex-road to 
Norwood-road (stopping opposite the end of Cypres.s- 
road to examine the road), Norwood-road, Norwood- 
avenue, and Roe-lane, to Melling-road. Here they 
halted to inspect the tar sjtraying, and then returned 
along Roe-lane, Mill-lane, and ]\Ianor-road, to Cam- 
bridge-road, Albert-road, and Lord-street to the 
Prince of Wales Hotel, where luncheon was served. 
The streets in Southport are paved with Hasling- 
den grit setts, granite cubes, and tar-macadam. 
There is akso a small amount of wood paving. Of 
late years, however, tar-macadam has been adopted 
in the construction of most of the roads of the 
borough, this material having, in fact, bgen in use 
to some extent in Southport for over forty years. 
The tar is supijlied from the corporation gasworks, 
and is in accordance with the Road Board specifi- 
cations. The stone used is Scotch and Guernsey 
granite and Antrim basalt. A large proportion of 
llie tar-macadam roads in the borough are tar- 
sprayed annually and strewn with g-in. Guernsey 
chippings. The cost of the tar-spraying, including all 
materials, is lid. per square yard. The footways 
are usually paved with Adamantine blue vitrified 
tiles, 9 in. square and lij in. thick. The cost -pf tiles. 

laid r(iiii|>lete, is lis. 9d. per square yard. The cor- 
jioration are now manufacturing artificial flags from 
destructor clinker, the cost of which, laid complete, 
is rather less than that of the tiling. The flags are 
2 in. thick, including a i-in. facing of 1-in. Guernsey 
granite chippings. The face is tinted red with 
oxide of iron — mixed in the proportion of 1 of oxide 
to 8 of cement — in order to remove the white surface, 
which is objectionable in a sunny place like South- 
]iort. The whole of the roads, both public and 
[irivate, arc C(nis(ructed by the corporation work- 


The visit to the Tarmac Works at Ettingshall, 
Wolverhampton, last week, enabled the members 
of the congress to witness the whole jiroeess of manu- 
facture of this extensively used material. The works, 
the largest plant of the kind in the country, adjoin 
the furnaces of Messrs. Alfred Hickman, Limited, 
and the Denby Iron Company, Limited. The com- 
liany have a fully equipped tar-distillation i)lant at 
the works, and the tar compound used for coating 
is distilled anil preiiared to physical and chemical 
-itaiidaids. known to ^ive the best results as re- 

Covuntrv— Birmingham Main Road at 

-aids strength of binding properties, freedom from 
l!endency to affectation by atmospheric variations, 
and length of life as an effective bind. Examina- 
tion of the samples of untreated slag demonstrate 
that the slag used by the company has an excep- 
tionally rough and uneven surface, which means 
that it possesses the maximum "holding power" 
lor the mixture used for coating. It is porous 
enough to retain and hold the mixture perfectly, 
and is, at the same time, claimed to be as strong 
as the best classes of granite and similar materials. 
Representatives of numerous local authorities were 
among those who participated in last week's visit, 
and at a dinner which took place in the evening at 
the Grand Hotel, Birmingham, the county surveyor 
of Warwickshire, Mr. J. Willmot, occupied the chair. 
The excellent condition of the Tarmac work on 
Watling-street, as compared with other portions of 
the roadway, was one of the things which seemed 
particularly to impress itself on the visitors in tlie 
course of their inspection during the day of a num- 
ber of highways, and the admirable ajjpearance, 
after five years, of the work carried out at West 
Bromwich— which was seen on the journey to 
Birmingham— was also the subject of comment. 



JrLY 11, 1913. 

Office Conversations. 



XVII.— The Road Congress. 

Did I attend the Third International Road Con- 
gress ? Yes, I was there the whole week, right from 
the first struggle for information at the Surveyors' 
Institution to the final reception at the Hotel Cecil. 
I went solemnly to all the visits possible for one man 
to indulge in during the week, and I ate all the dinners 
and afternoon teas and conversazione side-lines that 
I could manage to stow behind my waistcoat. No, 
I didn't make a beast of myself, nor did I feel that the 
roads of the country would go to pieces if I didn't 
immolate myself upon the refreshment altar; but when 
I do a thing I believe in doing it properly, and if 
the pounds avoirdupois of solid tuck and the pints 
imperial of liquid solace had been three times as 
great I'd 've had a go at 'em. I do believe too in 
cultivating the social side of any affair which has 
a tendency to be dry. There is nothing very inspiri- 
ting or inspiring about a road congress. As a congress 
it would be nothing to a surveyor but a 'busman's 
holidaj'. Sandwiched between receptions, dinners, 
conversaziones, and afternoon teas it was a rollicking 
affair, and I had a rare good time. I met a number 
of old friends, and of course a greater number of ob- 
jectionable people of the bore type. Still, that's 
only to be expected, and I don't complain. 
» » * « 

Badly organised .- Well, there re two sides to that 
question. There's nothing in this world that isn't 
open to criticism. The papers .' You didn't get 
your copy ? Annoying, I confess, and it was 
ridiculous that they should all have to be despatched 
from Paris. Still, Paris was the headquarters, and 

they were printed in Paris and Why couldn't 

they have been printed in London ? I don't know. 
Yes, it was a bit of a squeeze at the bureau, every- 
liody trying to get information at the same time. I 
really pitied the officials more than the public. They 
did their best, and in the little I had to do with them 
I found them most courteous and obliging in every 
way. Just fancy having to reply to the same question 
forty-three times an hour ! What question ? Oh, 
Ijlenty of them, but one in particular. "' I have not 
yet received my papers." "No.'" "Can I have 

them? My name is ." " Sorry, sir, but the papers 

are all sent direct from Paris. We have nothing to 
do with them." And so on, hour after hour, day 
after day; and mind you the inquiry was made in 
as many languages as there were words in it, and 
was not always quite so courteously put. Frenchmen 
are the rudest men on earth. Always thought they 
were the most polite ? My dear fellow, you've only 
got to take a trip to Paris and correct that impression. 
French women ? Ah, now you touch me on a tender 

spot, and Yes, the organisation might have 

been better, considerably better— it left a lot to be 
desired; but on the other hand it might have been a 
lot worse, a considerable lot worse, and anyhow the 
acts of which you complain were of the " omissive 
and not of the commissive type. Paris and Brussels 
shone no better in organisation; but I have great 

hopes of Munich. We learn by our errors, and 

Yes, you're quite right^-we must have learned 
quite a lot by now. * 

* *. * * 

What do I think of the papers ? That's a question 
I^ll lie better qualified to answer when I've seen them. 
I'm not like the journalist I met who was just going 
to the Exhibition. He said it was an awful bore to 
have to go, but, having written it up for two papers, 
with a detailed notice of each exhibit, he felt he had 
lielter just have a run round. He's a smart chap, 
and I verily believe that he could write an intelligent 
precis of the papers without having seen one of them. 
Yes, it's wonderful what these fellows can do. They'll 
ask you a question, and you'll replv simplv and 
shortly "Yes," and next week you'll find that two 
columns will scarcely hold all you said. No. I've not 
received my copy of the papers yet; but it'll come 
all right— of that I'm sure. No use when I get it ? 
Not the least: I possibly shan't open the parcel. 
Pity ? No, not exactly. You see, if I had had them 
before the Congress I should have been able to 
follow the discussions; as it was, not having seen a 

single paper, I didn't have to trouble to do more than 
stick my nose into the door of an occasional meeting 
room. Interesting ? Yes, psychologically so, very. 
The congregation of nationalities in the one room, 
each vainly striving to follow the meaning of the 
others, the voluble utterances in foreign tongues, the 
clever (if halting and imperfect) translations of the 
polyglots engaged for the job, the enthusiasm on 
things that didn't matter at all, on things that had 
been patent for the last fifty years, the occasionally 
obvious attemjot of one nationality to rush some 
" conckision " or another — yes, it was a most in- 
teresting study, and 1 wouldn't have missed it for 
anything. Pity you couldn't get away. 

* * « * 

The exhibition was certainly good, but it might 
have been a heap better. The locus was badly selected. 
There was not enough room to commence with, while 
the approach to the hall and ground, going from any 
of the places of meeting, was through a dirty, squalid, 
evil-smelling market-place, which must have left an 
impression the reverse of desirable upon visitors 
from abroad. I suppose Westminster is like the rest 
of London — slums always lying beneath the shadow 
of mansions and palaces. Particular, am I ? Yes, 
perhaps I am, when the good name of my country's 
at stake. I'm not one of those fools who believe 
that an Englishman's worth three Frenchmen, and 
all that sort of rot. A man's a man, whatever the 
nationality, if he's a man. And when we do have a 
foreigner visit these shores, I like to see every efiort 
made to convey a good impression. The Crystal 
Palace .' Yes, that wouldn't have been a bad place 
for the exhibition if anyone could have reached there. 
It's a bit of a journey, you know, and the train 
service — but there, I won't enlarge on that. You're 
a Southerner, and it'd be a sore point with you. 
You're one of the Peckham sunrisers. What do I 
mean ? Oh, the sort of man who, when a friend asks 
him if he's been to Switzerland and seen the sun 
rise from one of the highest mountains, replies 
fatuously: "No, I've not; but — er — did you ever 
see it rise from Peckham Rye ? It's one of the finest 

" And so on. I suppose your idea of rich, 

rolling landscape is Clapham Common. No ? Oh, 
well, you're broader - minded that the average 
Southerner, that's all I can say. What about the 
Northerner ? Isn't he as bad ? Quite, if you like ; 
only I'm a Northerner, so it's your turn to retort on 
me now. Not worth the trouble ? Possibly not, 
especially as you haven't a case. 

« * * * 

What do I think of the lesolutions ? Not much? 
But that's not fair. You ask me what I think, and 
in the same breath hazard an opinion I've never ex- 
pressed. No, I don't think a lot of them. They most 
of them deal with the obvious, and the application 
of a number depends entirely upon national and 
local conditions, practice and possibilities. Of course, 
at such a large gathering of the nations some sort 
of report or resolution had to be published. 
It all helps in the good work, if only by stimulating 
public interest ? No, I don't agree with that, be- 
cause the public interest isn't even awakened. The 
Press takes care of that. Not the technical Press — 
I don't mean them ; but then the majority of the public 
reads only its halfpenny or penny daily. And papers 
of this class are careful to chronicle only what 
doesn't matter. The disappearance of Jack Johnson 
is made the full subject of a poster. The congress 
has to be satisfied with a paragraph. Wrong, am 
I ? Oh, the opening ceremony ! Yes, that received 
plenty of notice, because it wasn't of the slightest 
importance.. There were a few big names to play 
with — that was the sole reason of the space given. 

Now abroad The same there ? Not quite. In 

Germany, for example, an engineer receives a certain 
amount of honour. He is a big man socially. Here 
an engineer is regarded as quite small fry. Why, a 
successful contractor is a much bigger man ! And as 
for a municipal engineer 

• * * * 

Yes, I had a rare good time, and I could do with 
it every three months. It makes a change in the 

.riLY u. i?i3. 



The Surveyor 

H^^ .ODunlclpal uni Coinitv; Enolnccc. 


Appoiutmeuts Vacant 

Assistants' and Students' Section 


Extra Services : Stroud Surveyor's Remunei'atioit ,. 
Institution of Municipal and County Engineers : 

Council Meeting 

Meeting at Leek 


Law Kotes 

Leek and its Municipal Works - 

Local Goveromeut Bo;u-d luqtiiries 

Location of Uudergroaud Pipes 

London Traffic Problem 


Municipal Competitions Open 

Municipal Contracts Open 

Municipal Work in Progress and Projected 

Office Conversatious 


Points from the Road Congress Keport 

Recent Publications 

Rivei*s Pollution and the Protection of Water Supplies 

Road Board and Road Control 

Royal Sanitary Institute Congress : 

Annual Coogress and Exhibition at Exeter 

Conference of Engineers aud Surveyors 

Sewage and Pisciculture 

Surveyors' Institution Examinations 

Sydney Hoi-bour Bridge 

Tenders for Mimicipal Works or Supplies 

The Wire-'bus and Road Maintenance 

Third International Road Congress 

Warrington Bridge 

Waterproofing Cemrnt Concrete and Cement Rendering 

monotony of provincial life in the one town, of which 
I get a bit sick very often. The chairman of the High- 
ways Committee was with me, but we didn't see too 
much of each othT. He stayed with friends in town. 
You don't know liim, do you ? There's no harm then 
in telling you that ne s a bit of a goer when he likes, 
and we liad one particularly tall evening together. 
Too much ? No, sir, a gentleman never has too much. 
A gentleman can ahvay.s carry his load, and if he 
can't he's no gentleman to take it aboard. Useful ? 
Yes, I've brought awaj' certain impressions that must 
be of use to me in my work; too, I saw many things 
in the exhibition that I'd never have seen in my life 
if I hadn't come up to town. It's all very well to 
read about improved systems and improved machinery 
and apiiliances; but to appreciate them they must 
be seen in being. That's one of the things that might 
have been embodied in the resolutions. Something 
about it being advisable for men to keep in touch 
with the manufacturers and to give every sj'stem 
and so on a fair trial. After all, the professional 
man depends almost entirely upon the manufacturer 
for the means to carry out his work, and he often has 
to thank them for showing him really how things 
should be done. Take road-tarring alone. Think 
where it would have been if the manufacturers hadn't 
risen to the occasion. Sorry you couldn't have run 
up ? Yes, you missed something. By the by, I'll 
send you round the papers when I get them from 
Paris, in case by any chance yours don't come. I'm 
sure I shan't wade through them now. 

Proposed Extension of Birmingham Parks The 

Parks Committee of the Birmingham City Council 
have adopted a recommendation to the council to pur- 
chase the freehold of 50 acres of Bilberry Hill, at a 
cost of £3,400. Part of the hill has hitherto been 
leased to the council as a j^ark at a nominal rent. 

Town Planning Scheme for Hazel Grove. ~A scheme 
of town planning is being promoted by the Hazel 
Grove and Bramhall Urban District Council, the 
details of which were recently submitted to Mr. 
Thomas Adams, Local Government Board, at a formal 
inquiry. It is not proposed to town plan the whole of 
the area, the immediate aiiplication being for area No. 1, 
which includes the southern portion of the district. 
The area contains 5,467 acres, of which 600 acres are 
already built on. The remainder of the area is for 
the main part agricultural land, but that is also fast 
becoming built upon for residential purposes. 


For every ill beneath the sun 
There is some remedy cr none; 
If there be one, resolve tu finil it; 
It not, submit, and never mind it. 

— Ano.v., circa 1843 


To the Editor of The Sueveyor. 

Sir,— While realising that my views on this mtitter 
were controversial, I hardly expected that they would 
be misunderstood. I do not wish to amplify them; to 
most people they should be apparent; and so I simply 
write to justify myself in the eyes of "Cedric" and 
"Beta," and not to get in le dernier mot. At the 
same time I rather think that the views of these 
gentlemen are representative of the petitioners gene- 

Firstly I claim to be equally unbiassed as " Cedric," 
being myself an unsuccessful "typical" candidate. 
He accuses me of lack of esprit de corps. If this refers 
to my non-adherence to a small minority of 
youngsters with an imaginary grievance, I freely 
admit it. My remark as to the five years' notice 
given in preparation should surely convey even to 
the mind of "Cedric" that five March examinations 
ha\e been held since 1908 under tlie old conditions. 

■' Cedric " remarks that the two years' waiting for 
the P.A.S.I. letters "may vitally affect the prospects 
of many a young assistant." All I can say is that 
the young assistant ought to be able to prove himself 
capable without them, especially when they have not 
been earned. Personally, I have passed the A.M.I.O.E. ' 
examination, but am too young for election, and I 
have yet to find that my prospects have been vitally 

I need only reply to "Beta," who is "out for 
playing the game "—play it. The first precept is to 
follow the rules. I cannot see in what other way he to see the P.A.S.I. and F.S.I, diplomas kept 
at as high a standard as possible. 

May I add that if the youth of the profession were 
leavened with a little more of the spirit of noblesse 
oblige and a little less of that of Uriah Heep one 
might look with more confidence towards Ihe next 
generation ? — Yours, &c., 

"Asking No Favours." 

June 30th, 1913. 

To the Editor of The SuRVEroR. 

Sir,— I have been much interested in the corres- 
pondence on this subject in your journal. It is indeed 
refreshing to note that at least one of the relegated 
candidates— "' Asking No Favours "—has some grit in 
him. Surely the one and only important point in 
the matter is that according to the rules laid down 
by the institution, and enforced for many years, 
these aggrieved candidates have failed to pass the 
examination, by how much or how little it matters 

It is always very annoying just to miss the pass list, 
but it is difficult to understand why a candidate who 
failed in his typical subject only is deserving of 
more sympathy than one who may have satisfied the 
examiners in that most important subject, but failed 
to obtain the required aggregate by, say, three or four 
marks— and I suppose it is quite possible for the 
latter to occur. 

I am thoroughly in agreement with "Asking No 
Favours" with regard to raising the status of the 
professional associate class. The P.A.S.I. exam. 
has for too long been a happy hunting ground for 
those who desired the privilege of appending dis- 
tinguishing letters to their names with a minimum 
amount of study and expense, and I can see no par- 
ticular reason why the new rule, making the passing 
of the final examination a condition of election, should 
not apply, after due notice, to those professional 
associates already elected.— Yours, &c., 


June 28th, 1913. 

A Queensland Appointment.— The Itockhamptou City 
Council are inviting applications for a city engineer 
at a salary of £1,0(X) per annum. It is a significant 
fact that this council have not had the services of 
aTcity engineer since the last occupant to hold office 
(Mr. Herbert E. Bellamy) resigned in December, 1904, 
although Mr. Bellamy was called in as consulting 
engineer in the year 1911 to report and design a new 
water supply scheme for the city, at a cost of £125,000. 



July 11, 1913. 

Assistants' and Students' Section. 

CoNuucTED BT SYDNEY G. TUKNER, assoc.m.inst.c.k. 

All commimicatioTU in rejard to this vagt miMt !>« addressed to The 
Editor, St. Bride's House, 24 Bride-lane, Fleet-street. E.C. Envelopes 
must (..! marked "Assistants' Section" in tJis to/. t«/t-/iani comer. 
CorrespimdCTUs a.-« .ni'.ted to »ut«ut juestioju /er coimdnation and 


This week answers are invited to the following 
questions : — 

325. Air Compressors How is the size of an air 

receiver calculated in connection with an air com- 
pressor ? Of what thickness of metal would it be 
made if (1) of cast iron, (2) wrought iron, assuming it 
had to withstand a pressure of from 15 lb. to 40 lb. ? 
Give any further particulars regarding same. 
(■' Griffo.") 

330. Sewage Disposal.— Design a small sewage dis- 
posal system for a gentleman's residence, capable of 
dealing with 500 gallons per day. The sewage is 
fairly strong on account of the drainage from a small 
cowshed. The available fall can be neglected, and 
the earth is of a sandy-clay nature. State approximate 
cost. The effluent should discharge into a soakaway. 
(•' Inky.") 

334. Sewerage.— What would be the flattest 
gradient allowable for 6^n., 7-in. and 8-in. sew^ers 
respectively, to give a self-cleansing velocity ? What 
is a good modern book on sewerage and sewage dis- 
posal, giving tables of velocity and discharge ? 

336. Foundations.— Draw plan and section of a 
ferro-concrete foundation 7 ft. square, on light soil, 
to carry a load of 25 tons from a stanchion with a 
base 2 ft. 3 in. square. 

337. Strength of Chain. — Assuming the strength of 
a chain to be double that of the bar from which 
the links are made, find the proper size of chain for 
a 20-ton crane, using 3-sheaved blocks; allowing f = 
6.000 lb. 

[The Editor is a.t ail times glad to hear from 
readers who desire to sulsmit questions regarding 
matters of general interest, points of daily practicet 
&c, for insertion in the "Assistants' and Students' 
Section." Questions which are published are taken 
into consideration, as well as other matter, in 
awarding the Monthly Premium.] 


333. Sewage Tank Construction. — What is a suitable 

formula for calculating the requisite thickness of 
sewage tank walls? Give an example. ("Check.") 

T = Mean thickness of wall (in feet) 

H = The height (in feet) 

w = The weight of a cubic foot of the earth ;it 
back in lbs. 

W= Ditto of wall 

a = Angle which n;itui:il slope of the earth makes 
with the vertical 

to th« ^esttons whicii appear, l^or the contributions congidereA 
to ie the most meritorious, ons or more premiums «n liooJcs vill be 
awarded monthly, Diagrame mu«t be dravrn to scale on eepa>'ate s/ieets, 
ready for reproduction^ 

horizontal at top T 

H tan — 

lor vegetable earth or clay k = ■11)'-' 
[joamy ditto = .50" 

Gi-avel and sand moist = 52° 

Then for walls with vertical sides and backing 
" ">' w 
If the wall has an internal batter of 

1 in 12 take '86 of the abo\e value of T. 
1 .. 8 ., -80 
1 ., t-i .. T-l. 
1 .. ■' .. 72 
For surcharged revetments substitute Hi foi' H. 
For example : 

Find thickness of brick wall for a tank 12 ft. 
deep excavated in vegetable earth and hoi-izontal 

T = 

12 X tan 

J±^' / 70 
2 V 112 

= 7 X 12 X '414. X ■79 

= 2" 76 ft. = 2 ft. 9 ins. 

If wall has 1 in 8 batter T = 275 x 80 = 2'2 ft. 
X (say) 2 ft. 3 ins . 

(J. M. N., Hitchin.) 

335. Surveying Describe a method of ascertain- 
ing true north, with sufficient accuracy for a small 

The following method is taken from Middleton & 
Chadwick's "Treatise on Surveying": — 

Select a convenient station upon the main line, 
where the ground is smooth and level, and plant a 
pole there firmly and truly vertical. About one or 
two hours liefore noon, mark with a small peg the 
extreme end of the shadow cast by the pole, and 
with the foot of the pole as a centre, and the distance 
to the peg as a radius, describe a segment of a 
circle upon the ground in the direction in which 
the shadow is travelling. When the sun begins to 
decline watch until the extremity of the shadow- 
again coincides with the circle, and drive another 
peg at that point. Bisect the distance between the 
two pegs, and a line through the station at this 
point will be in the direction of the true north. This 
line shoidd be extended to a sufficient distance to 
enable it to be accurately surveyed. In case the sun 
is likely to be obscured by passing clouds, it is well 
to take two or more points, at, say, ten minutes', in- 
tervals, before noon, and strilie two or more corre- 
sponding arcs. 

Oswestry Council and Road Maintenance.— At a 

meeting of Oswestry Town Council on Monday a 
resolution was unanimously passed requesting the 
Government to make a larger grant from the Imperial 
Kxchequer towards the maintenance of highways. 

Housing in Rural Districts. — Horncastle Rural 
District Council on Tuesday passed a resolution " That 
nothing be done in respect to building cottages in the 
Horncastle Rural District until better facilities are 
offered by the Government." It was decided to send 
a copy of the resolution to the Local Government 
Board as a reply to a letter asking what the councU 
were doing concerning a certain scheme. The council 
also expressed the opinion " that it is the business of 
landowners to provide cottages for their farms, and of 
employers of labour to provide cottages for their own 
workmen." The scheme about which the Local Govern- 
ment Board made inquiry was one for the building 
of four cottages at East Barkwith, to be let at a rental 
of 2s. 6d. per week each. It was found that with 
such a rental the annual deficit would be so great that 
the parish could not be fairly charged with it, and an 
appeal was made to the Local Government Board for 
better loan facilities. The department suggested a 
rental of 3s. 6d. to 4s. per week, which it was con- 
tended is more than the agricultural labourers in tlic 
district can pay. 

July 11. ini3. 



Royal Sanitary Institute. 


A very large number of delegates are attending 
Exeter in connection with the twenty-eighth congress 
of the Eoyal Sanitary Institute. Altogether three 
Colonial Governments, five Government departments, 
fifteen county councils, forty county boroughs and 
metropolitan boroughs, eighty-three boroughs, urban 
district councils or sanitary authorities, fourteen rural 
district councils, .seven port salutary and similar 
authorities, seven education authorities and forty-one 
.societies, universities and colleges are represented. 
Among the last-mentioned are the Institution of Muni- 
cipal and County Engineers, the Institution of Water 
iMigineers, the Municipal Waterworks Association, 
tlic Royal Institute of British Architects, the Society 
of ICui-'ineers, the Surveyors' In.stitiition and the Illu- 
minating Entrineering Society. The delegates include 
Prof. Henry .\dams (Society of Engineers), Dr. Samuel 
Rideal (Society of Chemical Industry). Messrs. Henry 
.\dams (Society of Architects), F. A. Barnes (Truro), 
J. F. Bowden (Surveyors' Institution), C. Brownridge 
(Birkenhead). S. E. Burgess (Middleslirough), E. T. 
Buscombe (Bodmin), E. W. .\. Carter (Gloucester"). 
G. F. Carter (I\Iexl)urough). W. H. Cousins (Street), J. 
Crabtree (Manchester Rivers Committee). W. Fairley 
(Richmond. Surrey, Main Sewerage Board), H. Gander 
(Banbury), E. H. Gibson (Radstock), A. W. Grace 
(Launce.-iton), E. Hall (Carnarvon), W. Harpur (Insti- 
tution of Municipal and County Engineers), G. B. 
Hartfree (Alton), E. W. Hearn (Cliard). G. Montagu 
Harris (County Council? As.sociation). H. A. Hosking 
(Surveyors' Institution), C. J. Jeukin (Finchley), C. T. 
Jo)iiison (Thornaby-on-Tees). F. Latham (Institution 
of Municipal Engineer.s), J. Lewis (Yiew.4ey). F. W. 
Littlewood (Meltham), J. A. Lucas (Surveyors' Insti- 
tution), A. I. Martin (Richmond, Surrey, Main 
Sewcraj-'o Board), E. G. Mawbey (Leicester). W. H. 
May (Society of Architects^ J. W. Jloncur (Sunder- 
landi, P. Morris (Devon), T. Mouliliug (Institution 
of Municipal and County Engineers and Institution 
of Water Engineers), J. Munce (Belfast). A. E. Murray 
(Royal Institute of Architects of Ireland). .\. E. Nichols 
(Folkestone). J. Parker (Hereford), J. S. Pickering 
(Institution of Municipal and County Engineers), A. 
Pillans (Lanark). A. Race (Barrow-in-Furness), C. E. 
Rivers (Harrogate), H. D. Searles Wood (Roval Insti- 
tute of British Architects), J. Siddalls (Tiverton), W. 
E. E. Thomas (Neath), A. Thorne (Survevors' In.sti- 
tution), J. P. Wakeford (Wakefield). C. T. Walrond 
(Society of Engineers), H. B. Williams (Workington) 
and T. H. Yabbiconi (Institution of Municipal and 
County Engineers). 


On Monday the Mayor of Exeter presided over 
the inaugural luncheon held in the Rougemont 
Hotel. In proposing "Success to the Royal Sani- 
tary Institute," His Worship referred to the strides 
made in sanitary science during tlie past forty 
years, dwelling particularly on the valuable work 
of the Royal Sanitary Institute in this connection. 
He thought it a ]nty that so many societies had 
been formed for the jjurpose of carrying on the work 
so well covered by the institute. 

Sir Henky Tanneb. responding on behalf of the 
council of the institute, exjjressed the hope that 
when at some future time they again came to Exeter 
lliose who were present would be able to congratulate 
themselves on liaving made as great strides in sani- 
tary science as had been made during the past 
thirty-three years. 

Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, in proposing " The 
Mayor, Corporation and City of Exeter," said it was 
forty years since he had the honour of being 
appointed surveyor of that ancient city. It was in 
1873, before the great Public Health Act of 1875, and 
he could assure them that neither he nor the cor- 
poration then had any idea of the enormous field 
of work which lay before tlieni. Before 1875 all the 
Sanitary Acts were buried in all sorts of other Acts, 
and they had to dig out the sections in order to find 
out what they had to do. The Act of 1875 changed 
that, and made the work of the corporations and 
the officials much wider. Mayors and corporations, 
and, of course, the officials, often got a great deal 
of abuse, but speaking with an experience of fifty 
years of municipal work, he could assure the public 
that they were not so black as they were painted. 
The rateiiayers naturally objected to find money, 
but engineers could do nothing without it. As a 
former official of the Local Government Board, how- 
ever, he could assure them that they had little 
trouble with engineers in that respect. 

Mr. Alderman C. J- Ross replied to the toast, and 
said as a boy he knew Mr. Boulnois, Avho was 
one of the most popular men they had ever had in 

(_)n Monday evening Earl Fohtesctje delivered his 
presidential address in the Barnfield Hall. His 
Lordship said he would do no more than make a 
few remarks on the only sanitary questions of which 
he had any knowledge — viz., rural housing and the 
claim of responsibility in county administration of 
sanitary defects. It was commonly assumed that 
rural housing was generally bad; that the defects of 
country cottages were a main reason for the migra- 
tion into towns and emigration to lands beyond the 
.sea : and that bad cottages, migration and emigra- 
tion were alike the faults of those convenient whip- 
png boys, the many-acred peers and country gentle- 
men, and the obsolete feudal system which imagina- 
tive writers supposed still to There was no 
doubt one failing common to the majority of cot- 
tages in the country, which was Anno Domini, and 
being old they were often not up to modern ideas; 
Init, broadly speaking, he thought it was true that 
the bigger the landowner the better were the cot- 
tages, and rice versa, and it was certainly the fact 
that, in this country at any rate, no class had a 
monopoly of the ownership of country cottages. 
His ideas on the rural housing question were to 
let cottages at economic rents, to pay labourers 
accordingly, to leave landowners to provide what is 
required as equipment of their farms, and to give 
the parish or the district facilities for providing 
what is required for the service of the community, 
and for .\s yet the cheap cottage on 
which little was spent to begin with, and less after- 
wards, was likewise a nasty one, and there was 
nothing so expensive in the long run, whether to 
the occupier or to the community, as unhealthy 
dwellings. But, he asked, need the cheap cottage 
be a nasty one always ? It the combined wisdom of 
scientific men and sanitary experts could devise new 
materials and new methods for building cottages 
that would be both healthy and cheap, they would 
add one more to the many obligations already owed 
to them by the public. 


The conference of the engineers and surveyors to 
county and other sanitary authorities was held on 
Tuesday in the University College, under the chair- 
manship of Mr. T. Moulding, city engineer and sur- 
veyor, Exeter, who, at the outset of the proceedings, 
delivered the following 


In oi>ening this conference of engineers and sur- 
veyors, I to say how fully I appreciate the 
honour done me by the Eoyal Sanitary Institute by 
electing me president. Among engineers and sur- 
veyors, municipal and otherwise, who annually 

attend the Royal Sanitary Institute congress, there 
are, no doubt, many more eligible for the i^osition 
than I. However, though aware of my shortcomings, 
with your assistance I hope to do my best to make 
the conference a success. 

So many worthy members of the profession have 
lireceded me in the capacity, that I think all the 
subjects suitable for an address have been fairly 
fully used up; and it is difficult to choose one for any 
extended remarks without repeating what has 
already been said. 

JMemhers of our profession are necessarily very 
busy members of the community, and are constantly 



JnLY 11, 1913. 

working, in the office and out, for the welfare of tlie 
partipular district of which they liave charge, and, 
incidentally, for the henefit of the whole community. 
Sometimes our work is not fully appreciated by the 
ratepayers; hut, on the other hand, there are few- 
works and improvements completed that do not 
prove that the criticisms passed during the pre- 
liminary stages are wrong. At the same time, criti- 
cisms, "however unplea.-iant, are not unwholesome, 
and it l)ehoves the engineer, especially in the muni- 
cipal line, to see and hear what is being said a1)0Ut 
his work by the person commonly termed " the 
man in the street," to enable him to gauge the wants 
of the general ratepayer. 

The requirements of the times are, no doubt, very 
exacting, and I think if a curve could be-plotted 
.showing the requirements of the public during, say, 
the last twenty-five years, it would show a very 
marked upward tendency, and the curve would be 
gradually getting steeper year after year. 


Perhaps the standards as applied to (B road 
making, (2) housing, (3) sewage disposal, have been 
raised higher than the other branches of the work 
of a mimieipal engineer, and it is to these subjects 
that I wish particularly to refer. 

As regards road making, which is perhaps the 
greatest source of complaint, there can be no doubt 
but that there is considerable room for improvement 
if we are to cope successfully with the fearful dust 
caused by the quick-moving and heavy traffic now 
using the highways throughoiit the kingdom. 
Various methods of treating the surface of roads 
have been tried, but all are more or less palliatives, 
and have no lasting benefit. 

In my opinion the remedy will eventually be 
found in some improved method of construction. 
What it will be is still unknown, if consideration 
is to be given to the financial side of the problem. 
Most of you present in the room would undertake to 
make a good, strong, substantial road, with a 
smooth, even surface, a fairly long life, and nearly 
dustless as regards the wearing of the material if 
cost had not to be considered. 

I am not going to give you suggestions for the 
kind of roads to he made, as I think each district 
must be considered from its own standpoint as to 
suitable local stone, cost of imported stone, and 
essentially the class of traffic using the road. What 
I would like to say is, don't use dirty flints if yon 
can possibly avoid it. 

I understand that the Eoad Board are willing to 
help any surveyor who will take the trouble and 
prevail upon his council to allow- him to carry out 
experiments in road making, including both foun- 
dation and coating similar to those experiments 
carried out under the supervision of Mr. H. P. May- 
bury, M.iNST.c.E., the Kent county .surveyor, at 


As to housing: this is also a source of much criti- 
cisin, but unfortunately the criticisms generally are 
against any money, or as little as possible, being 
spent in this direction, principally, I believe, because 
the ratepayer cannot see how he gets any return for 
the expenditure. It is difficult to argue", even with 
one's self, that the purchasing of worn-out insanitary 
r>roperty, at often an enhanced value, for the sole 
purpose of effecting an improvement in the housing 
conditions of someone else, and, incidentally, the 
widening of a street one never uses, is going to do 
much good. This is where the engineer with his 
work at heart soars in higher planes than the critic. 
He knows that slum property has a verv bad effect 
on the death-rate, and that the lower the death-rate 
IS reduced the greater the longevity of life, and 
therefore the greater jirobability of good being done 
to the general benefit of the community l)y increas- 
ing the po.ssible working life of many "of "its units, 
for, after all, it is the work one does in whatever 
sphere he may he placed that materially helps the 
progress of the world. 

The recent legislation regarding the housing of the 
poor has made it easier for local authorities to 
acquire property for the purpose of effecting housing 
improvements at a price more nearly approaching 
Its true value ; and I am one of those, either in the 
capacity of ratepayer or engineer, that think every 
opportunity should be grasped by local authorities 
to w-ipe out shnis, provide good substantial dwell- 
ings for the working classes at reasonable rents 
.ind provide wide streets so as to give as much air as 

jiossible to tho.?e people who are perforce obliged to 
live their lives in towns. 

The great drawback to providing cheap, well-built 
small cottages is no doubt the cost of building, and 
the inability of the builder to make what he con- 
siders a fair return on his outlay. The recent 
advance in prices of materials and labour indicates 
a continuance of this condition, and it therefore 
seems that the i^rovision of workmen's cottages must 
necessarily be left in the hands of local authorities 
or co-operative societies. 

When an authority clears an area for either a 
street improvement or housing improvement, it is 
well known that the Local Government Board com- 
pels the authority to provide a certain number of 
cottages for the disposses.sed artisans, which must 
be let at a figure approximately the same as pre- 
viously paid by the tenant on the area to be cleared, 
and very little consideration is given to the number 
of empty houses there may be in the town. This 
policy of the Local Government Board seems to be 
very arbitrary and unfair to the view of the rate- 
payer outside the area being dealt with, but there 
are two sides to the question. The period usually 
allowed for repayment of Sinking Fund is sixty 
years in the case of buildings. To provide for this 
repayment of capital out of the rent inflates the 
rent beyond the pocket of the people the houses are 
built for. 

The Local Government Board met this argument 
by saying the rent must be lowered to suit the 
tenant, and the loss on building, if any, must be 
borne by the particular improvement carried out. 
There is also the fact that when the Sinking Fund 
has been repaid, the financial loss on the houses, if 
any, might, and in all probability would, become 
a profit, as the rent in the first instance is always 
fixed on the whole cost of management, iipkeep, re- 
pairs, interest, and Sinking Fund. The repairs 
being properly kept up, it is fairly reasonable to 
presume the property, at the end of the period of 
the loan, would be in a good condition and have 
many years of life left. 


As to sewage disposal : We all know that this sub- 
ject is probably the most important one in all towns, 
be they large or small, and is therefore a very neces- 
sary problem to solve Still, it is curious that it 
is perhaps subject to more criticisms than any other 
municipal engineer's problem. The general public, 
the council, and sometimes the engineer, have all 
.something to say against some particular scheme. 
No one seems to see the necessity of purifying 
sewage, though everybody would be up in arms if 
it were left to pollute our streams and countryside 
to the detriment of the general health. 

The criticisms take the following lines: It is too 
costly, too elaborate, too near someone's dwelling. 
the wrong system, &c. As a result of the re- 
marks of the critics, the engineer decides on the 
most effective system, having regard to cost, i>osi- 
tion. and likelihood of nuisance, and does his best. 

I believe we engineers of the present day are in 
a much better position than our predecessors ever 
were. The Royal Sewage Commission have, during 
the last fourteen years, gathered together a wonder- 
ful amount of matter from engineers who have had 
the opportunity of cairying out experiments: and 
they themselves, through their officers, have carried 
out some very useful experiments at various towns, 
and under varying conditions, throughout the 
country. As a result we have their fifth report, and. 
more recently, their eighth report^ — two very useful 
volumes indeed to the sewage engineer. 

Tlie information contained in the Royal Commis- 
sion's report has been very useful to myself. As 
you know, Exeter is the home of the septic tank : 
and although the system is not exactly what it was 
first made out to be, you will agree with me that the 
country owes a great debt to my predecessor Mr. 
Donald Cameron for his patient industry and the 
hard work involved in carrying out his first experi- 
ments. The Exeter works were the first works con- 
structed on a large scale, and I dare say the Local 
Government Board were not so strict at the time. 
Powers to borrow were granted as they are at the 
present time ; but as a result of the recommendations 
contained in the fifth antl eighth reports, my council 
are now considering the advisability of bringing 
their w-orks up to date, and to a better standard of 

These remarks could bo extended in a degree to 

,TuLY n, 1913 



waterworks, tramways, sewers, and all other nuini- 
cipal engineering works, but I flo not wish to weary 
you, and I will close my address by saying that I 
think all engineers, in whatever work they may be 
engaged upon, should aim at efficiency, having re- 
gard to the cost, l>ut always at efficiency. 

Mr. H. Percy BorLNOis propo.sed a hearty vote 
of thanks to Mr. Moulding for his address. He said 
the president had touched on the various points 
that were of primary interest to the surveyor— viz., 
roads, housing, and sewage disposal. A presidential 
address was not allowed to be discussed, otherwise 
they might spend the rest of the morning in discuss- 
ing the three subjects. The president was right in 
introducing an address of such a de.scription. 
because it gave the key of the matters which they 
should discuss. It was curious that all three 
matters touched on had lately become more or less 
centralised. For instance, with the roads they had 
the Road Board; with housing they had the Town 
Planning Department of the Local Government 
Board; and with sewage they had the Eoyal Com- 
mission. This .showed that not only were surveyors 
interested in this matter, but that the public at 
large had considerable interest in them, and that 
Parliament had been obliged to form these depart- 
ments in order to keep a check, as it were, upon 
the local authorities. 

Mr. S. HuTTON, engineer and surveyor to the 
Exmouth Urban District Council, seconded the 
motion, and congratulated Mr. Moulding on the 
position he held in the conference. It was an 
honour well earned and Avell deserved. He also 
wished to express publicly his appreciation at the 
way in which Mr. IMoulding was always ready to 
assist the surveyors of the districts near to Exeter. 
The motion was carried, and Mr. Moulding 
briefly acknowledged the vote. 

(To he. continued.) 


On Saturday the exhibition held in connection with 
the congress at the Victoria Hall was opened by the 
Mayor of Exeter, who was accompanied by the Sheriffs 
and town clerk and a number of city councillois. 
His worship, in declaring the exhiliition open, said 
that the last time an exhibition of the kind was !;eld 
in Exeter was in 1880. when the congress visited the 
city. Such an exhibition and the congress tended to 
bring before the public at large questions of health 
and sanitation. The council of the institute also en- 
deavoured by careful and scientific investigation to 
determine the value of the articles shown in the exhi- 
bition, so that the public could form a correct opinion 
of the worth and efficiency of the goods. 

The exhibition is admirably arranged in the Victoria 
Hall, there being altogether about fifty exhibitors. 

The C.\ndt Filter Company, Limited, 

of 5 Westminster Palace-gardens, Artillery-row, Vic- 
toria-street, London. S.W., exhibit a model of the 
actual filter plant for which they are so well known, 
in addition to plans, drawings and photographs of 
filter plants showing different types of waterv.'orks 
filters — viz.. the Candy patent automatic compressed 
air and oxidising filter for removal of iron, organic 
impurities, peaty and other discolouration, and 
general purification purposes ; the Candy compound 
filter, with combined pre-filter and double scour, 
especially designed for dealing with turbid and muddy 
waters, or waters that require chemical treatment prior 
to filtration ; the Candy patent " De-Clor " filter, 
designed for the destruction of the b. coli and the 
typhoid and cholera bacteria, so rendering a water 
supply safe against water-borne disease. They are 
also exhibiting drawings and photographs of the 
Candy patent automatic injector, for proportionately 
adding a chemical solution— c, 7.. chlorine, sulphate 
of alumina, soda, &c.— to water flowing in a main 
under pressure. This patent injector has no moving 
parts, and requires no engine power for its operation. 
Plans and photographs of installations of Candy filters 
as used by H.M, Government, and at the municipal 
waterworks of Torquav. Teignmouth, Paicrnton. South 
Molton, L.vnton, Reading. Newport (Mon.). Hastings, 
Harrogate. Tunbridge Wells, Cowes. Hythe and Truro, 
and as adopted on every continent, are also shown! 
as well as samples of water before and after filtratioii 
by the Candy filter, and samples of "Polarite," the 
oxidising material used in Candy filters. 

Heenan & Froude, Limited 
<4 Chapel-walks, jManehester), exhibit three models of destructors, which naturally are of the greatest 
interest to persons charged largely with the preserva- 
tion of the public health. There is no need in 
days to dwell on the advantage, from the hygienic 
point of view, of destroying all refuse by fire, and 
Messrs. Heenan & Froude, by constant improvements, 
have brought up their apparatus to a point of perfec- 
tion when it can be placed in tlie very centre of 
a town without nuisance, and can be operated and 
maintained at a' cost which enables it to compare 
favourably with older fashioned and less cleanly 
iuethods of dust destruction. The first model shows 
a two-cell back-feed plant provided with new patent 
trough grate. The second model shows another system 
of de.struetor, mechanical charging in combination 
with the "trough" grate mechanical clinkering. The 
third model illu.strates the large luunber of to 
which the crushed clinker may be put. In the model 
illustrating a section of a modern road complete with 
sidewalks, the flags of the sidewalks are made of 
clinker concrete, and abso the kerljs, which are faced 
with granite chippings in order to give them a harder 
surface. Charts and diagrams are also shown illus- 
trating the quantity of refuse burnt in different coun- 
tries, places where "Heenan" destructors have been 
erected, and detailing the uses to which the steam 
generated and the clinker obtained in the destructor 
can be put to. 

George Waller & Son 
(Phceaix Ironworks, Stroud). This firm show three 
models illustrating their system of contact beds, &c., 
for the disposal of sewage. One model illustrates four 
contact filter beds, and shows the alternating arrange- 
ment for making one bed govern another so that they 
all work purely automatically. The automatic gear 
consists of a bucket, which is made to l)e self-emptying 
by means of a float valve in its bottom. This bucket 
is placed in a container, and pipes connect the con- 
tainer to the various beds or compartments. As the 
water rises in the beds or compartments it also rises 
in the container and actuates the bucket, which, in its 
Uirn, actuates the inlet and outlet valves of the other 
beds or compartments. In the model four different 
applications are shown, two of the buckets being made 
to sink iu air and two to sink in water. The connec- 
tions between the buckets and the inlet and outlet 
valves of the other compartments are shown different 
in each case to illustrate that an engineer may adopt 
his own methods in the application of the bucket. 
The application of the sinking bucket is the simplest 
form for automatic flushing tanks that can be adopted, 
as it is all accessible, .\nother model illustrates the 
rotatory spi inkier containing a self-dosing tank, so 
that no other dosing arrangement will be necessary. 
It will work by a drop-by-drop feed as soon as the 
dosing tank, which forms a part of the sprinkler, has 
acquired the determined quantity. The model shows 
two methods of passing the liquid from the dosing 
tank into the distributing arms — one by means of the 
sinking bucket already described, and the other by 
using a discharge syphon. Either with the valve 
arrangement or syphon the arms may be so arranged 
to deal with excess flows that, up to a determined 
flov.', two arms will work, and beyond that the four 
arms will be brought into use. The ball bearings are 
perfectly accessible for cleaning, &c., without dis- 
mantling the sprinkler. The distributor is suspended 
from the ball bearings at the top of the column, and 
the frictionless bearings are provided at the base of 
the dosing tank to prevent undue oscillation in stormy 
weather. Perforated arms are shown to the model, 
but special jet arms may be fixed instead of the per- 
forated arms. The other model illustrates distriliuting 
arms for rotatory sprinklers, by which, instead of the 
usual perforations, a special fitting is fixed to a slotted 
arm through which a jet is produced. This jet may 
be regulated to a nicety, so that uniform distribution 
may be obtained on a scientific basis, guaranteeing 
that every yard of the bed shall receive an equal quan- 
tity of liquor. 


The Exeter Corporation Electricity Department have 
on view all kinds of apparatus demonstrating modern 
applications of electricity for domestic and commer- 
cial lighting, heating, cleansing, ventilating, cooking 
and power purposes. 

The Exeter Gas Light and Coke Company show gas 
appliances for the home, comprising apparatus for 
cooking, &c. 

Messrs. Rowe Brothers, of Exeter, have a very large 



July 11, 1913. 

exhibit of sanitary apparatus, lavatory ranges, water- 
closets, baths, &c. „,,,•• 

Messrs. Mitchell & Son, of Exeter, show hygienic 
art fabrics and wall papers, non-poisonous enamels, 


The British Sanitary Company, of Glasgow, are ex- 
hibiting models of improved self-acting earth-closets, 


The Beacon Light (Valveless)GasGenerator,Limite;l, 
105 Horseferry-road, Westminster, S.W., exhilnt their 
Beacon licht generator. . . ^ ■ 

Uonuk Limited, have on view specimens of flooring 
Ijrepared' and polished by Eonuk, and exhibit all then- 

The Wel>b Lamp Company, Limited, of '11 Poultry, 
London, K.C., exhibit their patent sewer ventilating 
lamp in operation, with air meter, showing the amount 
of work done. 

The Austral Window Balance Company, Corporation- 
street, Manchester, show the efficiency of the Austral 
window, the upper and lower frames of which balance 
each other without weights, pulleys, cords or springs. 
The Lyme Kegis Cement Company have specimens 
of raw materials, cement in various stages of manu- 
facture, and complete apparatus for testing Portland 
cement in compliance with the British Standard Speci- 

Mr. T. H. VVoodington, Clevedon, Somerset, shows 
the "Drain Tell-tale"— a simple apparatus for indi- 
cating sewage accumulations, stoppages, &c., in 

Candy & Co., Newton Abbot, exhibit " Devon " tire- 
places in various designs and colours, in addition to 
stoneware sewerage pipes. 

Moule's Patent Earth Closet Company, Limited. 
2 Guilford-street. Gray's Inn-road, London, exhibit 
several of their well-known earth closets. 

Mr. J. H. Moore, of Oxford, shows a patent improved 
water-closet, adapted to the squat attitude, of which 
he is the inventor. 

The Two Flush Cistern Company, Limited. 52 Gracc- 
ciuirch-street, London, have on exhibition a two-flush 
cistern designed to provide a second flush immediately 
after the first, when required, without waiting for tlio 
cistern to refill. 

The Builders' and Contractors' Plant, Limited, 17 
Victoria-street, London. S.W., show a model of a 
special refuse cart with a sliding top and a mechanical 
device for keeping it closed and preventing the escape 
of dust. 

The Stourbridge Glazed Brick and Fireclay Company, 
Holly Hill, near Dudley, have a vei-y prominent dis- 
play of lavatory fittings, urinals, impervious white 
and coloured glazed bricks, and stoneware drain pipes. 


The judges have made the following list of awards ; — 


\V. & T. Avery, Limited. 20 Bucklersbury, E.G.— 
Sanitary automatic weighing and indicating machines. 

The Beacon Light (Valveless) Gas Generator, 105 
Horseferry-road, Westminster, S.W. — The Beacon light 
(valveless) petrol gas generator. 

Exeter Corporation Electricity Department, 184 Side- 
well-street, Exeter — Hygienic value of electrical appli- 

Exeter Gas Light and Coke Company, 11 and 12 
East Southernhay. Exeter — Gas cooking and heating 

Rowe, Brothers, & Co., Limited, 192 High-street, 
Exeter, and Canon's Marsh, Bristol — Lead pipes. 

Slack & Brownlow, Abbey. Hey, Gorton, Manchester 
— Hospital filter with thermometer attached. 

The Tintometer, Limited, The Colour Laboratories, 
Salisbury — Lovibond's Tintometer apparatus (includ- 
ing recent develoi)ments). 


The British Sanitary Company, oil Bath-lane, Olas- 
i;ow — Self-acting earth closet. 

Candy & Co., Limited, Heathfield Station, Newton 
.\bbot. Devon — Devon stoneware. 

Hubber iJt; Son, 85 and 86 South-street, Exeter— 
" Aerogel! " petrol gas plant. 

Lyme Regis Cement Company, Limited, Lyme Regis. 
Dorset— Cement in various stages of manufacture. 

Moule's Patent Earth Closet Company, Limited, 2 
Guilford-.-^treet, Gray's Inn-road, London, W.C— 
Earth closets with chucker action. 

Eonuk, Limited, Portslade, Brighton. Sussex— 

Mark Rowe & Sous, 26G and 267 High-street, Exeter 
—Imperial electric vacuum cleaner. 

Rowe Brotliers & Co., Limited, 192 High-street, 
ICxeter, and Canon's Marsh, Bristol— " Brandon " 
lavatory basin. 

Rowe Brothers & Co., Limited, 192 High-street, 
Exeter, and Canon's Marsh, Bristol— " Rougemont " 

The Stourbridge Glazed Brick and Fireclay Com- 
pany, Limited, Holly Hall, near Dudley— " Gravisede " 
flushing system. 

The Stourbridge Glazed Brick and Fireclay Com- 
p.any. Limited, Holly Hall, near Dudley—" Clyro " 
closet with swivel outlet. 

The Stourbridge Glazed Brick and Fireclay Com- 
pany, Limited, near Dudley— Stafford school water 
closet with inspection cap. 

Two-Flush Cistern Company, Limited, 52 Grace- 
church-street, London, E.G. — "Newland" two-flush 

Webb Lamp Company, Limited, 11 Poultry, E.C. — 
Galvo chemical fire extincteur for transport. 


The Candy Filter Company, Limited, 5 Westminster 
Palace-gardens, Artillery-row, Victoria-street. S.W.— 
De-Clor filter. 

E. O. Harding. Crediton— Combined oil, vapour and 
air drain tester. 

Heenan & Froude, 4 Chapel-walks. Manchester — 
Refuse destructor, trough grate clinkering. 

Edwin A. Mansfield & Co., 12 Beckenham-road, New 
Brighton, Cheshire — Wireless electric pipe locator. 

George Waller & Son, Phoenix Ironworks, Stroud, 
Glos. — Rotatory sprinkler, with self-dosing tank. 

George Waller & Son, Phoenix Ironworks, Stroud, 
Glos. — Briscoe's alternatins arrangement for contact 

Country School Sites. — At the Essex Education 
Coiiimittcc meeting in London lately it was re- 
ported tlKii considciaiile difficulty has been found 
in getting sites for country schools. The price of one 
site of 2 acres at Earl's Colne was C740, or higher 
than any town site. 

Tar Spraying and Tar Macadam In Situ. — The 

article bearing this title, by Mr. Thomas Aitken, 
M.iNST.c.E., county survej'or, Cupar Fife, which 
appeared in The Surveyor of June 20tli and 27th, 
has been published in pamphlet form, and will be for- 
warded on receipt of postage (one penny), which should 
be sent to the Manager, St. Bride's Press, Limited, 
24 Bride-lane, Fleet-street, London, E.C. 

Ammonia as a Disinfectant. — Recent experiments 
by Dr. Riegler, of the institute of Hygiene at Buda- 
Pestli, have the highly important result of proving 
that ordinary ammonia is a powerful disinfectant, 
even in the case of the most virulent disease. The 
method of use was most simple, consisting merely 
in placing the ammonia in shallow vessels in a 
room, which was then hermetically sealed. For a 
room containing 100 cubic millimetres of space 1 
kilogramme of ordinary ammonia was used, the 
evaporation rising from 200 gr. of liquid after one 
hour to 450 gr. after eight hours. Examination of 
tissues previously impregnated with microbes 
showed that the bacilli of cholera and typhoid were 
killed at the end of two hours ; the bacteria and 
spores of anthrax in less than three hours, and 
diphtheria in eight hours. The method is not only 
effectual, but cheap, simple, and harmless to walls, 
pictures, carpets, and furniture. — Centrallilatl fin- 

Bridge Building.— Students, young engineers, and 
surveyors will find much useful information in " Pre- 
liminary Studies in Bridge Building," by Reginald 
Ryves, assoc.m.inst.c.e. (London: St. Bride's Press, 
Limited, 24 Bride-lane, E.C. Price 2s. nett.) The 
book is described as the "first of a series of small 
voluiVies. each complete in itself, dealing with the 
design of ordinary highway bridges of moderate span." 
Though highway bridges alone are referred to, the 
matter contained in this volume is largely applicable 
to railway bridges, aqueducts, and similar engineering 
undertakings. The five primary types of bridges are 
described, and the conditions determining the best 
site for each of the three types of streams are discussed 
in detail ; while in connection with wandering streams 
various modes of designing abutments or approach 
spans are dealt with. Improvements of fords and the 
effect of eccentric loading of vehicles on the girder 
loads are among the numerous other items touched 
on. — Scotsman. 

July ll, 1913. 





At tlie fommenoeiiient of their visit to Lancasliiie 
on Monday their Majesties the King and Queen 
entered the county at Warrington, where tlie King 
opened the first lialf of the new town ))ridL.'e, now in 
course of erection. 

The new bridge, for which Mr. John J. Weli.-^ter, 
.\i.iN.ST.c.E.. of We.'^tniinster, is the engineer, is tlie 
sixth whicli has been erected on tlie site. Tlie first 
structure was built about 600 years ago, and little is 
known of the details beyond the fact that it lasted 
fifty years. The second bridge was liuilt at the end 
of the 14th century, and lasted 100 years. Both these 
bridges were built by private people. 

The third bridge was built l)y the first Earl of Derl)y 
in 1496; this w-as a stone structure erected as a coni- 
plinient to his royal cousin. King Henry VII., upon 
the occasion of his vi.sit to Latham and Knowsley ; it 
was erected about 5 mile below the old ford. At the 
approach of the rebel army in 1745 the central arch 
was destroyed; this was rebuilt by the Government 
in 1747, a watch tower being erected at the centre. 
This structure was demolished in 1812, and a wooden 
structure on stone i)iers was erected from the de- 
signs of Mr. Harrison, of Chester. Tliis structure got 
gradnallv weaker, and was finally demolished, the 
present stone bridge, the fifth on the site, lieing 

by .Messrs. Starkie, Gardner & Co. It is proposed to 
:iHi.\ to the faces of the other pylons alletroiical bronzes 
iKurating the history of the town. 

.As the ribs and abutments are lioirKjgeneons. the 
eiiuinei'r decided to adopt temporary hinges during 
erection at tlie springing and at the crown, this plan 
overcoming any ill-effects from internal stresses due 
to possible subsidence or other causes. These hinges 
were made up solid after the ribs had borne the whole 
of the dead weight of the structure for several weeks. 

The Portland cement is made to comply with the 
tests (if the British Standards Committee; the granite 
is from the Peninaenmawr and WeLsh Granite Com- 
pany; the sand is obtained from the river Mersey. 
and is thoroughly screened. Thi- details of construc- 
tion have been designed upon the latest accepted 
fiiiniul.'v, with ample factors of safety. 

The cost of the structure when complete will approxi- 
mate e'25.000. 

The bridge is undoubtedly a very handsome struc- 
ture, and in every way creditable to the engineer. The 
second portion of the structure is well advanced, and 
will bf couipli'tiMl curly next year. 


An inquiry by Lord Montagu of Beaulieu in the 
House of Lords on Wednesday as to when the annual 
report of the Road Board would be issued was sii|]- 

Reinfokced-concrete Bridge at W.\rringtox. 

opened in the year of the accession of the late Queen 
Victoria in 1837. 

The new structure is being constructed of reinforced 
concrete, and will be the largest structure of its kind 
in the country. It consists of ten parabolic ribs of 
134-ft. clear span, the roadway and footways being 
80 ft. clear between the. inner face of the parapets — 
about 2ft. less than the width of Westminster Bridge. 
The contractors are Messrs. Alfred Thorne & Sons, 

The ribs are about 4ft. 6 in. deep at the springing, 
and 3ft. 9 in. wide, being 2ft. 6 in. deep by 3 ft. 9iii. 
at the centre of the span ; they have transverse bracing 
to the vertical columns, which support the roadway, 
consisting of longitudinal and transverse beams with 
6i-in. slabs. The roadway is paved with wood, 
and the footpaths are of concrete slabs. The 
reinforcement is upon the Considere spiral system. 
A finely moulded cornice with ornamental para- 
jiet surmounts the outside ribs, terminating 
in two lofty pylons at the curved returned ends 
of the parapet. Ornamental electric lamp standards 
and lanterns are fixed to the top of the large pylons, 
an ornamental urn being fixed upon the other. An 
inscription plate of repousse bronze, recording the 
opening of the bridge by the King, is attached to the 
face of the north pylon. 

T!ie river walls are of reinforced concrete made to 
represent coursed masonry, and under each of the 
pylons is fixed a bronze lion's head and mooring ring; 
Ibis bronze work and the inscription tablet were made 

plemented by a suggestion that the board should 
be represented in Parliament by a responsible 
^tinister. There were, said Lord Montagu of 
Beaulieu, 230,(X)0 miles of main and secondary roads, 
upon which £18,000,000 was expended annually, yet 
there was no department of the Government which was 
directly responsible for the roads and this vast 

Lard Beauchamp, on behalf of the Government, 
stated that the annual report of the Road Board 
would be ready within a fortnight. With regard to 
London, the board were prepared to grant £400,00*» 
towards the cost of the new western approach. The 
total cost of the road (Kew Bridge to Hounslow) was 
estimated at between £500,000 and £600,000. The 
total income of the Road Board from the date of 
its establishment to June 30th this year, including 
interest on investments, was £3,556,995, and out of 
that sum the board had indicated grants to high- 
way authorities to the amount of £2,596,752, leaving 
a balance of £960,243. Of that balance, short loans 
had been indicated to the amount of £838,431. A 
considerable proportion of the money allocated to 
local authoi'ities had not been spent, but was being 
held in reserve to be spent when employment was 

■The Marquess of Salislmry, in the course of the 
di.scu.ssion, doubted ver.v much whether great road 
improvements ought to be postponed until a time 
of distress came, and Earl Russell thought the Road 
Board was founded on a totally wrong principle. 



July 11, 191:!. 

Law Notes. 

Bditbd bt J. B. REIGNIER CONDER, 11 Old Jewa-y Chambers, E.G., Solicitor of the Supreme Conrt 

Tlie Editor iriil be jileosed to onsiter any juesltons affecting the 
mnctice of mgmeers and tiirc«i/ors to local authorities. Qiwries (luhich 
ihonld he wntlen Icsifcljl on fooUcar r^yer, one side only) should, be 
addressed to "Ihe Law Editor" at the ojSce o/ TuE fenBTEYOE, 
ocoompanied by l)i« writer's name and address, 6ut correspondents 
wko d» «t Kith their names to be published should olso /urntsh a 

Contract with Local Apthoritv : Absence of 
Seal: Public Health Act, 1875, sec. 174: Quantum 
Meruit.— An important decision as to the effect of 
the absence of a sealed contract for services rendered 
to a local authority by au engineer is that of Mr. 
.Justice Joyce in Douglass v. Ifhi/l Urban IHstrUt Council 
(Chancery Division, June 19th). The facts were as 
follows; " The Rhyl Improvement Commissioners 
were constituted "by Act of Parliament in 1852. 
and in 1872 they were authorised by another 
Act to purchase Rhyl pier. In 1912 the coun- 
cil, as successors of the commissioners, applied to 
the Local Government Board for power to borrow 
money for the purpose of buying, widening and ex- 
tending the pier. The board, before giving their de- 
cision.required the council to obtain from an inde- 
pendent expert a valuation of the existing structure 
and an estimate of the cost of the proposed extension. 
The council passed a resolution to employ the plaintiff 
to make the valuation and estimates upon the terms 
set out in a letter from him, and their clerk wrote to 
the plaintiff that he was selected by the council to 
prepare the valuation and estimates upon the terms 
of his letter. The council subsequently decided not 
to go on with the scheme. The plaintiff claimed the 
follow-ing fees: Valuation of pier, £36 Is.; estimate of 
cost of repairs, £635; estimate of cost of extension, 
.€411 15s. The council paid into court 150 guineas, 
alleging a verbal agreement by the plaintiff (which he 
deni^) to accept that amount if the scheme was not 
carried out. They also contended that the contract 
with the plaintiff was void, not being under seal. Mr. 
Justice Joyce, however, gave judgment for the plain- 
tiff for the full amount claimed. He held that the 
contract was not w^ithin sec. 174 of the Public Health 
.\ct, 1875, because the council were not exercising the 
powers given by that .\ct, but the powers of 
the Improvement Commissioners ; and also (upon the 
authority of Lawford v. BUhricay Sural Di.'trict Council 
[1903, 1 K.B., 772] ) that the absence of a contract under 
seal was no defence, the work done by the plaintiff 
having been necessary for the purposes of the council 
and having been accepted by them. As to the alleged 
agreement to accept 150 guineas, his lordship said 
there was an extraordinary conflict of testimony, but 
he saw no reason to disbelieve the plaintiff, and 
fnrtlier it appeared to him that he must go by the 
terms of the written documents. 


In order to avoid confusion querists are requested to use 
distinctive word-i as noms de plume. The letter X, com- 
binations such as X.Y.Z., and words such as "engineer" 
and "surveyor," should never he used. 

Contract: Clerk of Works. — "A. E. C." writes: 
A council appointed a clerk of works for a certain 
co-itract under seal at a salary of three guineas per 
week, terminable by a fortnight's notice on either 
side, the contract time being twelve months. When 
lialf way through the contract the contractors 
failed. The council then called upon the contrac- 
tors' guarantors to complete the contract. The eon- 
tractors' guarantors asked the council to invite 
tenders for the completion of the contract, and said 
they would pay any excess on the original contract 
sum. Thirteen weeks passed between the first con- 
tractors stopping work and the fresh contractor com- 
mencing, during which time the clerk of works 
remained upon the works assisting in mea- 
suring up and keeping things in order. The 
council now claim that they should not pay 
the salary of their clerk of works for those 
thirt«en weeks, as the work was not going on at the 
time, but are willing to pay him .£1 per week for the 
period. No written notice was given by the council 
to their clerk of works of their intention to reduce 
his salary for the time being. (1) In what way can 
the clerk. of works recover liis salary for the thirteen 
weeks ? (2) Is it the duty of the first contractors' 
guarantors to pay the salary of the clerk of w'orks 

"nom de plwme." Where necessary, co^'ies of local Acts or document* 
re/erred to should be enclosed. All explanatory aiagram? must be 
drawn and lettared In BLACK Ink only, and in »uch siyle as 
to be fit for direct reproduction — i.e., without re-drawIng or 
amendment. Unless these conditions are complied with «« «annot 
undertone to repiy to ^^\ler^e^, 

during the stoppage as being an extra on the 
original contract sum, the works now taking that 
much longer to complete ? 

(1) In mj- opinion (subject to anything in the agreement 
between the council and the clerk of works to the con- 
trary), inasmuch as no notice was j^iven to terminate his 
engagement, the clerk of works is entitled to the full salary 
of £3 3s. per week during the thirteen weeks, and can sue 
the council for the amount. (•!) This depends upon the 
terms of (a) the contract and (')) the guarantee. But 
in any case the clerk's claim would be against the council. 

HiGHW'AT: Dedication. — "Dio" writes: My 
council has been approached by representatives of 
ratepayers of a certain rural parish wdth a view- to 
taking over a public road about 1 mile in length, 
hitnerto repaired by the adjoining property owners. 
The road leads from a main road to an open com- 
mon, over w'hich the public have a right. About 
sixty residences have been erected on each side of 
the road. The majority of these are occupied by 
freeholders, who state that their deeds contain a 
clause giving them the right to 15 ft. of the road 
fronting their properties, but they do not want to put 
this up as an obstacle. The rural district council 
have so far agreed to take over this road subject to 
it being repaired to the satisfaction of the surveyor, 
and subscriptions are being raised by the freeholders 
for this purpose. The road has never been dedi- 
cated to the public, but it has been used without 
interruption for many years. Will you kindly in- 
form me — (1) If it is necessary to go to Quarter Ses- 
sions, as in the case of a diversion ? and, if so (2) is 
it necessary to employ counsel ? or (3) is a certifi- 
cate simply forwarded to the clerk ot the peace for 
enrolment ? (4) Kindly give proper procedure to be 

The procedure wUl be under sec. 23 of the Highway Act, 
1835, which provides that the certificate shall be enrolled 
at the next Quarter Sessions. The delivery of the certificate 
to the Clerk of the Peace for enrolment appears to be 
sufficient. See Pratt and Mackenzie's " Law of Highways." 
15th edition, page 1~2. note (m). (The procedure for diver- 
sion is different, and is set out in sec. 85 of the Act, which 
provides for the certificate being read by the Clerk of the 
Peace in open court. There is no such provision in 
sec. 23.) It is not necessar.v to employ counsel, and the 
procedure is fully set out in the section. Assuming that 
the rural district council are the highway authority, the 
notice of intention to dedicate must be given to the council 
as exercising the powers of the surveyor of highways : and 
the notice need not be submitted to a vestry meeting. 

Conversion of Privies into Water-closets. — 
" R. T." writes : I should feel obliged if you coiild 
supply me with any information respecting the 
liability for converting privies of cottages to the 
water-closet system. I am the owner of a number of 
small cottages. I have received notice to convert 
them. A short time ago I received notice to con- 
crete the floors of the privies, which I did. I was 
under the impression that an owner could not be 
compelled to make this alteration, even though the 
authorities offered to bear one-half the cost. The 
curious part of the notice to me is that the authori- 
ties are not making any charge to owners for con- 
verting them from the pail system to water-closets. 
On the other hand, I have property in another town 
which I shall shortly have to convert from the pail 
system to water-closets, and bear one-half the cost. 
At an up-to-date seaside town on the Fylde coast the 
authorities had not the power to comjiel owners of 
cottages viiih privies to convert them to water- 
closets. I cannot quite understand why such dif- 
ferent powers are granted. I forward the notice 
wliieh was served upon my agent. 

Under sec. 39, sub-sec. i4), of the Public Health Acts 
-Vmeudment .let. 1907. where there are a sufficient water 
supply and sewer, the authorit.v can require closet accom- 
modation (other thaii a water-closet or slop-closet) to be 
converted into a water-closet or slop-closet. In the case of 
the conversion of a pail-closet the whole cost must be borne 
by the authority; in other cases the owner must pay half. 
This section is only in force in districts where it has been 
applied by the Local Government Board, and it only 
applies where there are a sufficient water supply and sewer. 
It does not empower the authority to charge an owner 
with any part of the cost of converting a pail-closet into 
a water-closet. 

July 11, 1913. 




Th0 Editor invitts tha co-operation of Soktitob r«ad«rs teith a wmm 
to making th» information yiven under this head a$ comylett ani 
occurat* as jioetihl*. 


Chadderton U.D.C. (June ISth. Mv. W. H. 
Collin). — £5,620 for the erection of boundary walls 
and the fitting of furniture, &c., in the new town hall. 
— The clerk, Mr. H. Hoyle, stated that the period asked 
for for the repayment of the loan was thirty years for 
the boundary walls, and for the furniture that period 
was left to the Local Government Board. The 
inspector : The period for furniture is generally 
twenty years. Mr. Hoyle (continuing) said there 
were no works outside the district, and only such pai-t 
of the work (for which the borrowing powers were 
asked) which was absolutely necessary had been com- 
menced, such as the putting in of tubes for telephone 
wires in the walls, so as to avoid cutting up the w\alls 
afterwards. No payments had been made for any- 
thing which was concerned in the sanction they were 
now asking for. 

Ellesmere Port and Whitby U.D.C. (June 25th. 
Mr. M. K. North I. —£9,730 for the construction of 
the new road between Ellesmere Port and Easthani, 
where it will be linked up with the Chester and 
Birkenhead main road. — It was explained that 
arrangements had been made for the purchase of 
the land necessary for the scheme. Under a town- 
planning scheme in course of preparation, it was 
intended to constitute the proposed new road a main 
thoroughfare — or main arterial road — for connecting 
this busy manufacturing centre with Birkenhead, 
Liverpool and other important districts. 

Farnham U.D.C. (June 18th. Major C. E. 
Norton). — £748 for the provision of additional tank 
accommodation at the sewage pumping station. — The 
surveyor, Mr. R. W. Cass, stated that notice had been 
received from the Thames Conservancy to discontinue 
the use of the storm-water over-flow at the pumping 
station. The system of sludge disposal adopted had 
proved a vei-y efficient and economical one, and no 
complaint had ever been received. The inspector asked 
if the present arrangements would be sufficient for 
dealing satisfactorily with the increased quantity 
which would have to be dealt with in future. The 
surveyor said the council proposed to increase the 
beds. In addition to increased capacity for sludge 
treatment there would have to be better provision for 
lifting it. The inspector said that at an inquiry in 
1910 it was stated that only 8 acres of the 12 acres 
then in hand were available for purposes of irrigation. 
The surveyor replied that a certain portion of land 
at the south-west corner could not be used at the 
time, but the levels had since been altered. In i-eply 
to further inquiry he stated that there were now only 
ten houses in the urban district which were not 

Goole R.D.C. (July 2nd. Mr. K. H. Bicknell).— 
£1,36(1 for providing the village of Swinefleet w'ith a 
water supply from the Goole main. — Mr. G. Eng- 
land, clerk to the council, explained that, after an 
outbreak of typhoid fever about two years ago, a 
Local Government Board inquiry was held, and the 
inspector was convinced that a new water supply 
was needed. The urban council had agreed to sup- 
ply the township with water at Is. 3d. per 1.000 
gallons, but the cost of laying the main to the 
village was to be borne by the rural authority. 
The inspector said the Local Government Board 
were satisfied that a supply was urgently needed. 

Hailsham R.D.C. (July 2nd. Mr. R. G. Hether- 
irigton). — £7,270 for the sewerage scheme. — It was 
stated that the scheme, part of which had been com- 
pleted, was necessary to meet the prospective increase 
of population at Polegate. Mr. W. Dunbar, the 
engineer, explained the scheme in detail, and the 
inspector subsequently visited the site of the works. 

Hemsworth R.D.C. (July 1st. Mr. R. H. 
Bicknell). — £550 for the purpose of widening 
Barnsley-road, Moorthorpe, near the dyke. — ^Mr. J. 
Schofield (clerk to the council) stated that the piece 
of land they proposed to purchase was 376 sq. yds., 
and would cost £94. The legal expenses in connec- 
tion with the purchase amounted to £40. The in- 
spector: That seems a treniendons lot of money. 
The clerk : I don't think £40 any too much. The 
surveyor, Mr. T. H. Richardson, stated that the 
road now was 24 ft. wide, and it was proposed to 
increase this to 40 ft. • ' . 

Maidenhead T.C. (July 19th. Mr. Edgar Dudley). 
— £1,325 for the purchase of premises known as No. o 
Queen-street, Maidenhead, for the future extension or 
rebuilding of the Guildhall. — It was explained by the 
town clerk, Mr. H. E. Davies, that the council had no 
immediate intention of rebuilding the town hall. It 
was an opportune moment to purchase the house, as it 
was then being \acated, and they had to deal only with 
the freeholder and leaseholder without having to 
compensate a ijossible tenant for a term of years. The 
borough engineer, Mr. Percy Johns, produced a plan of 
the premises, and of contiguous corporate property. 
The cost of No. 5 Queen-street, worked out approxi- 
mately at £22 per square yard. The adjoining 
property, previously bought by the council, cost about 
£25 per square yard. 

Morley T.C. (June 20th. Mr. H. R. Hooper).— 
£10,000 for mechanical filters at Withens Clough reser- 
voir, near Mytholmroyd. — The statements of Mr. 
W. E. Putman, the town clerk, and others, showed 
than in 1901 the corporation purchased mechanical 
filters, which were erected at Morley, but were now 
quite inadequate, the three filters only being able to 
deal with about 000,000 gallons a day. The council 
were therefore compelled to provide additional filter 
plant, and it was proposed to erect eleven mechanical 
filters capable of filtering 88,000 gallons per hour, and 
2,112,000 gallons per day. Under the agreement with 
the Halifa.x Corporation, Morley was entitled to draw 
up to 100,000,000 gallons per annum, but the quantity 
never exceeded 500,000 per day, and it was proposed 
that the existing filters at Moriey should be reserved 
to deal with the Halifax water. This could be done 
without any difficulty, the Halifax water being 
delivered at Brighouse and conveyed to Morley by the 
duplicate main between Brighouse and Morley. The 
filtering plants at Morley and Cragg Yale would there- 
fore be able to deal with over 2,700,000 gallons per day. 

Norton (Yorks) R.D.C. (June 17th. Mr. A. W. 
Brightmore). — £600 for a water supply for Leavening. 
— Tlie clerk, Mr. George S. Cattle, in his statement 
referred to a repoi-t by Mr. H. Tobey, engineer for the 
proposed scheme, showing that an excellent supply 
could be obtained from springs by a gravitation scheme 
which would supply all the parish. He also stated 
that Lord JNIiddleton had granted the council the full 
rights and privileges to use the water of these springs 
at an annual rent of £5, and for a leasehold period 
of ninety-iune years. The water had been submitted 
to examination and analysis, and was found to be pure 
and of good quality, and excellent for domestic pur- 
poses in every way. In view of the great powers 
exercised by the riparian owners, the council specially 
urged that the insjjector should make strong repre- 
sentation to the Local Government Board so as to 
make it easier for the rural councils to carry out these 
water schemes. As the law stood at present it was 
practically impossible to do anything unless the full 
consent of the riparian owners could be obtained. It 
was a complete farce. Here was a parish with a 
plentiful supply of water available, but just because 
one of these gentlemen objected — it might be on the 
most frivolous and ridiculous grounds — the whole of 
the people living in the parish might be deprived of 
wholesome pure water. It was really sinful when it 
was remembered the great dangers arising out of the 
use of impure water. The Norton Council had several 
times experienced considerable difficulty by reason of 
the opposition of these riparian owners, and they 
thought it was high time something was done by the 
Government to give compulsory powers to the rural 
councils in the carrying out of these schemes, which 
were imperative for the safeguarding of the public 
health and for the prevention of the spread of 
infectious diseases. There was a Bill to come before 
the House which would confer these powers, and they 
asked that its passing be expedited. 

Oldham T.C. (June 18th. Mr. F. O. Stanford).— 
£3,000 for the extension of the destructor at Rhodes, 
and £1,400 for the provision of aerating and 
filtering plant at the central baths. — It was 
explained that the corporation had three refuse 
destructors, and these were not sufficient to deal 
with the household refuse of the town, and a lai-ge 
quantity had to be carted away to tips. This was 
' not a very desirable way of disposing of it, and there 
was a great difficulty in getting tips. Last year over 
9,000 tons of refuse were carted away to tips. The 
corporation had decided to increase the number of 
furnaces (eight) at Rhodes Bank by four, and to con- 
struct a cremation chamber for the destruction of 



July 11, 1913. 

carcases. Ac. It was estimated tliat by this addition 
they would be able to deal with an additional 75.000 
tons. Another reason for the e.\tension was thai 
it Would provide the corporation witli more clinker, 
which is constantly and urgently required at the sewage 
works. Since the last destructcirs were erected in the 
borough, about 3,000 houses had been built, and 
according to the 1911 census the number of houses in 
the borough was .S3,41o. The land whicli it was now 
l>roposed to appropriate for the extension belonged to 
the corporation and had been used as a site of the old 
electricity generating station, adjoining the destructor. 
With respect to the proposed loan for the public baths 
it was anticipated that an aerating and filtering plant 
would lead to a saving of 7.") per cent in water, whii li 
last year cost £129. and the cost of fuel would alsu 
be reduced. The plant was similar to what was in 
use in several batlis in Manchester. The borough sui- 
veyor, ]\[r. E. C. Foote. replying lo a ijuestion. said the 
application was not made on the ground of shortage 
of water, as the town had always been able (cj meel 
their requirements up to now. 

Ossett T.C. (June 24th. Major C. E. Norton).— 
1:1.206 for sewage works e.xtensiojis at Ossett Si'a and 
Pildacre, and other improvements. — The town clerk. 
Mr. F. AV. Wilson, stated that the money was required 
to carrj- out a jjreliminarj' scheme at once because of 
]iressure from the West Kiding Rivers Board. Later 
application would be made for sanction to borrow 
£8.124 for a larger scheme. The borough surveyor. 
M\: H. Holmes, said that a sum of £366 was to be 
used to put down a sludge main at Healey. At 
present the sludge was allowed to form lagoons and 
dry, but the corporation intended to run it tlirough 
a 6-in. main into a sludge area. The proposed area 
was 2 acres in e.xtent, and the sludge would be put 
on the ground and ploughed in. They had 24 acres 
of land available for sludge if required. The present 
method of paying farmers to remove the sludge cost 
3s. per ton, and last year the quantity removed was 
664 tons. 

Surbiton U.D.C. (July 8th. Mr. P. M. Cros- 
tliwaite). — £209 for works of surface-water drainage 
at Regent Farm, Surbiton H;11.— :Mr. H. T. INfather. 
the surveyor, in answer to the inspector, said the 
new sewerage scheme was practically coini)leted. 
and had been in working order for a month. The 
average flow at the new works during June was 
650.000 gallons per da.v, l)Ut on the occasion of a 
storm it was over 1.000.000 gallons. The animinl 
sanctioned for the scheme was £G8,7.")0, including 
tl'.e destructor and the land. 

Sutton - in - Ashfield (June 30th. Mr. R. H. 
Bicknell). — £393 for the erection of a fire station in 
Church-street, £507 for the purchase of a fire engine 
and escape with accessories, and £450 for laying out 
Portland-square and erecting a public sanitary con- 
venience theron. No opposition was offered to the 
proposal, and, after the various details of the scheme 
had been supplied, the inspector made an inspection 
of the sites. 

Swansea T.C. (July Sth. .Major J. Stewart).— 
1140.000 for electrical works extensions in the 
borough.— Mr. Lang Coath (town clerk) explained 
tliat the loan was required to meet the increasing 
demand for electrical supply for heating, lighting, 
and jjovver purposes generally. The insiieetor 
alluded to the fact that the original scheme was for 
1-45,247. and asked for the production of tlie orig'iiial 
scheme. It was explained that the difference wa> 
due to the fact that since the ajiplication some 
boilers bad been provided out of other funds. 


Belfast T.C— £35,000 for electricity mains, exten- 
sions, and services, and £8,000 for street paving. 

Bingiey U.D.C— £17,020 for street improvements. 

Blackrock U.D.C— £2,400 for the provision of a 
jniblic jiark. 

Bridlington T.C— £1,950 for the extension of the 
sanatorium, and other works. 

Clevedon U.D.C— £3,500 for drainage and sanitary 

Darlaston U.D.C— £15,000 for new sewage disposal 

Dewsbury T.C — £2.650 for the purcUase of land 
for the •-.•wage disposal works. 

Dunmow R.D.C— £500 for siid<ing a bore for a water 

Fareham U.D.C. — £500 for extending the gas mains. 

Gillingham T.C. — £1.9ss for the purchase of land 
••ind the ereCtiiMi of houses. 

Greenwich B.C.— £4,00ll for inipinv.-nienis in Wool- 

Lower Bebington U.D.C— L'4ii(i for the provision of 
a bowling-green. 

Mansfield T.C. — LI, 125 for a temporary school. 

Penzance T.C. — £9.3.30 for the erection of forty-two 
workmen's dwellings. 

Seaton U.D.C— £200 for a site for workmen's 

Silsden U.D.C— £230 for a road improvement 

Somerset CC— £11,000 for an isolation hospital. 
Stafford T.C— £12.000 for the erection of workmen's 

Tavistock U.D.C— £450 for a water main. 
Watford U.D.C— £4,032 for a housing scheme. 


Batley T.C— L If,, 035 for tlu- extension of the sewage 
(■utfall works. 

Burgess Hill (Sussex) U.D.C— £1.923 for thii-ty 
years, and £257 for fifteen years for works of sewage 

Darwen T.C— £19,416 for gasworks extensions. 

Dover T.C. — £350 for super-heaters at the electricity 

Hampton U.D.C— £430 for the purchase of Ferry 
House, the extension of the Bell Hill recreation 
ground, and the widening of the road there. 

Hendon R.O.C — £175 for a public mortuary. 

Pebworth R.D.C — £13,499 for a joint scheme of 
water supply. 

Reading T.C. — £510 for alterations and extensions 
lo tile mortuary. 

Repton R.D.C. — £5,982 for a sewage disposal 


JULY. £ 

14. — Godstone. For road and bridge pur- 
poses (Mr. F. O. Stanford) 2,600 

14. — Petworth. For tlie jirovision of work- 
men's dwellings (Mr. H. A. Chapman) 2,400 

14. — Reading. For sewerage purposes (Mr. 

R. H. Bicknell) 1,000 

15. — Barrow-in-Furness. For baths, sewerage, 
and street jjurjioses (iMr. A. W. Bright- 
more) 17,022 

15. — Bristol. For electricity purposes (Mr. 

H. R. Hooper) 25,000 

15. — Norwich. For the purchase of land for 

improvements (Mr. R. G. Hetherington) 1,350 

15. — Waltham Abbey. For the provision of a 

burial ground (Mr. R. H. Bicknell) ... 1,300 

16. — Grange. For the purposes of a depot 

(Mr. A. W. Brightmore) 700 

16. — Swansea. For the construction of a foot- 
bridge (Mr. H. R. Hooper) 1,300 

16. — Spalding. For water supplv purposes 

(Mr. R. G. Hetherington) ' 14.000 

17. — Aberdare. For the electricity under- 
taking (Mr. H. R. Hooper) ■ 2.703 

17. — Cheltenham. For the purchase of land 
and municipal offices purposes (Mr. 
Edward Leonard) 9,.jOO 

17. — Mumbles. For the provision of an isola- 
tion hospital (Dr. Morgan J. Rees) ... — 

IS. — Luton. For electricity and sewage pur- 
poses (Mr. H. R. Hooper) 46.653 

21. — Mossley. For the gas undertaking (Mr. 

R. H. Bicknell) 2.800 

22. — Bury. For works of granite paving (Mr. 

R. H. Bicknell) 14.426 

22. — Heywood. For paving and road improve- 
ment (Mr. R. H. Bicknell) 0,453 


24. — Newton-in-Makerfield. (Mr. Thomas .\dams.) 
25.— Doncaster. (Mr. Thomas Adams.) 

July K, 1913. 



Municipal Work In Progress and Projected. 

The following are among the more important pro- 
jected works of which particulars appear below : 
Buildings— Bournemouth £60,000, Finchley £4,500, 
Sunderland £15,000 ; housing and town planning — 
Finchley, Llanelly ; roads and materials — Belfast, 
Essex £236,000, Hull. Swansea ; sewerage and sewagf 
disposal — Cockermoutli, North Bromsgrove £10,000, 
Warwick £8,000. Woking £13,350 ; water, gas and 
electricity — Birmingham £30,000, Upton-on-Severn 
£10,000. Particulars of other works projected will be 
found in our " Local Government Board Inquiries " 


Bexhill T.C. — The borough surveyor, Mr. G. Ball, 
has received instructions to repair No. 2 sroyne. and 
raise it ahoiit 3 ft. 6 in. against the clitf base, con- 
tinued horizontally for a length of -10 ft., and extended 
to a leneth of 310 ft., at a proper gradient, at an esti- 
mated cost of £35U. The borough surveyor has pre- 
pared a report dealing generally with the subject of 
.sea defence along the eastern front, and this is under 
the consideration of the I'^ast Parade Committee. 

Bootle T.C. — A chapel is to be built in the new 
cemetery, at an estimated cost of £2,500. 

Bournemouth T.C. — Plans are being prepared for a 
pavilion on the Relle Vue site, the cost being esti- 
mated at eOil.diMl. 

Brighton T.C. — Tlie lender of Messrs. James 
Barnes <!t Son, at E617, has been accepted for carrying 
out alterations at Nos. 23 and 24 Black Lion-street. 

Finchley U.D.C. — A public swimming bath is to be 
built in Squires-lane, at an estimated cost of £'4,.500. 

Forehoe R.D.C. — Plans are to be prepared of a 
lirirlue at Costessey Ford, 15 ft. wide, and tenders will 
be considered at the next meeting. 

Leeds T.C— The tender of Messrs. William Aiiey & 
Son, at C2'3,IOO, has been accepted for the erection of 
the tramway shod, depot, offices and chili 
for men in Sovereign-street. 

Sunderland T.C.— Competitive designs for tiie pro- 
posed training college arc to be obtained, the cost of 
the scheme to be limited to £15.0i)0. and the president 
of the Royal Institute (if British .\rchitects is to be 
asked to ajipoint an assessor to judge the plans. 

Uttoxeter U.D.C. —The surveyor, Mr. J. R. 
Hadfield, ha^ received instructions to prepare a plan 
and estimate of the cost of covering in the auction 
ring in the Smithfield Market. 

Walsall T.C.— The General Purposes Committee 
recOMMnend a srbenic by which Walsall and West 
Broniwicb will act jointly in the establisluneut of 
tuberculosis dispensaries. The Baths Committee 
recommend that public baths be provided for Blox- 
wicb and Leanuue districts. 

Westminster B.C. — The question of accommodating 
in one buildimr Ihe council, the committee rooms, tiie 
council's staff ami a public hall, has been referred to 
the General Purposes Conunittee for report at an 
early date. 


Brighouse T.C— Steps are to be taken for the pre- 
parat.on of a town-planning scheme for the Rastrick 
portion of the borough. 

Finchley U.D.C — An extensive housing scheme is 
to be iiiidertakeii. It has been agreed to luirchase, 
subject to the con.sent of the Local Government 
Board, the Woodhouse estate. North Finchley, con- 
sisting of 36 acres, for the sum of £12,(XMl, the sug- 
gestion being made that as a start 2tH) houses should 
be built. The council have been encouraged to take 
this step by the success which has attended the first 
housing scheme. This consisted of sixty houses, let 
at rentals of js. Sid. to 10s. 6d. a week. 

Gelligaer U.D.C. — The Housing Committee have 
received authority to make use of compulsory 
powers, if considered necessary, in order to obtain 
land for housing purposes. 

Hay U.D.C— The Local Government Board have 
written urging the council to commence a housing 
scheme as early as possible. The council's medical 

officer stated some of the houses were in an 
appalling condition, and the county medical officer 
had stated that the town possessed the worst housing 
accommodation in Breconshire. A committee has 
been formed to deal with the matter. 

Llanelly U.D.C— The Local Government Board have 

intimated to the Llanelly Urban District Council that 
they are prepared to sanction the borrowing of £6.750 
for the erection of twenty-six more workmen's dwel- 
lings, and the council, at 'their meeting on Monday 
last, decided to advertise for tenders. 

Mid-Lothian CC— The Local Government Board 

have intimated to the Southern District Committee 
that they have made an order authorising the pre- 
paration of a town-planning scheme for an area in 
the neighboiu-hood of Blackball and Davidson's 
Mains, and it has been remitted to the Town Planning 
Conunittee to consider the details of the town-idan- 
ning schemes for both the Corstorphine and Black- 
ball and Davidson's Mains areas, to consult with 
the Corporation of Edinburgh, and report. 

Neath T.C— The tender of Messrs. Lloyd & Edwards, 
.Maesteg, at £16,033, has been accepted for the erec- 
tion of ninety-three bouses. 

Sheringham U.D.C. — A proposal to erect six 
cottaL'cs. the initial instalment of twenty-four cottages 
til be liuilt fill the council's property, iias been post- 
poned for further consideration. 

Yarmouth T.C— The Housing and Town Planning 
Committee urge that the time has come for the cor- 
poration to cause a town planning .scheme to be pre- 
l)ared, the costs of which need not exceed the cost of 
the Ordnance Maps, with a small sum for printing 
notices, until the assent has been received of the 
Local Government Board, when the council could con- 
sider the lines on which development should take 
place and have estimates. The borough surveyor, Mr. 
.1. Paton. reports as to the preliminary steps to be 
taken towards the promulgation of a scheme under 
the Housing and Town Planning Act. and submitted 
a )ihin showing suggested areas for town planning. 
Consideration of this has lieen deferred. 


Birmingham T.C— The Parks Committee have 
decided to rei-oiiiineiid the council to provide a nine- 
hole golf at Castle Bromwich, on land already 
iiiulcr the control of the committee, at a cost of about 
£•301) for laying out. 

Edinburgh T.C — The Public Parks Committee have 
been aiitlioriscd to purchase land in the Morningside 
district lor ^i rerication ciround, at a cost of £1.3(10. 

Newburn U.D.C— Negotiations are to be opened 

with the Duke of Northumberland for acquiring a 
portion of Walbottle Dene as a public park. 

Sheffield T.C. — It has been decided to aijprojiriate 
50 acres of land in .\bbey-lane, Woodseats, originally 
intended for cemetery, for the purpose of 
golf, a municipal course of nine linU-s to be laid 
nut :lt :l cost of £420. 


'Edinburgh T.C — A letter from the National Union 
of Coriioratinii Workers was submitted to a nieet'ng 
of the Cleaning and Lighting Coniii:ittee on Monday 
making demands for improved conditions of working 
for the employees of the cleaning dejiartment. The 
demands are (.1) a one o'clock stoppage of work on 
Saturdays; (2) that men who are finished with tbe'r 
work on Siuiday morning should be allowed to go 
home, so that they can observe Sunday in a proper 
manner; (3) if a boy is put to do a man's work he 
should receive a man's pay for doing so; (4; and 
when a boy was shifted from one grade to another he 
should receive the pay allotted to that grade. With 
reference to the first and second items, the com- 
mittee instructed the inspector to prepare a report 
to be submitted to a special meeting of the com- 
mittee. With regard to the remainder the com- 
mittee recommended adherence to present practice, 
by which lads receive an increase of wages while 
acting as emergency men, but not men's wages. 



July 11. 1913. 

Haverfordwest T.C The borough surveyor. 'Sir. W. 

Uevan. has presented a report to the council on tlie 
advisability of acquiring a lease on the piece of land 
known as "The Marsh" as a tip for house and street 

Lambeth B.C.— The referred report of the Cleansing 
Coniiuittee has been adopted agreeing to purchase 
j.reniises at Stock well -green for the purposes of a 
depot, for the sum of £8,920. 


Alton R.D.C. — It is proposed to reconstruct Hog- 
moor-lane at an estimated cost of £1.600.— A scheme 
is to be prepared for the improvement of the road 
fi-om Bardon Camp railway station to Blackmoor. 

Belfast T.C. — The council have confirmed the pro- 
posal to lay experimental pavements in Roden-street. 
Hope-street and Sunnyside-street. at an estimated cost 
of £8.1X11). It has also been agreed, in order properly to 
test the qualities of various road surfaces, that l)one- 
call-square East be laid wath creosoted deal blocks on 
concrete, and Donegall-square South be laid with 
Lithofalt blocks on concrete. 

Bolsover U.D.C. — Tlie tender of Mr. J. Greenwood, 
Mansfield, at £4.i7, has been accepted for the repair 
of Bathurst-road, Carr Vale, under the Priva'e 
Streets ^Yorks Act. 

Bridlington T.C. — Plans have been approved for the 
construction of two new streets. 

Essex C.C. — A scheme has been approved for the 
reconstruction of main trunk roads, at a cost of 
£2.36,000. The work will be carried over a period of 
ten years, and the Road Board have made a grant 
towards the cost of .£125,000, spread over five years, 
while they have agreed to grant a loan of £47,590, free 
of interest, for the same period. 

Fermanagh C.C. — The council have agreed to a 
proposal by the county surveyor. Mr. J. P. Burkitt, 
to experiment, in conjunction with Enniskillen Urban 
District Council, to see if they could do work with the 
local limestone, and thus save getting stone from a 
long distance. In England and Scotland (the county 
surveyor stated"), on roads where there was heavy 
traffic, bituminous lime.stone was used. Wliat they 
wanted to do was to see if they could make good stone 
out of a bad one. If the council passed the work he 
hoped to get twice as much as they would expend 
from the Road Board. The work would be mostly 
around Enniskillen, and it would be dustless. By 
the time they got stone from a distance they could 
tar limestone as cheaply. 

Foleshill R.D.C— It has been decided to spend ,£1-52 
upon flag-paving footpaths. 

Halifax T.C. — It is proposed to include in next year's 
estimates the purchase of one of Green's motor sweep- 
ing machines, with tank and rubber tyres, at the 
following prices: Motor sweeper, .£400; rubber tyres, 
£55; tank and sprinkler, £25. 

Hull T.C. — A scheme has been adopted for con- 
tinuing Chanterlands-avenue to Cottingham-road by 
way of Far Salt Ings-lane, at an estimated cost of 
about £30.000. It is proposed to make the new road 
60 ft. wide. 

Ilford U.D.C. — The county council have agreed to 
grant a subsidy of £725 towards the cost of the 
improvement of Cranbrook-road. 

Middlesbrough T.C— The borough engineer, Mr. 
S. E. Burgess, has been authorised to carry out 
wood paving works at an estimated cost of £2J070. 

Nottingham T.C. — The new road from Gregory-street 
to Beeston-road, Dunkirk, was formally opened for 
traffic on Saturday last. The road, which is 50 ft. 
wide, was estimated to cost £15,000, and it has been 
completed at £1.500 less than the estimate. 

Oulton Broad U.D.C. — The surveyor, Mr. R. S. 
Cockrill. reports that the greater part of the road- 
tarring has been done, the cost working out at lOld. 
per yard super., compared with lid. paid to the con- 
tractor last year. 

St. Thomas (Devon) R.D.C— The Road Contract 
Committee had recommended that for the purposes 
of labour the main roads be divided into convenient 
lengths, and that one man be allotted to each lensfh, 
and that the number of men employed be increased 
accordingly. This suggestion having been referred to 
a Joint Finance and Road Contract Committee, the 
latter proposed, and the council concurred, that the 
principle be applied to the first-class main trunk roads 
having a mileage of about 57 miles, the labour to be 

varied and divided fairly as practicable between day 
and piece work at the di.«cretion of the surveyor, Mr 
J Brav. The men will have to do everything requne<l 
on their .section, go over it every day, repair any 
damage, fill in ruts and clear and sweep the road. 

Southport T.C— A scheme has been provisionally 
ad Tited li.r the further development of the Lord-street 
I oulevards, at an estimated outlay of about £13,000. 

Swansea T.C. — A recommendation has been made 
by the H;gli\vays Committee for schemes of road 
improvement estimated to cost £55,000, and also that 
a contract for the work be entered into with the 
Trinidad Lake Asphalte Company, Limited. 

Westminster B.C.— It has been agreed to widen 
Portugal-street, Lincoln's Inn-fields, to a uniform 
width of 40 ft., the authorities of King's College Hos- 
pital having agreed to surrender a portion of their 
site in order that the improvement may be earned 

Winslow R.D.C— Tlie tender of the Oxford Steam 
rioush Company has been accepted for steam-roUin'-' 
at £1 5s. 6d. per day. 


Alton U.D.C Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, m.inst.c.e., has 

jirepared a report on the proposed sewerage and 
sewase disposal sciieme. in which he states in con- 
clusion: "With regard to the exclusion of subsoil 
water from your sewers, I reiterate that this is of the 
utmost importance and should be attempted before 
anything else is done. As it would be impossible to 
estimate, even approximately, the cost of this work, 
[ suggest that you should approach the Local 
Government Board with a view to obtaining a 
provisional loan of, say, £1,000 for the necessary 
work of examination and remedy as occasion re- ■ 
quires. Such a sum, if borrowed at 4 per cent for 
thirty years, would mean an additional rate of about 
-;d. in the £ on your present assessable value." The 
council have agreed to make application to the Local 
Government Board for a loan of £1,000 as suggested 
In- ]Mr. Boulnois, and have instructed the clerk to 
forward to the board a copy of the report, accom- 
panied bv a copv of plan Xo. 1. prepared by the sur- 
veyor, ]\Ir. G. B. Hartfree. 

Ballyclare U.D.C — The Local Government Board 
have written informing the council that a proper 
sewerage system is urgently required for the urban 
district, and that no real improvement in the sani- 
tary condition will be effected until it is provided, 

Barnard Castle U.D.C. — Last year the council 
instructed Messrs. Taylor & Wallin to prepare a 
scheme for new' sewers in Bridgegate, and this has 
now received the approval of the Local Government 
Board. Tenders were invited last month, and that 
submitted by Messrs. Naylor & Son, contractors, 
Girlington. near Bradford, has been accepted, as also 
a tender for the construction of an underground 
convenience in the Market-place. 

Bridlington T.C- — ^W^ith reference to an application 
for sanction to borrow £1,250 for the purchase 'of 
land for sewage disposal works, a letter has been 
received from the Local Government Board stating 
that they were unable to comply with the applica- 
tion, as they were advised that the arrangement 
would involve risk of contamination of the water 
supply. The matter has been referred to a com- 

Brownhills U.D.C. — At their last meeting the 
council adopted the scheme prepared by Mr. Robert 
Green, m.ixst.c.e., of Birmingham, of the works 
necessary to prevent the pollution of the Ford Brook 
with sewage matter, as required by the Chancery 
Court, and instructions were given for this work to 
he proceeded with immediately. 

Bulkington (Warwick) U.D.C. — The council on 
Monday last decided to proceed with the sewage dis- 
posal scheme, and defer the water scheme. 

Cockermouth R.D.C — Plans have been adopted for 
sewerage works at Broughton Moor, estimated to cost 

Cork T.C— The city engineer, Mr. J. F. Delany, 
has received instructions to prepare an estimate for 
substituting pipe sewers where rubble sewers are at 
))resent in use. 

Easthampstead R.D.C— The Local Government 
Board reooinmend that the proposed scheme of sewer- 
age for Crowthorne and Sandhurst should be so modi- 
fied as to serve Wokingham Without and Finchamp- 
stead, and also suggest a conference between the 
councils concerned to attain this end. 

July 11, 1913. 



Hebden Bridge U.D.C Instructions have been given 

lor blie preiiaration ol; plans for extensions and 
alterations at the sewage outfall works, at an esti- 
mated cost of £2,900. 

North Bromsgrove U.D.C. — The council have 
instructed Ur. Kuliert Green, m.inst.c.e. (of Birniing- 
luun), to olitain tenders lortliwith for the works of 
sewerage and sewage purification for Kubery, which 
it is estimated will cost about £10,000. The Local 
Government Board have sanctioned the necessary 


Skelmersdale U.D.C. — The council have adopted a 
scheme prepared by Messrs. Taylor & Wall n, civil 
engineers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Birmingham, 
for the construction of intercepting sewers and rew 
.sewage disposal works. The purificat'on works will 
l)e on the modern bacterial system, of the most up- 
to-date nature. The estimated cost of the works is 
£12,000, and application is to bo made to the Local 
Government Board for the necessary liorrowing 
powers at once. 

Southend T.C. — Sewerage works are to be carried 
out in Dines-row and Wakering-road, at a cost of 

Warwick T.C. — The council on Tuesday last approved 

the report of the General Purposes Committee deal- 
ing with the improvement of sewage treatment at 
the outfall works, at an estimated cost of £8,000. 

Withernsea U.D.C— The surveyor, Mr. J. H. B. 
Kirton, has prepared an amended scheme for the 
repair of the sewage outfall. 

Woking U.D.C. — The council have adopted schemes 
for the sewerage of the Sutton and Bridley Ward, 
and of Westfield-square, at an estimated cost of £1.S,3gO. 


Aberavon T.C. — The nett profit from the gas under- 
taking last year was £3,330, or £1,103 in excess of 
the previous year. From fhe waterwork.s the surplus 
revenue was £1,674. 

Birmingham T.C.-^The Water Committee have 
adopted a scheme of carrier distribution mains for 
the Acock's Green, Olton, and Solihull districts, tlie 
estimated cost of which exceeds £30,000. 

Bootle T.C. — The year's trading of the electricity 
department has resulted in a surplus revenue which 
has been sufficient to pay — Interest on the capitiil 
employed; the sum required to repay the capi'al 
within twenty-five years : £200 into the machinery 
insurance account; EL-MO as a contribution in aid 
of the general district rate; £860 as a contribution 
to the contingency fund. The surplus shows an 
increase over that realised last year, and exceeds 
the amount which was estimated by £439. 

Cardiff T.C. — The Finance Committee recommend 
the council to apply for a loan of £30,000 to provide 
additional plant and machinery for electric lighting 

Carlisle T.C. — The profit realised on last year's 
working of the gas undertaking was £8,608. 

Dromore U.D.C. — The tender of Messrs. Allen & 
Grosse. Belfast, at £124. has lieen accepted for the 
lighting of the town Ijy electricity for three years, 
the lamps to consist of eleven of 200-candle power, 
seventeen of 50-candle power, and forty-eight of 25- 
candle power, to be erected, maintained, and lighted 
from September till April. 

Fifeshire C.C. — It has been decided by the Dunferm- 
line District Committee to lay a 6-in. water main from 
Hillend to Aberdour, at an estimated cost of £3,000. 

Kirkcaldy T.C. — The gas supply is to be extended 
to Southert.on. 

Marylebone B.C. — The electricity undertaking last 
year earned a nett profit of £4,014. 

Heath T.C. — A scheme has been approved for a new 
water supply at Pencaerau, at an estimated cost of 

Oakham R.D.C.— The surveyor, Mr. W. S. Wood- 
cock, has prepared a scheme of water supply for 

Rochdale T.C. — The Gas arid Electricity Committee 
have received authority to expend £.30,000 upon elec- 
tricity extensions. 

Upton-on-Severn R.D.C.— The report of Mr. J. E. 
Willcox on the water supply scheme has been 
approved and forwarded to the Local Government 
Board. The e.stimated cost is £10.0(10. 

Bangor U.D.C. — Information is to be sought from 
t!ic Local Government Board as to tlic terms and 
under what conditions the board would be prepared 
to sanction a loan for the purpose of providing a fire 
e: gine and eguiiunent. 

Bournemouth T.C.^The nett profit earned by the 

tramway undertaking year was £10,320. The 
tender of Walter Scott, Limited, Leeds, at £5,534, has 
been accepted for the supply of tramway rails. 

Chertsey R.D.C. — Regarding the question whether 
or not the surveyor (Mr. H. Beeney) should receive' 
additional renuineration for the preparation of plan.-; 
in connection with the housing scheme at Chobham, 
the assistant clerk said he had, as instructed, 
written a circ\ilar letter to sixteen councils asking" 
for the benefit of their experience. He had receivetf 
replies from twelve of the councils. Three of these 
employed an independent architect, in four 
their surveyors d:id the work as part of their ordi- 
nary duties, and five of the councils had their owii 
surveyor preparing the plans and paid him re- 
muneration extra. Mr. Edenborough said he was of 
opinion that Mr. Beeney was not entitled to for 
payment for plans. He had received a £50 increase, 
and that was one of the duties the chairman had 
urged as a reason for giving him the £50 as salary, 
and not as bonus. He moved that under the cir- 
cumstances for the two years from the time of 
increase it was his duty to do that. Mr. McLennan 
seconded. Mr. Mears moved an amendment that 
the surveyor should receive 2i per cent. The amend- 
ment and the resolution were put to the meeting, 
but only the mover and seconder voted on each side. 
The clerk pointed out that a question like that 
might arise again. It would be advisable to formu- 
late some understanding for the future. Captain 
Price observed that he would be rather in favour of 
allowing the surveyor to compete. The chairman 
declined to give a casting Vote, and the matter was 
not proceeded with further. 

York T.C. — A municipal cemetery is to be provided 
at Knapton, consisting of 24 acres of land, the pur- 
chase price being £100 an acre. 



See End of Paper. 


The Council invite Tenders for making up the- 
Private Street in their district known as Lancaster- 
avenue (part of), Hadley Wood. 

Plans and Specifications can be seen, Forms of 
Tender and all information obtained, on application 
to Mr. Richard Collins, the Council's Surveyor, at 
these offices, any day (except Saturday) between the 
hours of 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. 

The Contractor will be required to observe Trade 
Union hours of labour, and to pay the recognised 
Trade Union rates of w-ages in force in the district 
where the work is to be executed. 

Tenders (on the forms supplied only) to be sent in 
to me not later than noon on Wednesday, the 23rd 
day of July instant, endorsed " Tender for Lancaster- 

The Tender must be accompanied by a Schedule of 
hours of labour, and of prices and wages to be paid 
for different classes of work, which Schedule will be 
embodied in the Contract. 

The Council do not bind themselves to accept the 
lowest or any Tender. 

(By order) 



Public Offices, 

Enfield, Middlesex. 
.luly 10, 1913. (632) 

FOR SALE- 6-in. Theodolite (Halden) in case 
with strong leather cover and straps, tripod: 
also level (Adie) with tripod and levelling staff; all 
in good condition; not been used much.— Box 1,271, 
oflBce of The Surveyoh. 24 Bride-lane, Fleet-street, 
E.C. (631) 

JUNIOR ASSISTANT required by Surveyor of 
Rural District in the Midlands. State age, 
qualifications and salary required to Box 1,270, 
office of The Surveyor, 24 Bride-lane, Fleet-itreet, 
E.C. (630) 



Jdly 11, I'JIJ. 


Ml-. A. B. Gladwell has been appointed assistant 
surveyor to the Boston Corporation, at a salary of £110 
a year. 

Mr. John Horan, retiiing county snrveyor of 
Limerick, is to receive a superannuation allowance 
of £550 per annum. 

Mr. T. L. Oliver, Glasgow, has been appointed sur- 
veyor and engineer to the Conway Eural District 
Council, at a salary of CUO per annum. 

Mr. A. Cotton, surveyor to the Audley ^Staffs) Urban 
District Council, has had his maximum salary in- 
creased to £140, by annual increments of £5. 

Mr. T. W. Dodd, surveyor to the Belford \Northuni- 
berland) Rural District Council, has been granted £20 
per annum for the upkeep of his motor-cycle. 

Miss Mary Irene Bell, only daughter of Mr. George 
Bell, borough surveyor of Swansea, was married last 
week at Swansea Unitarian Church to Dr. Alexander 
,Tohn Mitchell, Newton Bury, Gloucester. 

Mr. Webb has been appointed as second assistant 
surveyor to the Teddington Urban District in suc- 
cession to Mr. J. Skillman, resigned— at a salary of 
£75 per annum, increasing by £5 yearly to £100. 

Mr. T. A. Jacques, London, has been appointed 
quantity surveyor to the Swansea Corporation out of 
sixty-two applicants, at a salary of £250 a year. Mr. 
J. H. Davies has been promoted to the position of 
building accounts clerk. 

Colonel Sir H. A. Yorke, c.r,., h.e.. who for the past 
thirty years has held the office of chief engineering 
inspecting officer of the railway and tramway depart- 
ment of the Board of Trade, is about to retire under 
the age limit regulation, and will be succeeded by 
Lieutenant-Colonel P. G. Von Donop. e.e.. senior 
assistant inspecting officer. 

Mr. W. J. E. Baker, of Malvern, has been appointed 
gas and water engineer to the Mansfield Corporation, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. A. 
Graham, ilr. Baker is a member of the Institution 
of Gas Kngineers, vice-president and president-elect 
of the Midland Association of Gas Engineers, and an 
associate-member of the Institution of Electrical Engi- 

Mr. H. .1. Grace, the subject of the accompanying 
portrait, is well known to n\unicipal engineers as the 
chairman and managing director of the Enderby and 
Stoney Stanton Granite Company, Limited, Xar- 

Mr. H. J. Gu.\cE. 

borough, near Lecester. As we re)iortcd last week, 
the company's quarries came in for inspection recently 
by a large party of International Road Congress dele- 
gates, the tour of the works being followed by a lun- 
cheon in the grounds of Mr. CJrace's charnnng resi- 
dence, '" Pen Craig." Mr. Grace's connection with 
the famous Enderby firm dates back to 1879. He 
beca!ne its manager in 18!X), managing director in 

1895, and this year assumed the additional responsi- 
bility of chairman of the company. 

Mr. Geo. W. Tillson, consulting engineer to the 
Borough of Brooklyn, New York, one of the dis- 
tinguished United States engineers who attended the 
recent Road Congress as official delegates, was, after 
varied previous experience, made city engineer of 
Gmaha, Nebraska, and thence he went, in 1895, to 
Brooklyn, and had charge of the con.struction of pave- 
ments. In 1902 he was made chief engineer of the 
Bureau of Highways in the Borough of Brooklyn ; in 
1907 was transferred to the same position in the 
Borough of Alanhattan, and in 1911 was appointed to 
his present position. Among the many engineering 
societies with which he is associated maybe mentioned 
the Municipal Engineers of the City of New Y''ork, the 
Organisation for Standardising Paving Specifications, 
and the American Society of Civil Engineers. Last 
year saw the issue of a second edition of his well- 
known Avork on "Street Pavements and Paving Mate- 



At a meeting of .the council of the Institution of 
JIunicipal and County Engineers held at the offices of 
the institution in June there were present Messrs. R.J. 
Thomas (president, in the chair), T. W. A. Hayward, 
O. E. Winter, J. Young, E. Purnell Hooley, E. B. 
Martin, W. T. Lancashire, W. Harpur, J. W. Cockrill, 
C. F. Wike, R. H. Dorman, Thomas Cole (secretary) 
and H. A. (jiles (assistant secretary). 

The following were elected as members: Messrs. T. 
McLaren, deputy burgh surveyor, Perth; H. A. Hos- 
kinp, surveyor to the St. Germans Rural District Coun- 
cil; W. P. Puddicombe, surveyor to the Oystermouth 
[T'ban District Council; J. S. 'Walker, deputy borough 
engineer and surveyor, Wallasey; J. E. Hattersley, 
surveyor to the Saxmundham Urban District Council ; 
F. A. Adlard, chief assistant, waterworks section, 
iladras Corporation; and W. S. Woodcock, highway 
surveyor to the Oakham Rural Di.strict Council. 

The following were elected as associate-members: 
Messrs. J. H. Roebuck, chief engineering assi.stant to 
the Eton Rural District Council; R. W. St. G. Cane- 
fried, executive engineer. P.W.D., Kedah Govern- 
ment ; A. Clibbens, engineering assistant, Bristol Cor- 
poration; F. L. Boydell, engineering assistant, Leigh; 
J. W. Hill, engineering assistant to the city surveyor, 
Wakefield; W. \. Lavender, engineering assistant to 
the Blean Rural District Council ; W. Dunbar, assist- 
ant burgh surveyor, Dunoon; H. AV. Rackliam, engi- 
neering assistant to the Hendon Rural District Council; 
F. J. D. Lewis, engineering assistant to the Acton 
Urban District Council ; F. W. Mozley, chief assistant 
to borough engineer. Nelson; C. Greenwood, engineer- 
ing assistant to borough surveyor, St. Helens; W. Met- 
calfe, engineering assistant to county surveyor, Yorks, 
West Riding; W. G. Harbottle, engineering assistant 
to city surveyor, Manchester; W. B. Hossack, assistant 
road surveyor to Third Division of Middle Ward of 
Lanarkshire; E. H. Radcliffe, engineering assistant 
to borough engineer. Rotherham ; H. Howarth, engi- 
neering assistant with the Heywood and Middleton 
Water Board; D. R. Morgan, engineering assistant to 
city surveyor, Cardiff; and T. iM. Brown, assistant 
burgh engineer to Royal Burgh of Rutherglen. 

ilr. .7. Wre>-t was transferred from student to asso- 
ciate-member ; Mr. C. S. Rhodes, engineering assistant 
to Accrington. was elected a student. 

Akonia in London Parks. — The London County 
Council, having found that Akonia is an excellent 
gravel-binder, are using it for that purpose on the 
paths in Victoria Park and Southwark Park. 

Wirral Town Planning. — With a view to including 
the parishes of Frankby, Greasby, Saughall Massie, 
and Grange in a town planning scheme, a conference 
of landowners was held at the Wirral Rui'al District 
Council offices, Hamilton-street. Birkenhead, on 
Tuesday. This comprises the fifth scheme brought 
forward by the council, and it was explained b.y Mr. 
W. Webb Shennan, the surveyor, that the council pro- 
posed at first to include the whole of the area under 
the council's authority, but on the advice of the Local 
Government Board it was decided to divide the dis- 
trict into sections. The present scheme included 
3,710 acres. 

.IrLY 11. 1913. 



Rivers Pollution and the Protection of Water Supplies. 

[extracts from a digest of answers to a series of questions prepared by Mr. Paul Hansen, engineer, 
State W»ter Survey, Illinois, and distributed among sanitary engineers.] 

(1) Do !/oii lielipre thnl a riparian ointPr liii^ " jiisi 
right to demand the mainieminre of the v-aler in a stream 
in its original and natural purity.' Are then' nnij 
ej'ceptions to the rule .' 

.V quotation from one of tlie re|>lier- will ikstriln-. 
in a manner tliat will no doulit meet with the a[)|)roval 
of nearly all the respondents, the cliaracter of stivam 
pollutioii that must of necessity be permitted: — 

" Jn its original and natural purity the fiow came 
frotn a watershed inhabited only by savage races and 
wild animals. .\s that watershed came under servi- 
tude to civilised people agriculture developed; lands 
were fertilised by the use of aninuil maniues and 
decayed vegelation ; they were rendered friable by cul- 
tivation. The run-off from the lands was theieatti-r 
tinctured with constituents of these fertilisers and th.- 
chemical elements of the soil itself, and the stream 
flow to that extent depreciated in jnuity. Against 
this condition no riparian owner should have right of 
redress, altliough protest is an inherent right of which 
man may not be deprived." 

It is to see, Mr. Hansen says, that a greater 
degree of purity than this cannot be demanded unless 
the whole water.shed above the point at which a 
stream is used is owned or controlled by those using 
the water. 

('i) Do you, regard streams as drainage courses rrliich 
should he permitted to receire all storm vMler and other 
natural surface drainage (not sevage or industrial irastes), 
regardless of hoK the character of this drainage may he 
modified hy the presence of vrhan communities ' Are 
there any e.fceptions ' 

I'robably a statement u|)On uhich agreement can 
be most readily obtained woidd be somewhat as fol- 
lows: Ordinarily, streams may receive natural surface 
drainage regardless of how this is modified by normal 
url)an development, but there be recognition of 
the existence of special cases where, for one reason 
or another, stream poUution by surface drainage nnisl 
be le-stricted. 

('i) Do you regard with favour ihe discliarge cf cruilr 
sev'age into streams under certain circumslanres .' If so, 
I'-hat are these circumstances .' 

Mr. Hansen is inclined to feel that a consensus of 
opinion I'an jirobably be reached on some such stale- 
inent as tlie following: In connection with new instal- 
lations of sewerage or the construction of new outfall 
sewers, the discharge of crude sewage into streams 
should be regarded as [lermissible only under rarely 
exceptional conditions, for the reason that even in 
the largest streams some liudted treatment is neces- 
sary to remove unsightly floating solids, and to pre- 
vent the formation of malodorous and unsightly sludge 
banks in the vicinity of sewer outfalls. Many of the 
positive replies were no doubt made in the light of 
regarding as crude sewage that which had leceived 
.screening or .sedimentation only. 


(4) Is the poUution of streams by industrial wastes or 
sewage to the point of creating malodorcms or unsightly 
conditions fnot, howei-er, involving health) ptrmxssihle 
under any circumstances .' If so, under u-liat circum- 
ttances f 

A representative negative opinion is as follows : 
"' Never. Industrial sewage can be purified to a point 
short of actual nuisance, and at an expense not pro- 

The following clear statement of conditions under 
which malodorous and unsightly pollution may be 
permitted is fairly representative of the affirmative 
replies: " When an industry constitutes the making of 
a town, and the character of the industry is such that 
the whole of the stream must be utilised for the in- 
dustry, a minimum amount of malodour would be per- 
missible from necessity." 

The question is a difficult one to generalise on, but 
it would seem that the great majority of sanitarians 
would subscribe to a statement like the following: 
In cases where a considerable number of persons are 
dependent upon an existing industry, and purification 

cif tlic industrial wastes would so erip|)le the industry 
:is to make continued operation impossil)le, then a 
miiuunuu nuisance from odours and stream discolora- 
tion should bo favoured, provided the larger interests 
of otiier industries or of the connnunity in general 
arc not interfered with. On the other hand, the es- 
taMishment of new industries producing liquid waste 
should be confined in location to the hanks of 
streams which afford an ample dilution to prevent any 
olijection:ible conditions, or which have been entirely 
c;iveu up to industrial interests. 

(5) Do you deem it practicable to purify sewage before 
discharging same into a stream above and. within polluting 
distance of a public a-atcr supply iiitake so as to safe- 
guard such, trater supply againtt contaminatioH. assum.iiig 
that the water supply is not purified .' If so, under vjhat 
conditions ? 

M;iny of who answered in the negative ro- 
m;irked tluit it was possible, but not practicable, to 
purify sewage to the degree indicated in the que.stion. 
It seems that the opinion most likely to meet with 
general approval is that sewage piu'itication cannot 
be regarded as a means for rendering a stream suit- 
able for ;i public water supply witho\it the use of water 
purification, partly because .sewage purification is not 
always reliable, but also the presence of 
sewage pre.sages the existence of objectionable surface 
rim-off which ordinarily is not and cannot be purified. 
There may be occasional instances where sewage puri- 
liiatioii alone nuiy be relied upon to piotect public 
water supplies. 


(ti) Do you Ihinl- it permissible to discliarge crude 
sewage into a stream from which public ic(^er supplies 
are drawn provided the water supplies arc purified .' If 
so, under irhat conditions .' 

The most complete statement of the conditions 
under which crude sewage, after purification, may be 
discharged into a stream used for a public water sup- 
ply is given in the following: — 

" Yes, provided that self-purification of the stream 
is capable of maintaining the water in a condition 
such that water purification plants are able to render 
it pure enough for drinking. Efforts towards mini- 
mising the pollution of streams by reasomible expendi- 
tures of money iu purifying the sewage which must 
flow into them sliould always be the proper attitude 
to assiune. But large expenditures for sewage purifi- 
cation merely to maintain a stream in its original 
condition, or even api^roximately its original condi- 
tion, in order to provide a coinparjitively pure water 
for drinking purposes is not justifiable so long as 
present methods of drinking water i)Urific.ition are 

In writing replies to the above question it is Mr. 
Hansen's opinion that sucli sewage treatment as 
screening or brief .sedimentaion for jjreventing local 
nuisances was not considered as having any maierial 
influence upon the potentiality of a .sewage to affect 
water supplies. With this in mind, it seems that the 
erticiency of sewage purification by dilution and 
natural agencies encountered in streams and other 
bodies of water should be recognised, and some such 
rational view accepted as that expressed in the first 
quotation given under this question. 

(TJ Would you consider it just and reasonoMe to require 
communities located in rural or sparsely settled districts, 
and drained by small streams, to purify their sewage 
unless there is a complaint on the part of riparicm 
owners ' If so, under what circuinstances ' 

Of all the questions this one proved to be the most 
awkwardly worded, so that a numerical sununary of 
the replies means but little. The problem that is most 
frequently presented to central authorities having to 
deal with matters relating to stream pollution is: 
Wiiat disposition of sewage should be required for a 
small town drained only by small streams, when such 
town is about to instal a new sewerage system ? Where 
health is endangered or where there is vigorous com- 
plaint against the pollution of streams, the solution 
of the problem may be quite apparent ; but there are 
manv cases where health is not involved, so far as 



July 11, 1913. 

ciiii be foreseen, aud there are places where there is 
not likely to be any complaint, even though the 
streams are malodorous and unsightly. It would have 
been far better had question 7 been qualified by insert- 
ing an assumption to the effect thatthoughthe streams 
would be badly contaminated, yet no jeopardy to 
lioalth would be involved. As it was, thirty-two re- 
plies were affirmative, fourteen negative, and nve 
evaded the question. Nine of the negatives were 
ijualified so as to render them almost equivalent to 


Not one of the respondents took cognisance of the 
very real and practical difficulty in the way of having 
small communities purify sewage— namely, the almost 
utter hopelessness of inducing such communities to 
maintain sewage purification works in operating con- 
dition in tiie absence of some constantly threatened 
damage suits. Eternal vigilance on the part of some 
central authority supplied with abundant appropria- 
tions alone can hope to secure results. It should also 
be recognised that in those parts of the country where 
intermiUent sand filters may be had at reasonable ex- 
pense the difficulties are not so great as in those sec- 
tions where other methods of sewage treatment must 
be resorted to because of the prohibitive price of sand. 
The existing practical difficulties of inducing small 
towns (less than 10,0U0) to properly operate sewage 
treatment ivorks, Mr. Hansen states, are so great as 
to render it not worth while to require the installation 
of such works, unless there is an objection to the 
resulting stream pollution, either on the part of 
riparian owners or the public, or unless there is a 
danger to public health involved. 

(SJ Do you tliiiih that xroiection offish life in streams 
slvould preponderate over other industrial interests ? If 
so, under tvluxt circumstances .-' 

The majority would be quite willing to countenance 
the destruction of fish life in a stream provided this 
was necessary to the existence of an industry of greater 
value than that of fish life. 

Xot as a categorical answer to the question relative 
to the conservation of fish life, but as a general state- 
ment of the polic5' advocated by the National Bureau 
of Fisheries, is the following, w-hich might be recom- 
inended, with but slight alteration, as an opinion upon 
which sanitarians may unite. 

" In view of the ever-decreasing margin between 
the supply of food aud its consumption, it is the 
view of the bureau that the protection of fish life 
in streams aud the waters into which they flow 
should in general preponderate over other industrial 
interests, excepting only those wliich, like agricul- 
ture, are themselves food producers. This apjaears 
to be a particularly valid contention in view of the 
fact that in many industries (and with improve- 
ments in methods this ■will become the case in re- 
spect to most of them) the discharge of deleterious 
matters into the streams is not a necessary con- 
comitant of the industry, and is often an evidence of 
wasteful methods. 

" There are, of course, exceptions to the general 
statement previously made. There are certain in- 
dustries in which large volumes of more or less 
deleterious matter not susceptible of economic treat- 
ment are poured into the streams as the only pos- 
sible means of disposal. This is the case with cer- 
tain mining operations on which the prosperity and 
very existence of a great population is absolutely 
dependent. The bureau believes that in such cases 
the presumptive preponderance of consideration for 
the food supply should be waived." 


(9) Aside from the wse of streams as sources of public 
vxiter suppUj, to what ejitent, in your opinion, does stream 
2Jollutiou become a factor in public heMh ' 

Only three out of fifty stated flatly that, aside 
from the use of streams as sources of public water 
supply, no health relation exists in connection with 
.stream pollution. All of the others pointed out 
certain menaces to public health from polluted 
streams, but in the great majority of eases these 
menaces were regarded of but slight consequence 
under ordinary circumstances. A number, however, 
pointed out instances in which public health might 
be seriously endangered, other than through the 
medium of public water supplies, prominent among 
w^hich were eating shellfish from polluted waters and 
bathing in i>olluted waters. 

(10) In ijour opinion, sliould wsthetic considerations or 
considerations of civic decency be considered factors in 

solving prohlems involving stream pollution.'' If so, 
vhal would lie the general effect of recognising such 
considerations ' 

Two respondents rather evaded this question, 
while all the rest were agreed that aesthetics and 
civic decency should be considered factors in solving 
liroblems involving stream pollution. 

Summing up, it may be said that all believe that 
considerations of aesthetics and civic decency should 
be factors in attacking problems involving the pre- 
vention of stream pollution. The weight that such 
considerations should be given is not clear and can- 
not be made clear in answers to a general question, 
because this is a matter that depends most inti- 
mately on local conditions. It may not be amiss 
to emphasise the fact that our streams and their 
valleys naturally form the beauty spots to which 
larger and larger numbers of our urban population 
are drawn every summer for recreation, and they 
also form the logical locations for park systems 
within the cities. Therefore there is ample warrant 
for demanding the preservation of our watercourses 
for recreation purposes, not only wherever it can 
be readily and cheaply done, but wherever the 
public requires recreation grounds. In sparsely 
settled districts, after considerations of health and 
property are settled, stream pollution problems re- 
quire little or no expenditure of money to meet 
{esthetic considerations, but in thickly settled dis- 
tricts the whole problem of stream pollution may 
require settlement upon aesthetic considerations 

(11) Do you think that the pouer of determining the 
limits of permissible stream pollution should be intrtisied 
to some central State or luttiomd board, commission or 
other authority ' If so, what territorial limits sliould be 
adopted and what checks, if any, should surround such 
authority ' 

All respondents, except two who did not answer, 
favoured some form of central control over the solu- 
tion of problems relating to stream pollution. 

The strong consensus of opinion favours State 
control of stream pollution problems, supplemented 
b\- national control or co-operation, with respect to 
those drainage systems which do not lie wholly 
within the borders of one State. Central control by 
drainage districts, regardless of political lines of 
demarcation, while it must appeal to all as being 
most logical from an engineering standpoint, has 
not yet been demonstrated to be generally feasible 
in the United States. 

(12) Do you believe it just, icise and practicable to 
have general lav's limiting the degree below vMch stream 
pollution is permissible .' If so, wliat wouldyou consider 
such limiting degree of pollution ' 

The consensus of opinion is that with present 
knowledge of the subject it is not feasible to cover 
specifically in the form of law the limits within 
which stream pollution may be permitted. 

Harmonising all the views expressed seems an 
impossible task, but it is believed that none of the 
respondents would be seriously antagonistic to an 
arrangement such as the following ; A general law 
requiring that streams be maintained in an inoffen- 
sive (not pure) condition and free from danger to 
health, and that this result be accomplished by such 
means as will best conserve the public interests; a 
central expert commission or other authority en- 
trusted with determining the questions of fact in- 
volved, such as deciding when a stream is offensive 
and when a stream is free from danger to health, and 
which are the means for accomi)lishing these results 
that best conserve the public interests ; ready appeal 
to non-partisan arbitration commissions, and finally 
to the courts against decisions of central authority. 


A summary, iMr. Hansen points out, must consist 
largely of his own opinion formed in the light of 
the various responses. Such a compilation as is 
herewith presented cannot be expected to result in 
a statement that all sanitarians can accept, nor 
does iMr. Hansen desire what follows to be considered 
a final, unchangeable opinion of his own views. 
The hope has been entertained, however, that a 
compilation such as this will he of value in giving 
some definite nucleus to what has hitherto been an 
incoherent mass of varying and conflicting ideas. 
Once the nucleus has been formed it may be built 
upon in the light of experience until there has 
accumulated a body of reliable opinion that will ex- 

July 11, 1P13. 



plain c-learly the position of the sanitarian to the 

What is said above applies purely to general prin- 
ciples, and not to ways and means for solving spe- 
cifi2 problems. It will always be neces.'=ary lo have 
the services of experts to decide how many gallons 
and what kinds of wastes may be discharged into a 
streiui to keep within the limits of a desired result; 
the methods that are best adapted to treating 
.sewage and other wastes ; the best methods of puri- 
fying water supplies taken from surface streams, 
and many other technical matters of vital import- 
ance. But the public must be made familiar with 
the general principles that govern if the movement 
for clean streams is to be effective, consistent, rapid 
and economical. 

In Mr. Hansen's opinion, moulded by the fore- 
going, there are a few fundamental propositions to 
wliich sanitarians may generally agree. They are 
as follows: — 

(1) No stream (unless the entire watershed is 
owned or controlled) can be maintained in its 
original and natural purity. 

(2) Streams may be, and should be, maintained 
free from danger to the public health, inoffensive 
to a projier public sense of decency, and beyond 
this they should be controlled so as to contril)ute the 
greatest serviceableness to the people at large. 
Within these limits it is permissible to discharge 
any liquid wastes into streams, local conditions to 
control in every instance. 

(3) Public water supples may be drawn from mode- 
rately polluted streams, provided the supply is 
adequatel.v purified to prevent danger to health, the 
extent of pollution permissible under these condi- 
tions to be determined by the limitations imposed 
by the art of water piirification, and to some extent 
be inirely aesthetic considerations. 

(4) The desirability of maintaining fish life in 
streams is largely an economic problem. In the 
case of streams along which fishing industries are 
established, prior right should be considered a basis 
for preventing pollution dangerous to fish life or for 
aw irding damages. Tiie i^resence or absence and 
character of life may, under some circumstances, 
serve as an index of the extent of pollution. 

(5) Stream pollution is primarily a menace to 
human liealth through domestic water supplies 
which may be drawn from polluted streams ; but 
there are various other avenues of danger to health, 
prominent among which are danger to bathers and 
pollution of shell fish, which should be duly recog- 
nised in considering any specific problem. 

(6) While the determination of permissible stream 
pollution must depend primarily on public health 
considerations, and secondarily on economic con- 
siderations, sesthetic considerations and civic 
decenc.v must always be factors, and many times 
the controlling factors. 

(7) Control of stream pollution liy laws defining 
specifically the extent to which streams may be 
IJoUuted and enforced by the ordinary police power 
is unwieldy, unwise and unjust. Instead, the laws 
should be made very general, and their enforcement 
placed in the liands of central expert authority as 
int«rpreter of the laws in the light of local condi- 
tions. To guard against abuse, it shcHild be made 
easy to appeal from decisions of the central autho- 
rity to an impartial commission of experts, and 
finally to the courts. 

(8) In the United States the pollution of intrastate 
streams should be under State control, and interstate 
streams sliould be under federal control. Since, 
from an economic and engineering point of view, 
control by drainage boards over complete drainage 
areas is the logical and efficient form of control, it 
should be adopted wherever conditions permit, but 
with tlie present form of government it is not 
believed to be of universal applicability. 


Drainage Works and Sanitary Fittings A third 

edition, revised and brought up to date, particularly 
as regards the questions of concrete sewers, sewer 
ventilation and flushing, and the Public Health Acts 
Amendment Act of 1907, still further evidences the 
success of this little manual,* which manifestly de- 
serves the attention and confidence of all concerned 
in the important subject with which it deals. — The 
Boukseller . 

" " Drainage Work and Sanitary Fittings." By Wm. H. 
Maxwell. Price 2s. nett. London : St. Bride's Press, 
Limited, 21 Bride-lane, E.G. 


On the 2nd inst.. at the monthly meelini: of the 
Stroud Urban District Council, the question of the 
legality of a payment to the surveyor (Mr. G. V. 
Milnes) for services rendered in respect of additional 
sewage disposal works and the provision of a refuse 
destructor, was mentioned in a report from the auditor. 
Originally, the surveyor claimed £4o0 for tlie woik. 
This, it "was argued, was outside the scope of his 
ordinary duties, and the council voted him £350, to 
be paid" by yearly instalments. The first payment of 
£100 came" under the notice of the auditor (Mr. 
Edward Stevens). He pointed out that during the 
audit ilr. Gordon Daniels, a member of the council, 
objected to this payment, which he allowed. His 
principal reasons were that neither of the schemes 
referred to were in any way contemplated at the time 
of the surveyor's appointment, or at the date of the 
latter arrangements in reference to his position; that 
the preparation of engineering schemes of the magni- 
tude referred to and their supervision could not have 
been intended in the remuneration fixed at the rate 
paid to the surveyor. This was extra work, for which 
extra payment could be properly made, and for which 
the council could legally make an allowance. 


Water Pobificaiion and Sewage Disposal. By Dr. 
.1. Tillmans, director of the chemical department 
of the Municipal Institute of Hygiene, Frankfort- 
on-Main. Translated by Hugh S. Taylor, 
(University of Liverpool). Price 7s. 6d. nett. 
London: Constable & Co., Limited. 
In view of the fact that technical booksellers are 
already complaining of the large number of books on 
sewage disposal and water purification, the appearance 
of this volume is not likely to be welcomed. Apart 
from the fact that it is impossible to deal with two 
such complex subjects thoroughly in a brief 133 pages, 
the translation is not well done. Referring to sand 
filters for water we read; "When the sediment layer 
has become too strong, the filter works itself dead, and 
no more water passes througli. It must then be im ri- 
fted." The words in italics are evidently literal trans- 
lations, but "strong" should have been "thick," and 
" purified," in this connection, should have been 
"cleaned," having reference to the top layer of the 
filter. It is also worrying to read " suspensions " fre- 
quently for suspended matters or solids, " thin " for 
"dilute" or "weak" when describing American 
sewage, and many similar instances. Much is made 
of a special chapter devoted to the disposal of trade 
wastes, but with the exception of one or two para- 
graphs dealing with the wastes from sugar and sau«ji^- 
kraut factories, there is very little that is new and;, 
not already contained in such admirable boofo as 
those by Naylor, and the recently published work by 
iSIcLean Wilson and Calvert. Here again we find the 
word "sewage" used when "wastes" or "effluents" 
(from factories) would be the correct translation. We: 
fear this book will not enhance the reputation of il^, 

Repaying Work in tlie City of London The Iniiuoved 

Wood Pavement Companj , Limited, liave instructions, 
to work day and night continuously in Graceehurch- 
street. City, removing asphalt paving and substituting,' 
creosoted deal l)locks. 

Brussels Congress Prize — The Prize of the Second 
International Road Congress (Brussels, 191o) has been 
awarded to Mr. Francis Wood, m.inst.c.e., borough 
engineer and surveyor of Fulham, London, who sent 
in his paper under the pseudonym of " Festina Leiite." 

Railless Traction for Monmouth The Parliamentary 

Committee on the Western Valleys (Monmouth) Rail- 
less Electric Traction Bill has found the preamble- 
proved, subject to the right of purchase in twenty-five- 
years, and that the charge for road maintenance should 
be id. to Id. per mile, excluding cheap workmen's cars. 
As to reconstruction, the committee thought one-third 
of the cost of reconstruction should be paid in urban 
districts, tliat one-third not to exceed the sum of £500. 

* Any of the publications reviewed, or referred to as : 
received, will be forwarded by the St. Bride's Press, Limited, 
on receipt of published price. 



.TuLv 11, lOl-^. 



Al la-^l tlie Standing Pulilli- Winks Cumiuitl.T of 
the New South Wales ( Invcniiiu-iit has come to a 
decision on tho subjcrt of tlie means of roinuiunication 
between Sydney and North Sydney^ whicli has been 
under discussion for so long. 

After consideration of the voluminous mass of 
evidence that has been tendered from time to time on 
various schemes submitted, it was decided on 
May 30th last that, in the opinion of the committee, 
it is expedient to connect Sydney and North Sydney 
by means of a bridge, and they recommend the adoji- 
tion of the scheme submitted by Mr. J. J. C. Bradfield, 
engineer-in-charge, Sydney Harbour Bridge and City 
Transit, for the construction of a cantilever bridge 
from Dawes Point to Milson's Point, carrying four 
lines of railway, one 3o-ft. roadway, one 17-ft. (>-in. 
roadway, and one 15-ft. roadway, at an estimated cost 
of £2,7o0,0n0. 

This decision is a very satisfactory one to the 
whole population of Sydney and suburbs, which now 
numbers about 700,000 persons. For it is now a 
little over twelve years since the results of a world- 
wide competition for a bridge across Sydnej' Harbour 
were made public. At that time, in response to appli- 
cations, twenty-four sets of designs were received by 
the Government. And, although prizes were awarded 
in accordance with the announcement in the call for 
designs, none of the plans submitted was whi>lly 
satisfactoiy to the examining board. Conse(jiU'iitly, 
no contract was placed for carrying out any of the 

upper ends with pin-connected links, which can 
traverse the necessary distance on either side of their 
iKjrmal vertical positions, without appreciable change 
of level at the ends of the cantilevers. 

The main piers and anchor piers are constructed of 
masonry and bluestone concrete. The shore arms of 
the cantilevers will be erected on staging, and the 
haibour arms then ctmstructed, being balanced during 
construction by the shore arms. The main girders 
of the centre span will be erected as cantilevers by 
connecting them temporarily to the cantilevers and 
building them out tmtil they meet at the centre. 
When complete the temporary members wUl be 
removed, and the girders will act as iiidependent 

The approaches consist of reinforced concrete or 
steel arch spans. On the southern side the roadway 
and footway reach the surface of the ground at the 
intersection of Princess-street and Argyle-street, while 
on the northern side the roadway and footway reach 
the ground alaout the intersection of Burton-sti-eet 
and Alfred-street, opposite the town hall, Noi-th 
Sydney. The railway branches off from the Milson's 
Point-Hornsby railway, near Cary-street, and joins 
with the proposed underground city railway at 
Wynyard-square station. On the North Sj'dney side 
two stations will be provided — North Sydney, between 
Miller-street and Walker-street, parallel to Blue- 
street; and Kirribilli, to the east of Alfred-street, 
opposite the town hall. North Sydney. 

Parliament will this month be asked to approve 
the Public Works CoiTimittee's recommendations with 
legard to the harbour bridge. In addition it will 
be asked to authorise the consh-uclinn of the under- 

Ai CEPTED Design fob Sydney Hakbuur Biudue. 

schemes. It is well here to record the tact, however, 
that the first prize of £1.000 was awarded to Mr. 
(i. E. AV. Cruttwell, London. 

The following is a description of the accepted design 
for the proposed new bridge : — 

The main bridge in the design consists of nickel 
steel cantilevers, supporting central girders, also con- 
structed of nickel steel. Tlie anchor or shore arms 
of the cantilevers and the harbour or cantilever arms 
are each 550 ft. long, while the central girder is .500 ft. 
long. The main piers supporting the cantilevers are 
placed 1,000 ft. apart, centre to centre. The total 
length of the steelwork is 2,700 ft. 

Provision is made between the girders for four lines 
of electric railway, and a roadway 35 ft. wide. Out- 
side the main girders on the eastern side is a motor 
roadway 17 ft. (5 in. wide, and on the w-estern side a 
footway 15 ft. wide. 

A headway of 170 ft. above high-water is provided 
for shipping under the bridge. The P. and O. and 
Orient boats require 135 ft. to clear the top of the 

The ends of the cantilever arms adjacent to the 
centre span are arranged to slide in or out accordiug 
to the variation of stress and temperatui-e ; the maxi- 
mum movement will be about 12 in. To admit of 
these movements, the end posts supporting the centre 
girders are provided with cast-steel cylindrical bear- 
ings at top and bottom. At normal temperature the 
end posts would be vertical, and as the bridge expands 
or contracts the end posts will be slightly inclined 
from the vertical in either direction. 

Tiie spans are so proportioned that under all 
])ossible conditions of loading there must always be 
a pull upon the ties which secure the shore ends of 
the cantilevers to anchor girders embedded in the 
concrete of the anchor piers. To allow for the move- 
ments of the cantilevers, due to deflections and changes 
of temperature, the anchor ties are provided at their 

ground city railways, without referring the scheme 
to a committee. These raihvavs will also cost over 

By the year 1912 the pressure of congestion of the 
traffic in Sydney had reached such an alarming stage 
that the services of an English expert — Mr. David Hay, 
M.iNST.c.E., Westminster — were requisitioned by the 
(Jovernment to report on the subject. 

In 1912 Mr. J. J. C. Bradfield. m.e.(syd.). m.inst.c.e., 
of the Public Works Department, was appointed 
engineer-in-charge of the Sydney Harbour Bridge and 
City Transit. 

Various subway schemes were proposed in lieu of 
the great bridge, but it will be seen that the idea of 
a subway has been definitely abandoned, the reasons 
being that the grades would have beeii heavier and 
the distances by rail longer. The railway from 
Wynyard-squaie to Bay-road station by subway would 
be 33 miles, as against 2-6 miles by bridge, a difference 
of nearly | mile. The maximum rise against the 
train by bridge would be 136 ft. . as compared with 
181 ft. by subway. In his report Mr. Hay estimated 
that the additional length and severer grades would 
add at least 15 per cent to the cost in electric cui-rent 
alone on haulage from AA'ynyard-square to Bay-road. 
If the tramway were taken from the G.P.O. to the 
section at Arthur and Junction streets. North Sydney, 
the lengths would be the same, but the maximum rise 
by bridge would be 13S ft., and by subway 200 ft. The 
tramway rid the bridge could take up passengers on 
the North Sydney side, between Arthur-street and the 
town hall. North Sydney, whereas no passengers 
could be taken by the subway after Arthur-street had 
been passed. 

The highest pinnacle of the bridge will be the same 
height above sea level as the Pymble railway station. 

It is estimated that the bridge will be constructed 
ready for ti'affic in seven years time. 

Jvhx 11. 1913 




By J. H. Kerner-Greenwood. 

Xo intelligent person to-day thinks, as they tliought 
a few centuries ago, that stratified rocks were formed 
liy the tumultuous deposits of the Noachian deluge — 
that the fossils and shells were the result of a plastic 
force which had somehow fashioned themselves in 
the bowels of the earth. We know, to-day. that sand- 
stone is merely compressed gravel and sand, that 
consolidated rock debris forms a hard mass, and we 
know that they have been made by enormous pressure 
and chemical changes owing to percolating water and 
other causes. If, therefore, we could subiect our 
present-day cement concrete to great pressure — 
pressure which it is impossible to conceive — and 
allow sufficiently long lapses of time to allow the 
chemical changes to take effect, we should have 
perfectly waterproof stone. 

We, however, adopt the next best process — we grade 
our aggregates down to the merest fraction, to fill 
perfectly all s])aces or voids in tlje concrete. We use 
the hardest and least porous materials, and liind them 
with the strongest cementitious pastes. We have 
]) roved the best aggregates to be such non-porous 
materials as cleaned washed pit-gravel, shingle, river 

Fig. 1. — B.\D .Aggregation. 

ballast, granite chips (without white mica or felspar), 
sharp broken flints; while porous aggregates such as 
clinker, brick and sandstone are the worst possible 
for producing a waterproof concrete. 

We have also found sand to vary in quality. The 
best is washed river or pit sand, and it feels gritty 
under the finger. The grading of the larger aggregate 
is a important factor to success. For instance, if 
H-in. cement roof were stipulated to contain nothing 
but i-in. gravel and sand mixed — say, 2 gravel, 1 
sand, 1 cement — you would here and there find this 
arrangement of the gravel in a sectional cut. (See 
Fig. 1.) 

This proves three things— that the aggregate i- 
too big for the thickness of the roof, quite apart from 
its uniformity, and that if the aggregate were a porous 
material, like broken brick, percolation would in- 
evitably ensue. If the roof were 4in. thick, this 
size aj;grecate would be all right, and even better 

Fig. 2. — Goon Aggregation. 


if it were graded down to, sav, J in., thus 
Fig. 2.) 

A roof only U-in. thick can be made waterproof if 
the aggregate is proportioned to the thickness of the 
loof. A good, tight roof is made with IJ parts of i-in. 
agL'regatc, J parts sand, and 1 of cement, and this 
is the resultant section. (See Fig. 3.) Half the space 
is filled with cement and sand, and the other lialf 
with the aggregate. But . . . even this care will not 
•ilone produce a watertiKht concrete. It is well known 
that cement is not quite waterproof, and every day 

I have jn-oof of this by the number of cases of porous 
work reported to me. Until the advent of a water- 
proofing medium we had not been able to compete 
with Nature in the formation of rocb.s and impervious 

You have asked me to give you some knowledge 
of our cement waterproofing powder, which will ensure 
watertight work when carried out in the ordinary 
way, as I have denoted in my remarks on the 4-in. and 
ll-in. roofs. The powder was invented by an English 
chemist. It was first used on the flat roofs of a row 
of dwellings for the Swansea Corporation. That was 
nearly five years ago, and the roofs { still perfectly 
watertight and good. ... 

Nothing can be simpler than the use of this powder. 
Hcing a i)owder, it i> mixed with a powder (cement); 








Fig. 3.— Good Aggregation. 

it is, we consider the safest method of impregnating 
cement, and it is undoubtedly a great factor towards 
our freedom from failures. . . . 

I am constantly being asked whether the powder 
will help the worker, and especially whether it assists 
the setting, and will stop running water. Flowing 
water cannot be stopped by a rendering of cement 
until the cement has set. The water must be kept 
away during the progress of tlie work, and for at 
least seven days after the work has been executed. . . . 
I may say, in passing, I have been experimenting 
for some months with another powder, and hope to 
shortly place it upon the market, for actually render- 
ing cement over streaming water. The cement sets 
as soon as it is placed upon the brickwork when this 
powcier has been added to the cement. 

The Pudlo powder does not affect cement in any way 
except to waterproof, slightly strengthen, prevent 
efflorescence, make the cement work up easier, and 
give a finer surface finish. For the last-named 
reason many cement stone workers use the powder. 

JL a 


Fig. 4. 

for not only do they obtain a line le-xture with a and stone-like finish, but the arrises are more 
pronounced, and the stone is more saleable, on account 
of its bright, fresh appearance after soaking rains. 
The powder also renders hair-cracks in cement less 
visible. When non-Pudloed cement is dry it sucks in 
moisture through these fine cracks, and with the 
moisture the soot, &c., which is held in solution in 
rain and snow. Pudloed cement throws off the water, 
and so the orifices or mouths of the cracks are un- 
marked by the entrance of the soot. In other words, 
the inhalation and exosmose action of cement is 

Concrete stone makers only use a j-in. (or less) 
skimming of 2 parts sand to 1 part of cement 
!to every 100 lb. of which latter 3 lb. of Pudlo has 
Iteen added). This is trowelled on while the block is 
damp and fresh from the mould. A few negative 
actions are : The cement face is not made greasy ; 
the setting qualities are luiaffected ; it does not bleach 
the cement (but instead, it gives it a uniform clean 
tint) : there is no odour ; there is nothing poisonous 
or injurious to health; it never deteriorates or decays 
either in work or in stowage — in the latter case treat 
it as cement and it improves with age ; it never 
loses its waterproofing qualities. . . . 


I will now deal with some of the most important 
uses of the powder. . . . 

For roughcast work I recommend, for economical 
reasons, the powder being mixed in the first coat 
only. . . . Indeed, i-in- rendering would be quite 
sufficient were it not for the fact that all floating 



.Tri;T 11. 101- 

coats oKvek tliroush the dryness of tlie material 
covered, and by atmospheric influence \\ork like 
flooded cellars cannot be economically done without 
a waterproofins medium. There are thousands of 
cellars and underaround rooms in tins country di.s- 
iised, because the owner? do not know of a remedy. . . . 
Defective have brought several intri- 
cate inventions for their cure. I have made many 
permanent cures (includincr my own ofiice wall, which 
is 300 years old^ bv stripping off the plaster and ren- 
dering" 1-in. thick with 3 of sand to 1 of cement, in- 
cluding 31b. of the powder to every 1001b. ot 
cement . . . 

We do not advocate the powder as a wash, for the 
Mmple rea.son that all washes wear off by the action 
of the sun rain, and frost. ... For a damp wall 
it proves a boon, but it is folly for a landlord to wash 
the wall when a rendering would last for all time. 

Concrete masses may be treated on the outsides 
onlv when economv is desired. An architect told me 
he had issued quantities for a Pudloed concrete wall 
several feet thick, which he was most anxious should 
be bone-drv. He had specified the Pudlo throughout 
the mass. I suscested that the outside should be 
Pudloed to a thickness of 12 in. or so, and the inside 
was rendered with a 5-in. coat. This treatment saves 
a lot of Padlo, and the work is just as efficiently 

We invariablv specify 3 of sand to 1 of cement, 
wath from 2 to 5 lb. of the powder to everv 1001b. of 
cement, and the thickness varies from Jin. to lin. 
according to the work. For water-pressure and for 
skimming cement blocks, 2 and 1 is necessary. 

Interior walls mav have a -J-in. skimming of Keene's 
'N.- other hard plaster after the cement has set au'te 
hard. This is necessary if the walls are to be 
T..nppred. because all cement contains chemical which 
takes the colour out of wallnaner. Otherwise, the 
Pudloed surface gives a perfectly smooth face. For 
a very damp or sweating wall (not runnins waterMhrow 
neat cement mixed with 5 per cent of the powder in 
the dry state, to absorb the wet and immediately 

Renderings on reservoirs are srenerallv made with 
neat cement. Neat cement is liable to crack. We 
add 3 of sand to 1 of Pudloed cement, and make 
perfectly waterproof work, with very little chance of 
cracks oecurrins. There is a saving of Is. lid. ner 
baff of cement at 35s. per ton. For verv thin render- 
ings use 2 and 1. It is a well-known fact that all second 
coats shoiild follow on before the undercoat becomes 
dry — i.e.. as soon as the undercoat has set sufficientlv 
hard to hold it. A more condomerate coat is made 
than if the first coat became dry before the second 
coat was plastered over it. . . . 

Manv houses are condemned bv medical officers 
of health for dampness, generally because the damp- 
courses have gone. If the interior plaster was 
hacked off. the joints raked, and the walls rendered 
with two J-in. coats of Pudloed cement, these houses 
would be saved by being made perfectly dry and 
habitable. If old cement work exists — whether for a 
wall, a floor, or a roof — it is best to form a key, not 
only by hackinsr the surface, but by washing with a 
10 per cent solution of spirits of salts, taking care 
to wash the acid away after it has eaten into the 
old cement. 

In pointing there i^ much more labour than material 
snent, so that little of the powder is required. The 
cement works up smoother and is more plastic. Frost 
will not affect Pudloed cement after the work has 
been done twenty-four hours; therefore, for winter 
work it is very economical. 

To keep earth from damping a wall it is only 
necessary to render to a thickness of 1 in. with Pudloed 
cement. ... 


\ most difficult case presented itself at the Deptford 
Laundry. Cracks developed in the concrete floors (not 
Pudloed^— probably due to the heat of the horizontal 
hollers used for heating the swimming and other baths 
adjoining the boilers being directly under the cracked 
floors. There was very heavy vibrating washing 
machinery at work also. I susg'ested cutting out the 
cracks in V-.shape and filling with two of granite- 
dust to one of Pudloed cement . . , and the perco- 
lating water which formerly trickled on to the 
engines underneath lias been entirely prevented. 

In another case a concrete tower at High Wvcombe 
leaked badly. It was rendered 1-in, thick in the 
ordinary way, and it still leaked. It was rendered 

again with Pudloed cement and a cure was perma- 
nently made. 

The powder waterproofs lime mortar, and is 
used for the restoration of ancient buildings, where 
it is desirable to . . . p>revent the crumbling action 
of frost. When the powder is added the water is ex- 
pelled and a frost occurring immediately after a rainy 
period will not affect the mortar. . , . Pudlo is a 
certain aid to cement. It solves difliculties, saves 
money, and especially does it lessen complaints. 
Cement in itself is nearly waterproof, but the powder 
Pudlo obliterates the word "nearly," and inserts 

British Fire Prevention Committee The British Fire 

Prevention Committee announce that the special 
series of fire tests with some eighty fire extinguishers 
of different makes that have been in use for some 
time will be undertaken this month. Of impending 
tests with proprietary articles, proprietary methods 
of Ijuilding construction, tests for the summer season 
include a reiuforced-concrete floor, material suitable 
for light fire-resisting partitions, and several fire- 
resisting doors. 


President— Mt. R. J. Thomas, m.inst.c.e.. 
County Surveyor, Buckinghamshire. 


The fortieth annual general meeting of the insti- 
tution and the third town planning conference will 
he held by kind invitation of the town council in the 
Town Hall. Great Yarmouth, on Wednesday, 
Thursdav, Friday and Saturday. .luly 16th. 17th, 18th 
and 19th. 

Wednesdaij, July IGth . 

9.15 a.m.— Meeting of the subscribers to the Orphan 
Fund in a committee room of the town 
9.45 a.m.— Council meeting in the supper-room of 

the town hall. 
10.30 a.m.— Annual general meeting. The members 
will be welcomed by the mayor and other 
members of the corporation. 

Annual report of council (to be taken as 
Election of auditors and scrutineers. 
General business. 
Presentation of premiums. 
Presidential address. 
12.45 p.m. — Adjournment for lunch. 

Town planning conference in the as.sembly room 
of the town hall. 

Section 1. 

Chairman— The president (Mr. J. W. Cockrill, 
M.INST.C.E., A.E.I.B.A., borougli surveyor, 
Great Yarmouth). 
2.30 f.m.— The delegates and members will be wel- 
comed by the mayor and corporation. 
Opening address by the president. 
The following papers (which will be 
taken as read) will be discussed during the 
conference : 

(1) "The Preparation of Town Planning 

Schemes," by J. E. Wilkes, member, 
town planning engineer. Dunfermline. 

(2) " Legal Aspects of Town Planning," by 

J. L. Jack, town clerk, Dunfermline. 

(3) " Description of Birmingham Schemes," 

by H. E. Stilgoe, m.inst.c.e., member, 
city engineer, Birmingham. 

(4) " Early Examples of Town Planning in 

the City of Edinburgh," by A. H, Camp- 
bell, m.inst.c.e., member, city engineer, 
4.30 p.m. — Conference adjourns. 

7.30 p.m. — Dinner to the council and past-presidents 
of the institution by the invitation of the 
mayor at the Royal Assembly Room, .\lbert- 

.IrtY n. 1013. 



Thursday, Juhj 17th. 

Section 2. 

Chairman— Mr. J. S. Pickering, m.inst.c.e. 


10 a.m.— Conference resumed. 

(5) " Cities Beautiful by the Sea," by J. S. 
Brodie, m.inst.c.e., member, borough 
engineer, Blackpool. 
(G) "The Small Dwellings Acquisition Act. 
1899," by J. L. Redfern, member, borough 
surveyor, Gillinghani, Kent. 

(7) "iTlie Housing Question," by Reg. Brown, 
M.INST.C.E., member, surveyor to the 
Southall-Norwood Urban District Council. 

(8) "Factors Causing Bad Housing," by 

G. H. Hartfree, member, surveyor to the 
Alton Urban District Council. 

(9) " Description of Town Planning Schemes 

and Housing in Sheffield," by C. F. Wike, 
M.INST.C.E., member, city surveyor, 

(10) "A Description of the Ruislip-Northwood 
Town Planning Scheme," by W. Louis 
Carr, member, engineer and surveyor to 
Ruislip - Northwood Urban District 

12.45 p.m. — Luncheon to members and their ladies 
and delegates at the invitation of the mayor 
at Goode's Assembly Rooms, Marine Parade. 

2.30 p.m. — Conference resumed in the assembly 

Annual Meeting. — Roads Section 3. 
Chairman— The President. 
2.30 p.m.— The following papers upon road matters 
(which will be taken as read) will lie di.s- 
cussed in a committee room of the town 
hall: — 

(11) "Road Maintenance and Improvement- 
Present and Future," by H. Collins, 
ASSOC. m.inst.c.e.. member, deputy city 
engineer, Norwich. 

(12) "Road Maintenance — Present and 
Future," by C. Vawser, Assoc. m. 
iNST.c.E.i., member, engineering assistant, 
Herts County Council. 

(13) "Road Maintenance — Present and 
Future," by H. F. Gullan, m.inst.c.e., 
member, superintendent of works, Bel- 

(14) "Road Maintenance — Present and 
Future," by S. J. Harpur, member, engi- 
neer and surveyor to the Maesteg Urban 
District Council. 

(15) "Modern Road Maintenance," by R. 
Drummond, member, county road sur- 
veyor, Renfrewshire. 

(16) "Road Construction and Maintenance 
under Modern Traffic," by W. J. Had- 
field, member, deputv city surveyor, 

(17) Drainage as Affecting Highway Traffic," 
by W. Gregory, member, district .sur- 
veyor, Herts County Council. 

(18) " Damage to Macadamised Roads by 
Mechanically - propelled Vehicles," by 
H. T. Wakelam, m.inst.c.e., member, 
county engineer, Middlesex. 

4..30 p.m. — Town planning conference closes. 

4.30 p.m. — Road section adjourns. 

0.30 p.m. for 7 p.m. — Reception in the minor hall. 
Royal Aquarium, by the president and Mrs. 

Annual dinner in the minor hall. Ladies 
are especially invited to be present. 
Friday, July 18th . 

10 a.m. — The following paper (which will be taken 
as read), and any road papers not reached 
on the previous afternoon, will be dis- 
cussed: — 

(19) "Dry-weather Flow of Sewage," by S. S. 
Davson, member. Ministry of Public 
Works, Cairo. 

Adjournment for lunch. 
2. .30 p.m. — Visit to the works of the water company 
at Ormesby Broad, by invitation of Sir 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, p.R.s.(the chairnianX, 
and the directors of the Great Yarmouth 
Water Company. Tea will be served in the 
grounds. Works are in progress at Ormesby 

Home " at 
Great Yar- 

,-..30 p 
9.1.-) a 

2.10 p 

consisting of subsidiary reservoir of 
capacity of 20,000,000 gallons. 
Mrs. " Cockrill will be "At 
"Northbury," 12 Euston-road, 
mouth, from 3.30 to 5.45 p.m. 

.m.— Arrive town hall. 

Saturday, July 10th. 

in.— Assemble at Beach Station, Midland and 
Great Northern Railway, and proceed to 
Potter Heigham, where launches will be 
entered for a trip over the Broads. Re- 
freshments will be served on board. Boats 
can only be obtained for 200, an early 
notice should therefore be given. 

.m.— A special train will be at Wroxham Sta- 
tion to convey members to Brundall on the 
river Yare. 

The party will visit the grounds and 
gardens of the "Banks of the Yare" 
estate, where members are invited to after- 
noon tea by the proprietors, IMessrs. 
Boulton & Paul. 

The members will disperse at Brundall. 
To this point the president is providing all 
tickets and other accommodation. 

Exhibition of Plans and Models.— An exhibition 
of plans and models of town planning schemes, 
kindly lent by members and others, will be held 
during the meeting in the town hall. 

Chas. Jones, m.inst.c.e., 

Hon. Secretary. 

Town Planning Competition. 
Mr. Thomas Adams, town planning assistant. 
Local Government Board, has kindly consented to 
act as assessor in the competition to be held in con- 
nection w-ith the conference. Drawings for the com- 
petition should be sent in forthwith to Mr. J. W. 
Cockrill, borough surveyor. Great Yarmouth. 


A meeting of the institutrion will be held in the 
North-Eastern District at Harrogate on Saturday, 
October 4th. 

Thomas Cole, 

92 Victoria-streot, S.W. Secretary. 


Official and similar advartlsementa received up to 4,30 p.m. on 
Thursdays will be Inserted In the following: day's issue, but thou 
rttvomihlt for llteir deipalch art recommcniei to arranqe that the) 
ihall reach The Scsvkyoe office bt/ noon on Wednesdays to ensure 
their inclurion in the veekly list of titmmaries. Such adoertiaemente 
may, in ea$ea of emergenoy only, be tele^jhoned {No, 1369 Holborn), 
subject to later confirmation by tetter. 

ROAD FOREMAN.— July 12th.— Reigate Rural 
District Council. 28s. per week. — Mr. A. J. Head, 

ROAD FOREMAN.— July 12th.— Hornsey Town 
CouncU. £2 5s.— £2 10s.— Mr. E. J. Lovegrove, 
borough engineer. 

ROAD SURVEYOR.— July 12th.— For the Western 
District Committee of the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright 
County Council. £130 per annum, with £10 for 
upkeep of cycle, and £5 for office rent. — Mr. W. 
McConnel, district clerk, Gatehouse of Fleet. 

— Corporation of Richmond (Surrey). £90 — £130. — 
Mr. H. Sagar, town clerk. 

SURVEYOR'S ASSISTANT. — July 12th. — Cor- 
poration of Bath. £80— £12.^.— Mr. F. D. Wardle. 
town clerk. 

SURVEYOR.— July 14th.— Bettws-y-Coed Urban 
District Council. £75 per annum. — Mr. S. Jones, 
clerk, Watling-street, Llanwrst. 

ROAD FOREMAN.— July 15th.— Aldershot Urban 
District CouncU. 37s. 6d. — 45s. per week.— Mr. F. E. 
Uren, surveyor. 

poration of Birmingham. £1.50 per annum. — Mr. 
Henry E. Stilgoe, city engineer and surveyor. 

HIGHWAY SURVEYOR.— July 16th.— Hinckley 
Rural District CouncU. £100 per annum. — Mr. John 
W. Preston, clerk. 

Hinckley Rural District Council. £120 per annum.— 
Mr. John W. Preston, clerk. 



July 11. l!ii:i 

poration of Coventry. £150 and £80 per annum.— 
:Mr. J. E. Swindlehurst, city engineer and surveyor. 

July 17th.— Corporation of Daventi-y.— Mr. Frederick 
Willoughby, town clerk. 

Hitchin Rural District CouncU. £120— £150.— Mr. 
A. E. Passingham. clerk. 

ROAD FOREM.AN.— July 19th.— Repton Rural 
District Council. 30s. per week.— Mr. C. F. Chamber- 
lin, clerk, Union Offices, Burton-on-Trent. 

—July 21st.— Milton Regis Urban District Council. 
.i;175 per annum. — Mr. John Dixon, clerk, Town Hall, 
Miltun Regis, Kent. 

HIGHWAYS FOREJIAN. — July 22nd. — Hasle- 
mere Urban District Council. 27s. per week.— ISIr. 
A. G. Whitaker, clerk. 

ASSISTANT ENGINEERS (first, second, and 
third).— Julv 25tli.— Corporation of Sheffield Water 
Department' £300, £200, and £150 a year respec- 
tively. — Mr. William Terrey, general manager. Water- 
works Office, Town Hall. 

1st.— Municipality of Alexandria.— The Director- 
General of the Municipality. 

COSTS CLERK.— For the Sheffield Corporation 
AVater Department.— Mr. William Terrey, general 
manager, Town Hall. 

ment. £200— £230.— Crown Agents for the Colonies, 
Whitehall-gardens, London, S.W. 

ASSISTANT ENGINEER.— Public Works Depart- 
ment of British Guiana. £600 a year, with travelling 
expenses and subsistence allowance when absent from 
station. — Crown Agents for the Colonies, Whitehall- 
gardens, London, S.W. Quote M. 6,071 on left-hand 
top corner of application. 

District Council. 37s. 6d. per week. — Mr. AV. Sugars, 
engineer and surveyor. 


Official and similar advertisements reoelved up to 4.30 p.m. on 
Thursdays w.ll be inserted In the following day's Issue, 4ii( thote 

rtltoniMe for Iheir dttpatc}i are ricommeniei to arrangi thai Ihty 
ihall rrach Th« Soetitok cfflee iy >!"-»i on Wednesdays to eniuri 
lh,ir inctutioa in Ihf KeMy Htt of tammariet. Such adcerttiementt 
■my, in aatai of cmirgtney only, he teleyhoned (JV'o. i3o9 Rolborn), 
lubjeet to later confirmatton by letter. 

LIVERPOOL.— July 24th.— Designs for a • sana- 
torium of 250 beds. Premiums, 150, 100 and 50 guineas. 
— Mr. Edward R. Pickmero, town clerk. 

CHEPPING WYCOMBE.— September 1st.— Design.^ 
for town-planning the borough and an area imme- 
diately adjoining. Premiums, £25, £10 and £5.— 
Mr. T. J. Rushbrooke, borough surveyor. High 


Orfloial and similar advertisements reoelved up to *,30 p.irt on 
Thursdays will be inserted In the following day's issue, but thou 

retvoniible for their ietyatch are recommtniei to arrange that they 
thall reach Thi Susvktok ogiae by noon on Wednesdays to enture 
their inclution ia the iceekly Hit of lummariei. Such aicertiiementi 
tiay, i» eatei of emergency only, be telei'honed {Xo. 1359 Holborn), 
tuhieci to later runfirmalion iiv letter. 


MID-LOTHIAN.— July 11th.— For the erection of 
a police station, for the county council. — Mr. R. M. 
Cameron, architect, 53 Great King-street, Edinburgh. 

KINGSTON - UPON - THAMES.— July 12th.— For 
repairs to a school, for the corporation. — Mr. R. 
Hampton Clucas, borough surveyor. 

PADDINGTON.— July 12th.— For the construction 
of abutments, with steps and appurtenant works of 
new footbridge, construction of steel work of footbridge 
over canal, or with ferro-concrete, for tlio borough 
council. — Mr. E. B. B. Newton, borough surveyor. 

MIDLETON (Co. Cork).— July 12th.— For sinking 
a well and erecting a pump, for tlie rural district coun- 
cil. — Mr John Stanton, clerk. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE.— July 12th.— For the 
erection of a school, for the Education Committee. — 
Messrs. Harrison & Ash, architects. 

HEREFORDSHIRE C.C— July 14th.— For the 
erection of a secondary school for girls at Hereford, 
for the county council. — Mr. G. H. Jack, county sur- 
veyor and architect, Shire Hall, Hereford. 

HEREFORD.— July 14th.— For the erection of a 
girls' school, for the Education Committee. — Chairman 
of the Education Committee, Shire Hall. Hereford. 

TWICKENHAM.- July 14th.— For the erection of a 
school, for the urban district council. — Mr. F. W. 
Pearce, surveyor. 

MIDDLETON. — July 14th. —For extensions to 
council school, for the corporation. — Mr. W. Welburn, 
borough surveyor. 

NORTH BERWICK.— July 14th.— For buOding 
new gas offices, for the corporation. — Burgh Surveyor. 

WILLESDEN.— July 14th.— For the erection of an 
electricity sub-station, for the urban district council. — 
Mr. A. W. Blake, electrical engineer. 

WEST RIDING.— July 15th.— For the erection of a 
police station, for the Standing Joint Committee. — 
The Architect, County Hall, Wakefield. 

MOUNTAIN ASH.— July 15th.— For carrying out 
Contracts Nos. 5, 6, and 7, of the Abercyon water 
scheme, for the urban district council. — Mr. AV. G. 
Thomas, surveyor. 

AVALTHAMSTOAV.— July 15th.— For repairs and 
improvements at public schools, for the Education 
Committee. — Mr. H. Prosser, architect. 

MANCHESTER.— July I.5th.— For the erection of 
public washhouse and baths, for the corporation. — 
City Architect, Town Hall. 

ST. AUSTELL.— July 15th.— For building twenty- 
two houses, for the urban district council. — Mr. E. I). 
Groves, engineer and surveyor. 

KIRKCALDY^- July loth.— For the construction of 
a reservoir, for the District Committee. — Alessrs. .7. it 
A. Leslie & Reid, 72a George-street, Edinburgh. 

OYSTERMOUTH.— July loth.— For the construc- 
tion of storage tank and chamber, and laying water 
mains, for the urban district council. — The Surveyor. 

LEEDS. — July 16th. — For iron copings and pali- 
sades required in the erection of boundary walls, 
palisading, and formation of plaj'ground, for the 
Education Committee. — Education architect, Calverley- 
street, Leeds. 

EDINBURGH.— July 16th.— For the erection of 
public washhouses, for the corporation. — Mr. 3. A. 
AA'illiamson, Public AA'orks Office, City-chambers. 

CUAIBERLAND.— July 16th.— For the construction 
of a stone bridge, and road improvement, for the 
county council. — Mr. AA'. Finch, county surveyor and 
bridgemaster. The Courts, Carlisle. 

HOLLAND.— July 16th.— For the erection of a 
public school, for the Education Committee. — Mr. 
E. J. A. Christie, county architect, JIarket-place, 
Boston, Lines. 

GUILDFORD.— July 17th.— For the erection of 
shedding at the market, for the corporation. — Mr. 
C. G. Mason, borough engineer. 

CHELMSFORD.— July 17th.— For the erection of 
sixteen cottages, for the rural district council. — Mr. 
G. F. Andressy, architect. Bank-chambers, Clielmsford. 

CROY'DON. — July 17th. — For repairs and improve- 
ments to schools, for the Education Committee. — Mr. 
J. Smyth, clerk, Katherine-street, Croydon. 

AVEST RIDING.— July 17th.— For repairs to public 
schools, for the county council. — Air. T. Graham, 
Education Offices, Obelisk-chambers, Barnsley. 

ISLINGTON.— July ISth.— For the erection of a 
greenhouse at the cemeteiy. East Finchley, for the 
corporation. — Mr. Patten Barber, borough engineer. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE.— July 18th.— For repairs to 
schools, for the Education Committee. — Mr. R. S. 
Phillips, architect. Shire-hall. Gloucester. 

STAFFORD.— July 19th.— For the construction of 
120 houses, for the corporation. — Air. AA'. Plant, 
borough engineer and surveyor. 

EDINBURGH.— July 19th.— For the extension of 
public washhouses, for the corporation. — Mr. J. A. 
AA'illiamson, Public AA'orks Office, City-chambers. 

.TuLV H, 1913. 



HAMBLEDON.— July 19tli.--Foi- pulling down an 
old bridge and rebuilding a new bridge, for the luial 
district council. — The Surveyor. 

DERBY.— July 21st.— For alterations to schools, 
lor the Education Couunittee. — Mr. (J. H. Widdows, 
architect to tlie committee, County < )flices, St. Maiy's- 
gate, Derby. 

MONAGHAN.— July 22nd.— Fur ihe cunsliu(ti..n 
of works of water supply, for tlie urban district 
council. — Messrs. Swiney & Croasdaile, engineers, 
Avenue-thambers, Belfast. 

EALING.— July 22nd.— For the pxleusion of the 
town hall, for the corporation. — Mr. Charles Junes, 
borough engineer. 

■\VORCESTERSHIKE.— July 2.)th.— For the con- 
struction of a brick bridge of four arches over tlu' 
Bow brook, near Defford. for the cuunfy council.- 
Mr. C. F. Gettings, comity surveyor. 

SOiMERSET.— July 2«th.— Fur lengthening Iw.. 
arches of bridges in reinforced concrete, taking down 
and rebuilding masonry walls, and general repairs, 
and rebuilding a bridge with concrete abutments 
small span reinforced concrete arch, masonry walls, 
and road \york, for tlie county council. — Mr. H. T. 
Chapman, county surveyor, Wells. 

HUDDERSFIELD.— July 2(Jth.— For the erection 
of twenty-two workmen's dwellings, for the corjioi-a- 
tion. — Mr. K. F. Campbell, borough engineer and 

NEATH.— July 2(ith.— For additions to publir 
schools, for the Education Committee. — Mr. D. M. 
Jenkins, borough engineer. 

SOMERSET.— July 26th.— For rebuilding Townend 
bridge and widening the main road in Cioscorabe 
village, for tlie county council. — Mr. H. T. Chapman, 
county surveyor, AY el Is. 

WEST SUSSEX.— July 28th.— For the erection of 
a school, and additions to a school, for the Joint 
Education Committee. — Mr. II. P. Roberts, county 
education architect, Thurloe House, High-street, 

SHEERNESS.— July 29th.— For the construction 
of a covered service reservoir, settling and clear water 
tanks, and approach roads, and sinking a borehole, 
for the urban district council. — Mr. F. W. S. Stanton, 
engineer, 3 Victoria-street, Wi'stminstcr. 

Iron and Steel. 

ECCLES.— July 12th.— For the erection of eiigiiu'- 
room, supply of machinery parts and cast-iron pipes, 
and supply of gas engine and suction producer gas 
plant, for the Sewage Disposal Committee. — Mr. G. W. 
\Villis, sewage works engineer. Peel Green-road, 

OUNDLE.— July 12th.— For providing and layin- 
4-iii. and 3-in. cast-iron water mains with valves and 
hydrants, tor the rural district council. — Messrs. G. fc 
F. W. Hodson, engineers. Bank Chambers, Lnujh- 
1)0 rough. 

BROWNHILLS.— July 14th.— For the supply, erec- 
tion, and maintenance for twelve months of gas engine, 
suction gas plant, and three throw pump, capable of 
lifting 22,500 gallons per hour, for the urban district 
council. — Mr. Robert Green, 37 Waterloo-street, 

MANCHESTER.— July 15th.— For the supply of 
450 tons of cast-iron pipes, for the gas department. — 
Mr. F. A. Price, superintendent. Town Hall. 

FIFE.— July 15th.— For the supply of 1,000 tons of 
cast-iron pipes and special castings in connection with 
Kirkcaldy waterworks, for the District Committee. — 
Messrs. J. & A. Leslie & Reid, 72a George-street. 

TORQUAY.— July 17th.— For the supply of approxi- 
mately 4 miles of steel pipes, for the Gas Committee. — 
The Engineei'. 

ECCLES.— July 21st.— For the supply and fixing 
of mechanical stokers, for the corporation. — Borough 
Electrical Engineer. 

THURNSCOE.— July 21st.— For providing and 
laying a C-in. weldless steel tube water main, for the 
urban district council. — Mr. J. Ledger Hawksworth, 
clerk, Bolton-upon-Dearne, Eotherham. 


STOURBRIDGE.— July 12th.— For paving 1,370 sq. 
yds. of the High-street with creosote deal blocks, and 

relaying 030 sq. yds. of existing blocks, for the urban 
district council. — Mr. Frank Woodward, surveyor. 

.\TCH.\M.- July 12tli.— For the hire of a 10-toii 
steam roller, for the rural district council, — Mr, V,. I', 
Iv.eiest, clerk, St, Johii'.s-hill, Slii-pw.slniry. 

HERTS.— July 14th.— For works of paving and 
kerbing, for the county council. — Mr. Urban A. Smith, 
county surveyor, Hatfield. 

BURY. — July 14tli. — For making up certain streets, 
for the corporation. — Borough Engineer and Surveyor. 

For the construction of roads and sewers, for the urban 
district council. — Mr, A, .1. Rousell, surveyor. 

BEXHILL. — July 14th. — For making up and widen- 
ing a road, for (he corporation. — Mr. P. H. Palmer, 
borough engineer. 

LEEDS.— July 14th.— For works of paving and 
flagging, for the Highways Committee. — City EngincL-r. 

PENCE.— July 14th.— For resurfacing with asphalt, 
macadam, bituminous ground granite, or tarred slag 
macadam, Clarina-road, Evelin-road, Melvin-road, 
Ridsdale-road, and Arpley-road, fur the urban district 
couiu'il. — Mr. H. W. Longdin, surveyor. 

WATFORD.— July 15th.— For the supply of 4,9.'50 
tons of broken granite chippings and dust, for the ui-ban 
district council. — Mr. D. Waterhouse, engineer and 

BUSHEY.— July 15th.— For making up Part II. of 
Belmont-road, under the Private Street Works Act. — ■ 
l\Ir. Ernest E. Ryder, surveyor. 

MORDEN.— July 15th— 25th.— For highway improve- 
ment works, and making up, for the urban district 
council. — Mr. G. Jerram, surveyor. 

WILLESDEN. — July 15th. — For asphalt road- 
making and paving works, for the urban district 
council. — Mr. <), Claude Robson, engineer, Dyne-road, 

BIRMINGHAM.— July 15th.— For laying wood and 
granite pavements, for the coi-poration. — Mr. Henry 
E. Stilgoe, city engineer and surveyor, 

WHEATLEY.— July 15th.— Fur private street 
works, for the urban district council. — Mr. .1. 
Simmons, surveyor. 

MONMOUTH.— July 16th.— For main road improve- 
ment, for the county council. — Mr. W. Tanner, county 

CASTLEFORD.— July 17th.— For works of street 
improvement, for the urban district council. — Mr. W. 
Green, surveyor. 

CROYDON.— July 17th.— For laying approximately 
0,970 super, yds. of soft wood paving in Purley, and 
approximately 7,280 yds. super, in London-road, 
Mitcham, for the rural district council, — ]\fr. Robert 
Chart, junr., surveyor. 

PRESTON.— July 18th.— For paving and flagging, 
for the corporation. — Borough Surveyor. 

ROTHERHAM.— July 19th.— For making up a road, 
for the corporation. — Mr. E. B. Martin, borough 

CHADDERTON.— July 19th.— For making up 
certain streets, for the urban district council. — The 

BROMLEY'.— July 21st.— For the su|)ply of granite 
and basalt, for the corporation, — Mr. F. H. Norman, 
town clerk. 

WANDSWORTH.— July 21st.— For making up and 
paving part of Y'ork-road, Springfield, for the borough 
council. — Mr. P. Dodd, borough engineer. 

BACUP.— July 21st,— For work of paving, for the 
corporation. — JMr. AV. H. Elce, borough surveyor. 

ILKESTON.— Jul,y 22nd.— For making up Heanor, 
Burns, Green, Whitworth, Westwick, and Nesfield 
roads, and three avenues off Stanton-road, for the 
corporation. — Mr. H. J. Kilfoi'd, borough surveyor. 

LONDON.— July 22nd.— For making up a street, 
for the county council. — The Architect. 

MAESTEG.— July 22nd.— For private street works, 
for the urban district council. — Mr. S. J. Harpur; 

HASLEMERE.— July 22nd.— For 350 tons of 1^-in. 
broken granite, for the urban district council. — Mr. 
Howard V. Snook, surveyor. 

FEATHERSTONE.— July 26th,— For private street 
work, for the urban district council.— Mr, S. Chesney, 
engineer and surveyor. 



July 11, 191.3. 

WEST SUSSEX.— July 2.8tli.— Foi- (ar-paviiig j.lay- 
grounds, for the Joint. Education Cuniiuitlfc. — Mr. 
Hadyn P. Roberts, county education arcliilert, Tliurlof 
House, High-street, Woithing. 

WITHA]\r.— July 2Sth.~For the hin- ,.f steai.i roller 
and scarifier, for tlie urban district council. — -Mr. W. 
Hiiulon Blood, clej-k. 

BARKIN(J.— July L'9th.— For laying creosoted deal 
and granite paving, for tlu' uriian distriii louucd. — 
Mr. C. S. Dawson, suivcyoi. 


STAINES.— July 12tli.— For laying cast-iron pipe 
sewers and appurtenances, for the urban district 
council. — Mr. E. J. Barrett, engineer and surveyor. 

BROWNHILLS.— July IJth.— For relaying stone- 
ware pipe sewer and alterations to existing tanks at 
Mosspits, for the urban district council. — Mr. Robirt 
Green, 37 Waterloo-street, Birmingham. 

ALNWICK.— July 14tli.— For laying socketed 
earthenware pipes, for the rural district council. — 
Mr. H. W. AValton, clerk. 

LEEDS. — July 14th. ^ — For sewering, draijiing, and 
kerbing streets on new estates, and other sewer and 
drainage works for three years, for the corporation. — 
Mr. AV. T. Lancashire, city engineer. 

GREETLAND.— July Uth— 19tli.— For the extension 
of the cast-iron sewer, for the urban district council. — 
Messrs. C. Williams & Sons, Post Office-buildings. 
Commercial-street. Halifax. 

DUNDEE.— July 14th.— F(n' work of sewerage, for 
the corporation. — Mr. J. Thomas, citj' engineer. 

DUBLIN. — July loth. — For the extension of uTider- 
ground conveniences, for the corporation. — Mr. M. .T. 
Buckley, borough surveyor. 

BELFAST.— July 15th.— For the construction of 
glazed earthenware pipe sewer, for the corporation. — 
City Surveyor. 

(iOSFORTH.— July 15th.— For work of scavenging, 
for the urban district council. — Inspector of Nuisances. 

WINSFORD.— July 16t.h.— For work of sewerage, 
for the urban district council. — The Surveyor. 

WHARFEDALE.— July 17th.— For the construction 
of sewerage, for the rural district council. — Mr. E. J. 
Silcock, engineer, 10 Park-iow, Leeds. 

SKIPTON.- July 18th.— For the of 
stoneware pipe sewers and manholes, for the rnr;il 
district council. — Mr. A. Kodwell, surveyor. 

HAMBLEDON.— July 19th.— For work of cleansing 
and scavenging, for the rural district council. — The 
Clerk, 138 High-street, Guildford. 

LEEDS. — July 21st. — For constructing a sewer, for 
the corporation. — Mr. W. T. Lancashire, city engineer. 

MANCHESTER.— July 21st.— For the construction 
of main drainage work. No. 2a (new outfall sewers. 
Davyhulme to Chorlton-cum-Hardy). for the Rivers 
Committee. — City Surveyor. 

LEIGH-ON-SEA.— July 22nd.— For the construction 
of sewers, for the urban district council. — Mr. J. W. 
Liversedge, engineer. 

DONCASTER.— July 22nd.— For the con.stru.tion of 
sewerage and sewage disposal works, for the rural 
district council. — Mr. W. R. Crabtree, surveyor. 

ST. AUSTELL.— July 23rd.— For the supply of 
glazed stoneware socket drain pijies. for the rural 
district council. — Mr. A. J. Blight, highway surveyor. 

CAERPHILLY.— July 2;ird.— Fur the ]„'oNision, 
laying and jointing of about 800 yds. of 15-in. and 
12-i!i. cast-iron pipe sewers, and about 5,000 yds. of 
15-in., 12-in., and S-in. stoneware pipe sewei-s. witli 
manholes, also the construction of liquefying and 
storm-water tanks, bacteria beds, humus tanks, sludge 
beds, and approach road and bridge, for the corp<na- 
tion. — Mr. A. O. Harpur, surveyor. 

STOCKPORT.— July 24th.— For sewering and 
paving works, for the corporation.— Mr. John 
Atkinson, borough surveyor. 

DRIFFIELD.— July 29th.— For laying pipe drain 
and manholes, for the rural district council.— Mr. T. 
Casson Beaumont, surveyor. 

MADRAS.— September 9tli.— For the supply'aiid de- 
livery of English stoneware pipes and specials, vary- 
ing from 4 in. to 21 in. internal diameter, and acgre- 
gating a total length of about 143 miles, for the" cor- 
poration .—Messrs. James Mansergh & Sons, asents. 
5 Victoria-street, Westminster, S.W. 

STANLEY (Durham).— For the construction of a 
settling tank, for the urban district council. — Mr. A. 
Routledge, surveyor. 

MATLOCK.— For the supply of about 5,700 cube 
yards of good, hard, cleitn and gauged clinker for 
bacterial percolating filters, for the urban district 
council.— Messrs. James Diggle & Son, 14 Victoria- 

strest, Westminster, S.W. 


BROMLEY. — July 14th. — For painting and tar- 
paving at schools, for the Education Committee. — Mr. 
Fred. H. Norman, clerk. 

ISLINGTON.— July 18th.— For the installation of 
a heating apparatus to a greenhouse at the cemetery, 
for the corporation. — Mr. J. Patten Barber, borough 


The Editor invites the cu-operatinn of Surveyor readers 
with a view to making tlie information giuen under this 
liead as complete and accurate as iiossihle. 

' Accepted. t Recommended for acceptance. 

AN DOVER.— For paving work, for tlie corporation.— Mr. 
R. W. Knapp, borough surveyor : — 

Bourne & Jenkinsou, London-street, Audover, £78. 

BEDWELLTY. — For laying sewers and surface-water drains, 
for the urban district council. — Mr. D. H. Price, 
surveyor ; — 


Shand & Jones, Brecon 

E. Rees. Whitchurch. Cardiff 

.T. B. Parker. Hengoed 

T. Peml)ro. Gilfacb. Bargoed 

R. Webb. Abercyuon .. 

J. Duustaii. Blackwood* 


Shaud & Jones, Brecon.. 

E. Webb, Abercynon 

J. B. Parker, Hengoed . . 
J. Dunstan, Blackwood * 

i 1,405 







CUELMSFORD.— For the erection of stables, for the cor- 
poration. — Mr. 1*. T. Harrison, borotigh engineer : — 

J. C. Eglin & Co., Chelmsford £2.200 

F. J. French, Chelmsford 2,195 

Jolnison & Hawkes, Chelmsford 2,17S 

H. Potter. Chelmsford 2.125 

T. J. Bailey. Chelmsford 1.974 

Parren & Son, Earith, Hunts' 1,900 

up Abinger-road, for the urban 
Willis, engineer ; — 

Chiswick Hammersmith 

portion. portion. 

£767 £98 

895 138 

830 91 

F. G. Brummell' 
T. Free & Sons 

G. Wimpey & Co. 

Surveyor's estimate, £787 

DEVON. — For the erection of a new secondary school for 
208 inipils. at Newton Abbot, for the Devon County 
Education Authority. — Mr. P. Morris, county architect 
(education). Richmond-road, Exeter. — Quantities by Mr. 
S. W. Hanghton, George-street, Plymotith : — 

Parker Brothers, Newton Abbot . . 

A. R. Debnam. Plymouth . . 

Lapthorn & Co.. Plymouth . , 

E. P. Bovey & Son, Torquay 

F. J. Zealley & Son, Newton Abbot 
W. E. Blake. Limited. Plymouth 
Westcott. Austin tk White, Exeter 
H. C. Jackman, Torquay 

G. Setter & Son, Exeter 
G. B. Turpin. Plymouth 
H. Mills. Newton Abbot 
H. W. Pollard & Son. Bridgwater 
Wakeham Brothers. Plymouth 
S. Roberts. Limited. Plymouth 
N. Pratt & Sons. Clyst St. Mary 
W. H. Taylor, Teignmouth 

F. J. Badcock. Ashburton 

G. Pollard & Co., Limited. Tauntoji 


HINCKLEY,— For building twelve workmen's dwellings, for 

the urban district council. — Mr. E. H. Crump, engineer 

and surveyor ; — 

W. H. Crawley. Doneaster . . £2.795 

W. Slavell. Hinckley 2.132 

F. Bloxham. Hinckley 2.118 
.T. Mason. Hiucklev . . 2,058 
T, Garner, Hinckley 2.030 

G. Greaves. Hiucklev 1.998 
W. H. Littler, Trinit.v-laue. Hincklc.v 1.988 

ILKLEY. — For making up two streets, tor the urban district 
council. — Mr. T. H. Smith, surveyor : — 
Back Grove-koad. 

R. Navlor & Sons. Bradford £578 

L. T. Learoyd. llkley 442 

Surveyor's estimate, £372. 
WBinoN Croft-road. 

R. Navlor & Sons. Bradford £238 

G. H. Smith. llkley 234 

L. T. Learoyd. llkley .204 

Surveyor's estimate, £163. 
In both cases the surveyor received instructions to pro- 
ceed with the work. 

J II CI U, 1<J13. 



streets, for the corporation. — Mr. 

siirveyoi- : — 

W. Williams. Etruria, Stoke-on-Trent fl,0'27 

F. Barke & Son, Stoke-on-Trent . . 883 

W. Bullock, Oakhill, Stoke-on-Trent . . 833 

A. Bullock, Hartshill, Stoke-on-Trent 8.50 

Sanders <Ss Torrance, Broad-street, Hanley 818 

J. Taylor & Son, Basford, Stoke-on-Trent 846 

Borough engineer and surveyor's estimate, £910. 

NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYME.— For carrying out works of 
sewerage, for the corporation. — Mr. A. Pattison, horotigh 
surveyor : — 

F. G. Taylor, Newcastle, Stalls . . £390 

F. Barke & Son, Stoke-on-Trent . 575 
A. Bullock, Hartshill, Stoke-on-Trent 510 
W. Bullock, Oakhill, Stoke-on-Trent 539 
Sanders & Torrance, Broad-street, Hanley 532 
W. Williams, Etruria, Stoke-on-Trent 492 
J. Taylor & Son, Basford, Stoke-on-Trent ■ 189 

Borough engineer and surveyor's estimate, £570. 

NORTH BROMSGROVE.— For the construction of 1,000 yds. 
of 6-in., 7-in. and 9-in. diameter stoneware pipe sewers, 
manholes, overflow chamber, ventilating columns, and 
other works, for the urban district council. — Mr. T. Jones, 
surveyor : — 

J. White ax.imi 

vr. Thorpe 797 

A. T. Cowell 7.-,9 

Dukes & Co., Wolverhampton.. 710 

G. P. Trentham. Hancisworth 71.5 
Currall, Lewis & Martin, Birmingham 698 
Martin & Element, Smethwick " . . 675 

SOUTH SHIELDS.— For the construction of a piiblic con- 
venience and shelter, for the corporation. — Mr. L. Rose- 
veare, borough eutrineer ; — 

S. Sherifl & Sons, South Shields, £1,185. 

SOWBRBY BRIDGE.— For excavation and walling, tor tht 

urban district council. — Mr. G. Wrigley, engineer : — 

D. Rawson, Norland £961 

Hellewell & Shaw, Sowerby Bridge 577 

J. Staves, Sowerby Bridge . . 450 

D. Brook, Halifax * 361 

WALMEB. — For making-up work, for the urban district 

council. — Mr. H. W. Barker, surveyor ; — 

G. Griggs, Ramsgate .. £1.07.5 

Paramors, Limited, Margate 1,075 

G. H. Benne & Son, Deal . 918 

S. H. Jeflord, Walmer . . 839 

WANDSWORTH.— For repairs in part of Moyser-road, 
Streatham, for the borough council. — Mr. P. Dodd, borough 
engineer : — 

J. Mowlem & Co., Limited (£244 and 5 per cent above 
schedule prices for extras or omissions). t 

WILTS. — Accepted for auntial repairs to council schools. 
1913, for the county council.- Mr. J. G. Powell, count.v 
surveyor : — 

Atworth. — Beaven & Son, Bradford-on-Avon. 

Bromham. — Haslem & Son, Devizes. 

Bremhill. — .Sutton & Son, Calne. 

Brinkworth.— T. Gliflord, Brinkworth. 

Chippenham, Ivy-lane. — Moody & Barsted. ('hippenliam. 

Chippenham, Westmead (M.). — Gowen A Stevens, Ciiip- 

Chippenham. Westmead (I.). — Gowen & Stevens. Chippenham. 

Corsham, P. and I. — A. Skull, Corsham. 

Corsham, Pickwick. — A. Skull, Corsham. 

Corsham, Neston. — A. Skull, Corsham. 

Corsham, Methuen. — J. Eastmond, Corsham. 

Downtou. — C. Jenkins. Salisbury. 

Donhead, St. Mary. — Biddescombe & Co.. Lndwell. 

Donhead. Ludwell. — Biddescombe & Co.. Ludwell. 

Dilton Marsh. — Holdoway & Cockell. Westbury. 

Edington and East Coulston.— Holdoway & Cockell. West- 

Great Cheverill. — H. Smith. Great Cheverill. 

Highworth (I.).— J. Kilminster. Stratton. 

Highworth iM.). — J. Kilminster, Stratton. 

Luckington. — R. Sherborne & Sons, Luckington. 

Milton Lilbourne. — H. Spackman, Milton Lilbournc 

Pewsey (M.). — E. Howse, Pewsey. 

Purton.— J. James, Purton. 

Rodbourne Cheney. — Inge & Son, Swindon. 

Rod Cheney Ha.ydon. — Inge & Son. Swindon. 

Ramsbury (M.). — Hawkins & Co.. Ogbourne. 

Ramsbur.v Axford. — Hawkins & Co.. Ogbourne. 

Upper Stratton IB.). — J. G. Norman. Swindon. 

Upper Stratton (I.). — luge & Son, Swindon. 

Upper Stratton (G.).— J. G. Norman, Swindon. 

Lower Stratton 'I.). — Dymond & Son, Swindon. 

Stratton St. Margaret (M.i.— J. G. Norman, Swindim, 

Shalbourne Oxenwood— H. Greenwood, Hungerford. 

Trowbridge Newtown. — E. Linzey & Son, Trowbridge 

Wanborough. — M. Payne, Wanborough. 

Wroughton (G.). — J. Kilminster, Stratton. 

Wroughton (1.1. —Hawkins & Co., Ogbourne. 

Wootton Bassett.— Trow & Sons, Wootton Bassett. 

Westwood with Ilford — W. G. Brewer, Trowbridge. 

Malmesbury Secondary School. — A. Skull. Corsham. 

Trowbridge Adcroft Girls' School.— E. Linzey & Son. Trow 

WORCESTER.— Accepted for work of piling for a river 
promenade, for the corporation. — Mr. T. Gaink, eity 
engineer : — 

Hobrough & Co.. Southgate-street. Gloucester. 


9*cr*tari«« and othtrt will oblige by $ending 
ftrrthcoming mettingi. 

rlv n««c« fl/ dales of 

16-19.— Institution of Municipal ami County Engineers : 
Annual Meeting at Great Yarmouth. 



The Council invite applications for the appointment 
of an Inspector of Nuisances to be made at their Meeting 
to be held on Tuesday, the 29th July, lOl."., at No. 5 
Bancroft, Hitchin, at S p.m. 

The district has an area of about 59,865 acres and a 
poptdation of about 18,666. 

Candidates must not be less than 25 nor more than 
45 years of age. 

The salary will be £120 per annum, lising £10 per 
annum to a maximum of £150. 

Candidates must hold the Certificate of the Royal Sani- 
tary Institute, or a Certificate from some other similar 
examining body. 

The OEficer appointed will be required to perform all 
the duties of an Inspector of Nuisances mentioned or 
referred to in the General Order of the f ^ocal Govern- 
ment Board dated the l^Lli December, 1910, together 
with the Inspectiun of Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milkshops, 
and the duties of an Inspector under the Housing 
(Inspection of District) Regulations, 1910. He must 
reside in some central part of th^ district, and 'wiU be 
required to devute the whole of his time to the service 
of the Council, keep all necessary bo ks and accounts, 
and attend all Meetings of the Co'jncil. No allowance 
will be made for traxelling or other expenses, but the 
CV uucil will provide printing, stationery, and pcstages. 
The Inspector will share an ofiice with the Surveyor. 

The appointment will be made in the first instance for 
a period of twelve calendar months, and will be subject 
to the consent of the Lccal Government Board and to 
the provisions of the said General < Uder of the 1 'Ith 
December, 1910. 

Applications, on forms to be oblained from the Clerk, 
to be made in the Candidate's own handwriting, endorsed 
" Inspector," to be received not later than the 19th July, 


Dated this 2nd day of Jniy, lUlu. 

(By order of the Coimcil) 


5 Bancroft, Hitchin, Herts. (612) 



The Corporation of the City of Coventry are jrepared 
to receive applications lor the following appointments : — 

(1) An Engineering Assistant at a salary of .£15tl per 
annum. Candidates must be thoroughly qualified 
persons, not less than 25 years of age, an:l must have 
had experience in important general works of a Munici- 
pal Engineer's Office. 

(2) A Junior Engineering Assistant, at a salary of 
£80 per annum. Applicants for this appointment must 
have had experience in a Municipal Engineer's Office, 
and be good draughtsmen, and able to survey and level 

Applications, in Candidate's own handwriting, stating 
age and full details of experience, accompanied by 
copies of not more than three recent testimonials (which 
will not be returned), and endorsed " Engineering 
Assistant" or " .Tunior Engineering Assistant" as the 
case may be, to be sent to the undersigned not later than 
Wednesday, the 16th July, 1913. 

Canvassing, directly or indirectly, will be deemed a 

J. E. SWINDLEHUKST, minslcl., 

City Engineer and Surveyor. 
Saint Mary's Hall, 

July 2nd, 1913. (611) 


-L Wanted, a Working Foreiiuiu and Storekeeper 
to take cliarge of Road and Footpath Repairs, 
Scavenging, Sewer.<, itc, and to keep Stores' Account 
and Time Sheets. 

Applications, stating age, experience and salary 
required, to be sent, with eoijies of three recent testi- 
monials, on or before .Inly 17tli, 1913. to Frederick 
Willoughby, Town Clerk, Daventry. ' (599) 



juLv 11, utiy. 

The Hinckley Rural District Council invite appli- 
cations from qualified persons not under 30 years of 
age, for the appointment of — 

(a) Highway Surveyor. 
(6) Inspector of Nuisances. 
The Highway Surveyor's duties will include the 
Supervision, Maintenance and Control of the whole ot 
the Council's Roads, Sewers, Sewage Disposal " orks, 
Water Supplies, New Streets and Buildings, and the 
general routine work of a Surveyor's Department, 
including the keeping of all Wages Accounts and Store 

°The' successful Candidate will also be required to 
prepare all Plans, Quantities, Specifications, and 
Estimates in connection with his Department, and 
must reside in the District and provide a bicycle. 

The Salary will be £100 per annum, and the person 
appointed will be required to give security in an 
approved Guarantee Office for £200, and to devote the 
whole of his time to the duties, and not undertake 
any private work. 

The appointment will be terminable by one month s 
notice on either side. • , , 

The Inspector of Nuisances will be required to 
i)erform the duties of an Inspector under the Public 
Health Acts. Factory and Workshop Acts, Dairies, 
Cowslieds and Milk'shops Orders, Petroleum Acts. 
Canal Boats Acts, and th.. Council's By-Laws, to act 
as the Designated Officer under the Housing (Inspec- 
tion of Districts) Regulations, 1910, to superintend 
the Scavenging of all tire parishes in the District, and 
to carry out such other duties as the Council may from 
time til time direct. 

The District comprises 11 parishes, and about 
17,903 acres, with a population of about 13,830. 

The person appointed will be required to devote the 
whole of his time to the duties, and must not under- 
take priva'te work, and must reside in the District and 
provide a bicycle. 

Candidates must possess a Certificate of Competemy 
from the Sanitai-y Inspector's Examination Board, oi 
the Royal Sanitary Institute, and also have a thorough 
knowledge ol building and drainage plans. 

The Salary will be £120 per annum, and the appoint- 
ment will be subject to the approval of the Local 
Government Board. 

Applications lor either appointment in Candidate's 
own handwriting, stating age, and enclosing copies of 
three recent testimonials, to be sent to the undersigned, 
endorsed either " Highway Surveyor." or " Inspector." 
not later than noon on Wednesday, the Ifith .luly. 1013. 
No applicant can apply for both appointments. 
Canvassing, directly or indirectly, will disqualify the 


Clerk to the Council. 



July 1, vnii. 




The Urban District Council of Haslenierc invite 
applications from persons not exceeding 45 years of 
age for the post of working Highways Foreman, at 
a weekly salary of Twenty-seven Shillings. 

Candidates, who should be cyclists, must have had 
Iiractical experience in road tarring and the eoiistruc- 
lioa of highways with tarred niaeadani. They must 
also be competent to lay kerbing and paving, keep 
time-books, and generally supervise the work of con- 
struction, repair, maintenance and scavenging of high- 

Forms of application may be obtained iii>on receipt 
of stamped, addressed foolscap envelope. 

Applications, accomiianied by coiiies of three recent 
testimonials, must reach the undersi^'ned not later 
than 12 noon on Tuesday, the 22nd July, 1!»I.'!. 
(By order) 


Clerk to 111,. C.iniril. 
Town Hall, 

July '.) l'Ji:j. (028) 


The Water Committee invites applications for the 
appointments of First, Second, and Third Assistant 
Engineers in connection with the Construction, by 
administration, of two Reservoirs, one of a capacity 
of 1,050 million gallons, and the other of 562 million 

Salaries, £.3iiil, £200. and £150 resi)ectively. 

must be properly qualified and competent Engineers, 
and have had practical experience in the design and 
construction of impounding Reservoirs, with earth 
embankments, including the setting out of work 
and the control of men. 

THIRD ASSISTANT.— Applicants must be good 
Surveyors, and experienced in the preparation of 
plans and specifications for works of Reservoir Con- 

The persons appointed will be required to enter 
upon the duties at once, reside upon the works, and 
devote the whole of their time to the service of the 

Applications, stating age, qualifications, and expe- 
rience, accompanied with mpks of testimonials, and 
endorsed 1st. 2nd, or 3rd "Assistant Ewden Engi- 
neer," to be sent to me not later than Friday. 35th 

Canvassing will disqualify. 


General iManager. 

V.'alerwoiks Ottiec, 
Town Hall. 

July 5, l'.)13. (BIT) 


Sewage Works Foreman, 37s. 6d. per week. 

Particulars may be obtained on application to Mr. 

W. Sugars. Engineer and Surveyor. (620) 

WANTED, Experienced Surveyur as Tenipoi-aiy 
Assistant, for not less than 12 months, in a 
Municipal Engineer's Office ; be a good draughts- 
man, accurate surveyor and leveller, competent to ex- 
tend or revise the Ordnance Survey, and to prepare 
plans, sections, details, estimates. Salary at the rate 
of £120 per annum.— Apply to Box 1,269, office of The 
SvRVEYOR. 24 Bride-lane, Fleet-street, E.C., enclosing 
collies of testimonials. (625) 


ASSIST.\NT, 25, r.A.S.I., passed I. of Mun. A 
Cty. Engineers. ,\iticled to Architect and Sur- 
veyor. 8 years' expeiicnce, Building Construction. 
Steelwork : accurate draughtsman, surveying and 
levelling; supervision. — Box 1,268, office of The Srn- 
VEYOR, 24 Bride-lane. Fleet-street. E.C. (624) 


tendeks foi; granite. 

The L'lhaii District Council of Hasleiuere invito 
Tenders lor the supply and delivery of Three Hundred 
and Fifty Tons, more or less, of U-in. Broken Granite, 
to be supplied before September 29th next. 

Forms of Tender may he obtained from the iinder- 
.signed upon receipt of a stamped and addressed 
foolscap envelope. 

Tenders, endorsed " Tender for Granit«," must reach 
ine not later than 12 noon on Tuesdav, the 22nd Julv, 

The Council do not bind themselves to accei)t the 
lowest or any Tender, and reserve the right to allot 
the Contract as they think fit. 


Survevor to the Council. 
Town Hall, 
July 9, 19f.!. (()2'J) 

rhe Surveyor 

Hub flDuuicipal anb County Engineer. 

Vol. XLR' 

JULY 18, 1913. 

No. 1,122. 

Minutes of Proceedings. 

The development of motor ti'affic 
Recent Develop- in city streets lias tended to make 
"""watering* certain methods of street watering 
more effective tlian tliey would 
otherwise have been. The higher speeds of vehicles 
and the smaller diameters of the wheels have greatly 
increased the effect of the wheels in driving street 
dust to right and left of the vehicle, wliich means 
that the dust affected by two or more streams of 
traffic is rapidly driven towards the kerbs. 'I'lie 
effect of ci'oss winds is often more important, but it 
is less reliable. The traffic not only tends to drive 
the dust towards the kerbs, but it also tends to keep 
it there. The wind, on the other hand, may be so 
definitelj- a cross wind in one direction that it has 
a similar effect, but if it be a little too strong it 
may drive the dust over the kerb and on to tlie 
footway. Should it be changeable in direction — or, 
what amounts to the same thing within a city, 
changeable in force — it ma}- drive the dust away 
from the kei'b again and spread it about the 
cai-riageway. Since winds which are variable both 
in force and in direction often prevail in hot, sunny 
weather, it is desirable that the dust which has 
accumulated near the kerb should be dealt with as 
quickly as possible. Merely to sprinkle it is of 
little avail, and it would require a large foice of 
wateicarts to keep it constantly damp ; and it has 
been found much better to adopt one or other of two 
quite distinct means of dealing with it. One method 
is to use a laige quantity of water in such a way 
that the dust is driven close up to the kei-band is at the 
same time thoroughl}- wetted. In this case a single 
large spra^", like that irom the rose of a gardenei-'s 
water-can, is used, the distance at which the eai't is 
kept from tliekerb, and the angle at which tlie spray 
is dii'ected against the suiface of the road lieing 
such and so related that a strip of the required 
width is thoroughly wetted and cleared of dust. 
Sometimes the dust is driven towards tlie kerb, 
sometimes it is only sufficiently' damped to resist 
being blown about by tlie wind, being in the mean- 
time gradually moved towards the kerbs by the 
wheels of passing vehicles. If a sufficient quantity 
of water is used the dust may be driven right up 
against the kerb and carried along to the guUeys. 

Under other circumstances a different method is 
preferred. Instead of a spray, the cart is provided 
with a single jet of large bore, which bears down 
upon the road at a flat angle and at right angles to 
the direction of movement. The cart, or motor- 
wagon, is driven at such a speed that the front of 
the stream which is established alongside the kerb, 
is fed with material by the advancing jet, which 
drives the material into the diiect path of the 
stream. The dust and light, strawy material aie 
can-ied rajiidlj' along w-ith the stream, and is either 
deposited at the gullejs or carried down them. For 
this method to be effective on a flat gradient it is 

necessary that the cart should proceed steadily and 
rapidly, and this way of dealing with the dust 
cannot therefore be so well carried out in crowded 
streets as it is on wider thoroughfares with less 
traffic. At the same time it should lie noted 
that the deviation necessary to avoid a vehicle 
standing near the kerb does not prevent the jet of 
water from being effective, since it is directed with 
considerable force. The object of this brief note is 
to draw the attention of municipal engineers generally 
to a lu'actice which some of them have developed with 
considerable .success. The two methods together 
cover a wide range of conditions, for in each case 
we have three main variables — the rate at which 
the watei- flows from the nozzle, the angle at which 
the jet .strikes the roadway, and the speed of the 
vehicle. These suffice to make these methods adapt- 
able to varying conditions as regards gradients, the 
quantity and nature of the dust, and the density of 
traffic in a street. 

* * * 

_ . . 1 he recent case of JJuuulass v. 
with -^'''^^ ^''"*"" ^'''''^'^ Co«nci(noted 

Urban A^l'thorities. ^" ^''^.l* ^^'f,^ '^ .^^f^' f ^^l !%°* 
considerable interest. lirieiiy, 

this was the case of a claim by an engineer for 
services rendered to the iirban district council, as 
successors to the Ehyl Improvtment Commissioners, 
in preparing a valuation of Rhyl Pier and estimates 
for its repair and extension. The urban district 
council pleaded the absence of a pealed contract 
between them and the plaintiff'. Tliej' also alleged 
a verbal agreement hj the plaintiff' to accept a sum 
very much less than that claimed in the action, but 
this was denied by the plaintiff', and was disregai'ded 
by llr. Justice Joyce, who decided in tlie ])laintiff"s 
favour, upon the evidence afforded by the minutes 
of the resolution appointing him and the corre- 
spondence. A precedent for the decision was found 
in the case of Lawford v. Billen'rni/ Jiural iJistrict 
Couna^la^O■^. 1 K.i3., 77:2; The Sikvevuk, Vol. xxiii., 
p. 4-iS}. That case established a very important 
exception to the general rule of law that a contract 
with a coi'porate body of any kind must be undei- 
seal in t)ider to be binding, viz. : — That the absence 
of a .sealed contract is no answer to an action for 
work done whei-e the following state of things 
exists, viz : — (1) The woik is necessary for the pur- 
poses for which the coiporation was created ; (2) 
Orders are given by the corporation for the work to 
be done to carry into effect such purposes ; and (o) 
the work is accepted liy the corporation and the 
whole consideration for payment is executed. That 
case however, important as it is, only applies where 
there is no statutoiy enactment making it obligatoi-y 
to have a sealed contract. In the present case, the 
defendants being an ui-ban authority, it «iis con- 
tended that sec. 174 of the Public Health Act, 1875, 
applied. That section (it will be remembered) 



Jdly 18, 1913. 

pi'ovitles that with respect to contracts made by 
an urban autliority under that Act every conti-act 
made by an urban authority wliereof tlie value 
or amount exceeds £bO shall be in writing and 
sealed witli the common seal of such authority. 
At fiist sight this would appear to distinguisli 
the case from tlie Billeiicay case (wheic the 
defendants were a rural authority) and to be 
fatal to the plaintifF"s claim. Mi-. Justice Joyce, 
however, got over this difficulty by holding that the 
contract with the plaintiff was made by the council 
not as an urban authority but as successors to the 
Rhj-1 Improvement Commissioners and in exercise 
of their powers under the Rliyl Improvement Ac(s. 
Hence tlie Public Health Act did not apph', and the 
case was governed by Lau-fonl v. BiUeriaiy Itural 
District Council (nbi siqira). The distinction, it 
will be seen, is rather a fine one ; and, as obseived in 
the Snlicitor'e Journal for 2Sth June, "the liability of 
a local authorit}" should not depend upon the source 
of the powers under which they are acting. Either 
the relaxation of the rule requiring the seal should 
be possible in all cases or none." Although the 
engineer was thus successful in his action, it was as 
it were " by the skin of his teeth ; " and the moral 
to be drawn by engineers and surveyors who render 
services to local authorities is that they should take 
care in every case to have a sealed contract. 

* * * 

Tlie presidential address deliv- 
Institution gj.gj| ,3 j^jj. J ^y CockriU, 

°' """L^'Pf.' *"" M.TNST.c.K., at the annual meeting 

County Engineers , ., -. ',., ,. c -\t ■ ■ ^ 

gj 01 the Institution ot Miiiiicijial 

Great Yarmouth. "-"'^ County Engineers on Wed- 
nesday was a model of its kind, 
ina.smucli as it dealt with some of the most important 
topics of general interest to those who are engaged 
in municipal engineering woi'k at the present time. 
First of all there is the notable and gratifying reduc- 
tion in the death rate which has taken place in 
recent years. This is very direct evidence of much 
good work accomplished, but at the same time it 
should act as a stimulus to further eifort, inasmuch 
as medical authorities are universally of opinion 
that the lowest possible rate of niortalitj- has bj' no 
means yet been readied. If the best possible work 
is to be done in the future, however, it is essential 
that tliose whose administrative duties are likely 
to bring them into conflict with interested parties 
should be strengthened in independence by some 
guarantee of security of tenure. What has already 
been done by the liCgislature in the case of the 
medical oflicer of health and inspector of nuisances 
should also be done in regard to the surveyor. As 
Mr. Cockrill very truly pointed out, a high standard 
of professional fitness is the fii'st steji towards 
attaining Local Government Board recognition, and 
the appointment of unqualitied men must always be 
regarded with disfavour. The new jji-esident also 
had some very pertinent remarks to make upon the 
gigantic and ever-increasing expenditure of our local 
authorities, a matter in regard to which he made 
some interesting suggestions. Dealing with road- 
making, he pointed to" the great value of the Sidcup 
experiments, and endorsed the suggestion made by 
Colonel Crompton that annual reports of the sur- 
veyors should set forth full particulars as uniformly 
as possible, with the details as to materials, method's 
and costs, with summaries of practical results classi- 
fied according to amount and character of traffic. 
In concluding, Mr. Cockrill made a graceful refer- 
ence to the great success achieved by the institution 
under the leadership of his predecessor, Mr. R. J. 
Thomas, m.inst.c.e. We join with our readers in 
wishing 5Ir. Cockrill an equally successful year of 

The annual report of the institution is a record 
of a most successful year's work, and reveals the fact 
that not only is the financial position most satis- 
factory, but also that the membership at the present 
time is the largest in the history of the institution. 
The work which is accomplished by the institution I 

for the benefit of the members is bj' no means con- 
fined, to the meetings which are held in various 
centres for the discussion of papers .ind visits to 
municipal engineeiing works. Among the numerous 
matters in regard to wliich action has been taken by 
tlie council are the giving of advice as to pupilage 
and the acquisition of more commodious new offices. 
The council have also had under consideration the 
establishment of a mutual defence fund — a proposal 
which has aroused much interest. The reports of 
tlie district honoraiy secretaries which are iiicoi'- 
porated in the council's report show that much good 
work has been achieved under the revised constitu- 
tion. Altogether the piesent position of the institu- 
tion reflects great credit n|)on the president, the 
officers, and the council, who have been mainly 
I'esponsible for the success of the year's activities. 

In our last issue we reported in 

^"^at Leek*'"" 1'^^'* *^^® ^''^7 interesting meeting 
of the Institution of Municipal 
and County Engineers held recentlj- at Leek. The 
attendance was not a veiy large one, but, as was 
observed by Mr. Thomas Mason, J. P., the chairman 
of the district council, this was no doubt due to the 
geographical position of the town. In giving a 
cordial welcome to the members of the institution, 
Mr. Mason made a modest reference tn the possi- 
bilities of a town of the size of Leek from a muni- 
cipal engineering point of view. The value of visit.s 
to the smaller towns was, however, emphasised in 
the reply of the president, who very truly pointed 
out that, as the majority of the members represent 
the smaller towns, it is to them an education to go 
to towns of that size rather, possibly, than to the 
larger towns, ^\here the work is not so evident and 
the details are not so elaborately* planned. An 
excellent paper entitled "Leek and its Municipal 
Works '" was submitted to the meeting by Mr. W. E. 
Beacham, the town surveyor and water engineer. 
We complete the reproduction of this in our present 
issue, so that any extended comment is unnecessary. 
Tlie autlioi' first gave some account of the historj', 
geology, and statistics of the district, and of the 
important pait which the silk industry has played in 
its development. In regard to highway administra- 
tion, the substitution on the advice of Mr. Beacham 
of Leicester granite for the local stone macadam 
which had formerly been used was undoubtedly a 
wise act on the part of the council. Alany streets 
have been made up under section I-jO of the Public 
Health Act, 1876, and a great deal of work has 
been accomplished in the execution of important 
street improvements. The zeal of the district 
council foi- the welfare of the town is shown by the 
varietj' of woiks executed and undertakings that 
are being carried on by the council. Sewage dis- 
posal, water supply, gas and electricity supply are 
all in the hands of the council. The town also 
posses!5es a town hall, isolation hospital, cemetery, 
tire-engine station, allotments, two recreation 
grounds, two underground conveniences, public 
library, and public baths. When it is remembered 
that the population is estimated at 17,000, and 
that the total rates are only Gs. Sd. in the pound, 
it will generally be agreed that the town of Leek is 
to be congratulated on the efficient administration 
carried on by its council and engineer. 

It is expected that the State 
Highway ^f lUiuois will soon be numbered 

in lllfnois. among those in which the develop- 
ment of highways is carried out 
hy a central department, in this case contributing 
half the cost of constructing permanent roads and 
taking au active part in the work of road-making. 
At present the annual sum at the disposal of the 
State Highwaj- Commission is a very small one, 
but the new Bill, which has already passed the 
House of Representatives, provides for an imme- 
diate appropriation of £1-10,000 annually for the 
next two years, and for the appointment of a chief 

jur.T 18. i;in. 



engineer and an assistant. Pur contemporaiy 
Eiii/tneernig and Cuntiactinii points to tlie work 
already done by the pre.<!ent chief engineer and his 
staff as liaving placed the State in a position to 
liegin the work nf road-making " in an intelligent 
manner, and in a way that will avoid the mistakes 
made by some of the States when they began the 
building of State-aided roads." Those readers of 
Tub Surveyou who are specially studying highway 
developments in the United States shonjd turn to 
page 397 of our issne of Februarj- '28th last, and 
mark the date of to-day "s issue against the reference 
to Illinoi.o. Points that are worth attention arc 
that the Bill provides procedure imder which the 
county will take the initiative in establishing the 
now or improved roads, and that after the proposed 
work has been approved by the Commission it is to 
be taken under the control of the State, all contracts 
let by the State board and county board, acting 
jointly, being carried out \inder the direction of the 
Commission, I'epresentcd in each county by the 
county superintendent of highways. The principle 
of linking central and local administi'ation in this 
manner seems to be woi'thy of consideration in 
other countries. 

Among the sectional presiden- 

^r^.nt^^Ll**'*' *'i»l addresses which were deliv- 

Congress. i , ,i i c 

ered at the annual congress ot 

the Royal Sanitary Institute at Exeter last week 
were two which will appeal specially to municipal 
engineers. We refer to those of Mr. H. Percy 
Boulnois, M.lNST.c.K., who presided over the Engi- 
neering and Architecture Section, and Dr. George 
Reid, under whose chairmanship the Conference 
of Medical Officers of Health was held. The 
selection of Mr. Boulnois as president of this 
section was peculiarly appropriate, not onlj' by reason 
of his long and honourable service as a municipal 
engineer and with the Local Government Boai-d, 
hut also because the meeting of the c.mgress coin- 
cided with the fortieth anniversary of the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Boulnois as city surveyor of Exeter. 
The last occasion when the congress was held in 
Exeter was in 1S80, and the theme chosen by Mr. 
Boulnois for his address was the irayjrovements 
which have been made in sanitarj- engineering and 
ai'chitecture since that date. In an eloquent 
passage he declared that these sciences have no 
iinality, and that while we can look with some satis- 
faction on what has already been accouipli.shed, when 
we see the dirt and .squalor in which so large a pro- 
portion of our population .still live, we realise (hat 
up to the ]>resent we ha\e only just touched the 
fi'inge of the great problem before us. 

Dr. Reid's address was entii'ely devoted to a plea 
for the wholesale alxilitiou of the priv^- midden 
system in urban areas, and radical improvement in 
conservancy methods in rural areas where such are 
necessary. The adoptive clauses of the Public 
Health Acts (Amendment) Act, 1907, which deal 
with this matter are excellent as far as they go, but 
the evil to which Dr. Reid I'efened is so extensive 
that drastic compulsory j)owers are needed if it is 
to be adequately dealt with. It is astonishing fo 
reflect that the pail system is still in opeiatiou in a 
town like Wolverhampton, having close upon IOO,OOU 
inhabitants, if the Royal Sanitary Institute were 
to move towards securing legislation upon the lines 
suggested by Dr. lieid thej' would be adding one 
more to the many debts which the public already 
owe them for past services. 

deration as an 
Aid in Sewagre 

Various attem])ts Imve been 
made at different times to secure 
increased efficiency in sewage 
filters by artificial aeration. In 
so7ne cases air has been forced through the filters, in 
others it has been blown into the sewage itself, but 
none of these methods have come into general use. 
Definite experiments on similar lines were, however, 
commenced in April, 191-, at the Lawience Experi- 

ment Station of the Massachusetts State Board of 
Health, U.S. A , and the results are'now published in 
an article by Messrs. H. W. Clark and G. O. Adams, 
in a recent issue of the Knijinei^iinti Heconl. From 
the particulars given it appears that a current of air 
was either drawn or blown through the sewage before 
it was delivered to the filters, with the result that 
similar sand-filters, of the Massachusetts type, deal- 
ing with the same sewage, were capable of etficiently 
purifying from sixtoeight times asmuch sewage when 
it was aerated as without aeration. In the case of 
percolating filters aerated sewage could be treated at 
three times the rate of unaerated sewage. These 
results ai-e striking, but one thing is lacking, and 
that is the cost of the aeration. Although in the case 
of the percolating filters the period of aei'ation was 
reduced to six hours per day, it is obvious that the 
cost must be considerable and continuous, and it 
would be interesting to know how this annual outla}' 
for aeration, when capitalised, compares with the 
initial expenditure for filters capable of dealing with 
the same volume without aeration. 

The volume of aerated sewage dealt with by the 
percolating filter was about 43^1 gallons per cubic 
yard per day, and the aeiation was carr ed out in a 
tank containing slabs of slate placed about 1 inch 
apart. It is not clear whether these slabs are placed 
horizontally as in the Dibdin slate beds, or veriicall}- 
as the colloidors in the Travis hydrolj'tic tank, but 
it is stated that the slates and sides of the tank soon 
became covered with a compact brown growth which 
appeared to collect mechanically practically all the 
suspended and colloidal matter in the sewage. In 
the past the difficulty has been to devise an efficient 
method of aerating sewage, and as this system shows 
satisfactory results further details would be welcome. 

]\Ir. H. R. Hooper, the Local 
Profits from Goveinment Board inspector, has 
Undertakings. '^een tlropping a word m season to 
the Sheflield Corporation on the 
question of the disposal of the profits from muni- 
cipal undertakings. It is a much-debated point 
whether such surpluses should go to the reduction of 
the price of the commodity supplied, or whether the 
rates should reap the benefit. There aie enthusiasts 
— extremists they might be termed — on both sides 
who make use of some very ingenious ai-guments in 
support of their own particular views. Undoubtedly 
the temptation to vote profits in i'edu(^tion of the 
rates is popular with the oi'dinary citizen, and 
councillors who in the municipal sense live by leave 
of the po]>ular vote are prone to be thus tempted, 
even to the extent sometimes of being more than 
generous to the rates and less than just to the under- 
taking from which the mouey is dei'ived. Mr. 
Hooper was engaged in taking evidence with 
respect to a loan for electricity purposes, and he did 
not hesitate to range himself on the side of those who 
would keep the money earned by municipal under- 
takings for the development of such undertakings. 
There could, he said, be no greater benefit to a city 
than to give cheap power and cheap light. They 
were commodities which were the very life-blood of 
a manufacturing centre like Sheffield, for thei'e was 
no surer way of bringing work into the city. If a 
corporation devoted the profits of their undertaking 
to other purposes and had to borrow in order to keep 
their undertaking going, then of course they had 
got hold of the wrong end of the stick so far as 
progress was concerned. Compared with this the 
relief of the rates was only a small matter in which 
by far the greatest beneficiares were the large 
property owners. This is certainly not a new 
doctrine, as was suggested by an official in the course 
of the proceedings, though it; may not be so generally 
recognised as its soundness and far-seeing deserve 
that it should be. It is the application of the 
business principle to municipal as to ordinary com- 
petitive undertakings, and it stands in the end for 
commercial pi ogress no less than for genuine rating 



Jr-LY 18. 1913. 

A Workman's Cottage for £150. 

By FRANK H. HEAVEN, f.e.i.h..\. 

Much si)ecuiation i.s rife as to the possibilit.v of 
building a cottage suitable for a working man and 
a moderate sized family for the niode.'^t sum of £150. 
Many words have been said for and against tlie po.s- 
sibility of doing so. I should lilje to add a few 
more words as my opinion to the many wliich have 
gone before. 

To accommodate a working man and liis family the 
house must lie of a good size, and contain a largo 
living room, a iilace for washing-up and doing tlie 
flirty ho\iseliold work, together with a place for 
storing the food of the family, a coal store, and a 
water-closet close to the house, and at least three 
bedrooms of a convenient size, and if possible a 
bath-room. All working men are not colliers, and 
cannot look forward to the future when baths will be 
provided for them at their work, so provision must 
be made for the ablutions of the man and his family 
at liome. 

Perhaps the three facts that weigh heaviest in 
counting the cost of a house are : The rate of in- 
terest at which money can be borrowed, for, usually, 
the working man has only a part of the purchase 
price at hand ; the cost of the land, whether freehold 
or leasehold; and the cost of materials. 

A cheaper rate of interest for the borrowing of 
money would go far to ameliorate the present over- 
crowding, so would a reduction in the cost of land, 
especially in ground rent, which is a permanent 
charge upon the house, even after the purchase price 
has been cleared. 

Any change in these two latter, however, seems tn 
be far distant, and can only he effected by the State 
or the municipal authorities subsidising the working 
man in the matter of lending money at a cheap rate 
for the i)urpose of building his house : or by the 
State or municipal bodies purchasing land and then 
leasing it at a reduced rental to prospective build- 
ing owners: but both these methods are tainted with 
the principle of the community helping the indi- 
vidual, so the only way left into which we can look 
for any appreciable saving is the cost of the mate- 
rials for the building of the house. 

Many methods have been put forward towards 
this end. but none have been accepted in anv general 
manner, and all are made by way of experiment. 

One method I should like to call the attention of 
readers to is of recent invention, and is known as 

weather-resisting as the ordinary brick, and is rein- 
forced to resist the stresses and strains brought 

QliOL^ND riooR PuiN scni^: 

Design for Workman's Cottage to Cost £150. 
(Copyright of Frank fl. Heaven, a.r.i.b.a., p.a.s.i., Aberkenfig.) 

upon the walls from the floors, roofs, and other 
superimposed weights, liy means of iron rods placed 

G130UND nOO!e PLAN. 

r/ji-sr rioop plan 
Design for Group of Four Cottages to Cost £450. 
(Copyright of frank H. Heaven, a.r.i.b.a., p.a.s.i., AberkenBg.) 

reinforced brickwork— that is, the walls are made of i in such positions as to best t«ke and suecessfullv 
bricks of a special design, thin, but equally as I resist these strains, and making such thin walls 

.Tr-LY IS. 1<113. 



MS strong as thicker bricks or stone walls, Init at 
less than half the cost. 

The author has prepared a design for a cottage, 
suita!)le for a working man and his family, contain- 
ing, as he helieves, all the aeconiniodation necos- 
sary, as follows: — 

A living room, 14 ft. 11 in. liy VS ft. 4 iji. to face 
of fire breasts. 

A kitchen, 13 ft, 4 in. by ft. 8 in. to face of fire 
l)reasts. and containing a fire stove, copper, gas 
stove, and sink. 

A larder, C ft. by 3 ft. 9in. 

A coal shed and a water-clo.set. each 4 ft. U in. 
by 2 ft. 9 in. 

Front and l)ack entrance lobbies on ground floor; 

Three bedrooms, each with a fireplace, mea.snring 
13 ft. 4 in. by 9 ft., 10 ft. 1 in. by 11 ft. 11 in., and 
b) ft. 1 in. by 11 ft. 11 in. respectively: and 

A bath-room 6 ft. OJ in. by 5 ft. 9 in., containing 
a fnll size bath and hand basin. 

.Ml contained under one square roof. 

The construction is sound and on economic but 
sanitar.v principles. 

The floors are of G-in. cement concrete with U-in. 
grooved and tongued floor boards on pitch and tar 
in living rooms, and 6-in. by 6-in. quarries in 
lobbies and kitchens, &c. ; the out-offices have 
floated cement concrete floors. The upper floors have 
l}-in. grooved and tongued boards on joists. 

The walls are of hollow construction, faced with 
4-in. waterproofed rough cast externally, and cement 
plastered internally. 

The roofs are tiled with patent weather-proof 
interlocking tiles and well over-hung walls. 

A house containing the above accommodation, and 
con.strucfed as indicated, would be built for £147, a 
saving of 20 per cent on the cost of 9-in. brick 
walling, 4i-in. brick partitions, and slate or tiled 

Such a house could reasonably be let for 5s. per 
week, and secure a fair return on the money, as 
will be seen from the following particulars: — 

Average cost per annum for interest and repay- 
ment of capital : Interest on £1.50 at 5 percent ; 
a sinking fnntl of £3 10s. per annum invested at 
5 per cent for sixty years ... 

Groiii.d rent 

Kates at lis. in the £ on £.5 15s. rateable valne 

Water rent 

Fire insurance, £150 at Is. 6d. per cent 

Repairs at 1^ per cent on £150 

A rent of 5g. per week brings in 


5 G 


1 10 

. 3 3 




. 2 


. 1 17 

£12 9 


. 13 

Mr. Heaven has also in hand a design, shown 
herewith, for a block of four houses, which jirovides 
for a living room 15 ft. by 16 ft., a scullery 8 ft. C in. 
by 6 ft., a coal shed and a water-closet, each G ft. by 
3 ft., and a larder Oft. liy 3 ft., on the ground floor; 
and three bedrooms, measuring 12 ft. by 9 ft. 
each, and a bath-room 6 ft. by G ft., on the first floor. 
The estimated cost of the four houses is .C450. 

Cranite-sett Paving in Camberwell The borough 

surveyor of Camberwell, Mr. W. Oxtoby, m.inst.c.e., 
reports that the actual cost of paving with granite 
.setts the west side of Peckham Rye was £10,039, which, 
making consideration for the cost of work not included 
in the original estimate, coincides so nearly with the 
estimate as to bring the cost out at par. The total 
area of carriageway actually laid was 10,459 yds. super., 
whereas only 10,000 yds. super, was estimated, it 
being discovered, on executing the work, that a greater 
width than that taken for the southern portion was 
necessary ; therefore, although an extra 459 yds. super, 
has been laid the estimate has not been exceeded. 
The total weight of stone used was 2,050 tons, and 
1 ton of stone paved Syn yds. super. The total cost 
of the stone was £5,588, while the total cost of foun- 
dations and laying was £2,982. The cost of stone per 
yard super, was 10s. 8d. ; the cost of foundations and 
laying per yard super, was 5s. 8id.; the total cost of 
roadway per yard super, was 16s. 4Jd., and the esti- 
mated cost of roadway per yard super, was 17s. The 
work was executed during the winter months when 
the men were working their shortest hours. It was 
also carried out in three sections, the work being 
dosed down at Easter and Whitsun so as to afford 
every possible convenience to the tradesrnen and the 
tiafhc at these seasons. 



During the months of April, May and June, 1913, 
the Road Board, with the approval of the Treasury, 
have made advances amounting to £20;), 262 from the 
Road Improvement Fund to county councils and other 
highway authorities as follows : — 




For road crust improvements 

For road widenings and improvement of 

curves and corners... 
For road diversions 
For reconstruction and improvement of 


For construction of new roads and bridges ... 

The total grants up to .Tune 30, 191.3, 
follows ; — 

For road crust improvemejits 
Foi- road widenings and improvement of 

curves and corners 

For road diversions 

For reconstruction and improvement of 


For construction of new roads and bridges 

Advances by way of loan have also been arranged 
to the sum of £229,643. In addition, further advances 
amounting to about £1,870,942 have been indicated to 
highway authorities towards works oi road con- 
struction and improvement. 

The total amount paid into the Road Improvement 
Fund from the constitution of the board up to 
.June 30th, amounted to £3,556,995. The total 
advances made and promised up to June .SOtli was 
£3,435,233. The b.alance now available for grants and 
loans is £121,762. 

Advances from the Road Improvement Fund. 



61 ,078 




oads ard 

County or 

meut of 




County Borough. 


ind diver- 

if bridfjef- 











Bradford (Co. Borougli) 





Brighton (Co. Borough) 

















Isle of Ely 















Liucs (Kesteven) 





Lines (Holland) 



London (Area of the Metro- 

politan Police District)*.. 





















Suffolk (West) 


Su.s8ex (West) 





5,22 1 






Worcester Borough 

Yorks (W. Biding) 



























t lackmannan 










Dumfries (T.C.) 













Forfar ... 



















Eos3 and Cromarty 











3, no 































Tipperary (S.B.) 






• This amount of £24,278 is part of a total sum of £280,000 now in 
course of distribution in Greater London, and is made up as follows ;— 
Hackney, £6,778; Fulham, £5,000; Woolwich, £6,000; Weslminster, 
£3,000 ■ Homsey, £500 ; Tottenham. £250 ; Edmonton, £500 ; Finchley, 
*1,500 ; Walthamstuw, £2,200 ; Bexley, £550. 



JlTLT 18, 1913 

Third International Road Congress. 


At tlie recent International Koad Congress Mr. 
Joynson Hicks, m.p., jnesitletl over the second section 
(Siib-section C) held at the Institution of Mechanical 
ICngineers, the sul)ject being Question 7, dealing with 
regulations for fast and slow trafiBc on roads. So far 
as the large towns were concerned he said the neces- 
sities of the case had provided them with good roads ;, 
but he thought it was very essential that they should 
discuss the regulations needed to enable them to make 
the best use of the good roads when they had them, 
and how the traffic regulations could be best adapted 
and carried out in the towns and cities of the various 
countries to enable the users of the roads to make the 
best use of them. He thought it was necessary to have 
further regulations in detail affecting slow and cross 
traffic, and he trusted the outcome of the conference 
would be that they would be able to advise the autho- 
rities in the towns of their various countries who con- 
trolled those nuitters what really were the best forms 
of traflie regulation. 

Lord Montagu of BEAntiEtr, general reporter, then 
submitted the resolutions, the first of which was as 
follows: — 

" That all regulations for the control of road traffic 
-should be based on the princii)le of facilitating the 
practicable speed for eacli different kind of vehicle 
consistent with public safety and general conve- 

M. Mahieu (France) moved the following amend- 
ment on behalf of certain French delegates— viz. : — 

"All traflie regulations on roads shoiild be based 
on the following principles: (a) A speed limit which 
should not exceed what is compatible with the safety 
and convenience of the public; (b) a speed limit which 
will cause no almormal damage to the road or to its 
structural parts." 

He said that as regarded paragraph 2 of the amend- 
ment, if very high speeds were adopted they resulted 
in considerable wear of the roads and consequent ex- 
pense. For that reason he advocated a speed limit 
which would not cause al)normal damage to the roads. 

M. Chaix (France) supported part 1 of the amend- 
ment, and with regard to the second part he con- 
sidered that the speed should be such that aljnormal 
wear of the road would not take place. 

M. Hansez (Belgium) supported the first part of the 
amendment but not the second. He admitted that 
there should be regulations for the heavy automobile 
trafflo on the basis of width of tyre or speed, but for 
the high-speed automobile he thought that such regu- 
lation would be difficult to frame, and would be unjust. 
He considered that the automobiles paying, as they 
did. a heavy tax for the use of the road literally, the 
road must be put in a condition in which it would be 
able to resist the high-speed automobile. 

M. Hector Franchomme (president of the .Automo- 
bile Club of North France) expressed the opinion that 
the construction of roads able to withstand the high- 
speed traffic nnist be the aim of engineers ; but until 
that time had been reached he thought motorists 
should limit their speed. 

Herr Toll (Germany) supported the amendment, 
and suggested a colour signal should be adopted on 
roads where slow traffic was necessary. 

Lord Montago said in his opinion the resolution 
covered the point aimed at by the French amendment. 
The words " consistent with ))ublic safety and general 
convenience" seemed to him to be broad enough to 
cover either point. It seemed to him that they would 
be unwise to give any impression that the congress 
desired to limit the speed on account of the destruction 
of roads. They were all agreed that as the roads were 
not yet perfect there must be limitations of speed in 
certain instances and certain localities : but to lay 
down a general proposition that vehicles must fit the 
roads instead of making the roads to fit the vehicles 
would, he thought, be imwise. 

Captain H. P. Deasv said he had every sympathy 
with the amendment, but the principle "involved iii 
the resolution seemed to liim to be more advisable. 
He thought the roads .should be made to suit the 
traffic instead of making the traffic suit the roads. 

Lord Montagu said he would add to the resolution 
the words "and the normal wear of roads." 

The amendment proposed by M. Mahieu was de- 
feated, and the resolution was finally carried in the 
following form: — 

"That all regulations for the control of road traffic 
.should be ba.sed on the principle of allowing the speed 
practicable for each different kind of vehicle consistent 
with public safety, general convenience, and the 
normal wear of the road." 

Resolution 2, which was carried without discussion, 
was as follows: — 

" That regulations for the conduct of and slow 
traffic should be as few and simple as pessible. and 
sliiuild l)e such as can and ought to be \iniversally 
adhered to and enforced." 

Resolution 3 was next submitted, and was as fol- 
lows : — 

"That in all large cities there should be a traffic 
authority on whom should be charged the duty of 
studying and dealing with street traffic problems, the 
])Owers of such authority and the co-ordituition of such 
powers with those of other public authorities being 
matters of detail which must lie settled liy Govern- 
ment on consideration of the circumstances and con- 
ditions of each large city." 

Le Due d'Ursel (Belgium) suggested that in place 
of the word "Government" in the resolution should 
be in.serted " pulilic authorities," and the conference 
iigreed to the alteration, passing the resolution thus 

The conference agreed to resolution 4 witliout dis- 
cussion, the resolution reading: — 

" That there should be ample provision of traffic 
controllers (such as the police in London) with ade- 
quate powers to regulate the traffic, not only at con- 
gested points, but throughout the course of crowded 

The next resolution for consideration was as fol- 
lows : — 

"That fast traffic should always be as far as prac- 
ticable from the kerli so as to minimise the risk to 
l>edestrians who may intentionally or thoughtlessly 
step from the footi)ath on to the carriageway." 

Lord JNIontagu agreed to a .suggestion to suppress 
the resolution. He only included it, he explained, 
iiecause he thought it was necessary from the i)ublic 
point of view to have it on the " Minutes " as a 
resolution that jjedestrians, when stepping off the 
pavement, should get the greatest protection jios- 
sible. He thought, however, the point was included 
in the first resolution in the words: "The general 
convenience and iiublic safety." He accejited the 
suppression because he thought the resolution was 
unnecessary there. 

Resolution 6 was next submitted, and was as 
follows: — 

" That, liaving regard to the increased danger 
which is necessarily created by the conditions of 
modern traffic, it is important that drivers should 
be carefully and systematically trained, and that 
children should he specially taught how to provide the dangers of the road." 

The resolution was carried. 

Resolution 7, as follows, was next submitted: — 

" That, except where local circumstances render 
it absolutely necessary, no obstructions, such as 
lamp-posts, tramway standards, Ac, should be 
placed in the centre of a road, except necessary 
lefuges for pedestrians crossing." 

The resolution was passed. 

Resolution 8, whicli was next submitted, was as 
follows: — 

"No obstruction of the public highway should be 
permitted either by vehicles standing unreasonably, 
or by things placed on the highway. Exception 
must, however, be made for depots required for the 
work of maintenance or repair of the road, or for 
work being carried out by duly authorised and com- 
petent authorities, but, in every case, all necessary 
steps must be taken to ensure the safety of traffic." 

Lord Montagu said, in order to meet a point 
raised in regard to mininnun speed, he would add 
words which would include vehicles proceeding at 
a .speed which was obstructive. That would enable 

July 18, 1913 



the fOiiKi-css to place on recoid the fact that the 
matter liad not been lost sight of. 

Tlie resolution was carried, with the amciuhneiit 
indicated by Lord Montagu. 

A fiirtlier resolution, moved by one of the French 
delegates, was carried as follows: — 

" Regulations for roads and traffic nuist aim at 
defining the rights, duties and resijonsiliilities for 
each kind of traflic, in order to avoid causes of 
accidents bikI damage, and to ensure a niaximuju 
of order and liberty. 

This concluded the sitting. 

In the following sunniiaries attention is mainly 
confined to those parts of the reports which rebile 
to traflic regulation in the narrower Some 
of the reporters deal with accommodation for Iraftic 
and with matters also included in the .scope of the 
reports on the planning of new streets and loads, or 
in that of the reports on street surfacing? ; and it 
must suffice in the present case to point out that ihe 
reports on regulations for trafKc should receive the 
attention of tliosc who wish to take account of all 
contributions to the study of these sutijects incliided 
in the papers submitted to the congress. 


By Mr. BREDTKOHNEIDEE. Stadtbaurat, Charlottcubur{;, 

aud Mr. KUNTZ, Eegieniiigsbaumeister, 


The authors contend that in the regulation of 
trathc the protection of the people must first and 
foremost have attention, and that the protection of 
vehicles and their loads is a matter for much later 
consideration. A table of accident statistics in the 
Government Police District of Berlin, with a popu- 
tion of .3,(KK),000, shows that in 1910 the accidents 
caused by vehicles numbered 4,233, of which 1.87(3 
were due to tramways and 2,357 to other vcliicles. 
Of the latter, 502 were caused by light goods vehicles, 
330 by heavy goods vehicles, 229 by onniibuses, aiul 
666 by cabs. Of these 2,357 accidents, 668 were caused 
by i)ower vehicles, and 1,689 by other vehicles. The 
authors discuss the arrangement, construction, and 
maintenance of traffic-ways and their accessories. 
They regard bridle-paths, as indispensable for a 
large town, and they consider that the provision of 
a separate strip for tramways increases speed and 
safety, and reduces costs of construction and main- 
tenance. Any width of wheelway beyond what is 
necessary adds to the danger of crossing the streets. 

Underground street crossings are little used. The 
remarkable suggestion that at sharp bends super- 
elevation should be given may specially be noted ; 
the authors making no recommendation as to the 
speed for which the super-elevation should be de- 
signed. The choice of road surfacing is carefully 
considered, and nuiintenance, street scavenging and 
snow removal are discussed. Means of regulating 
traffic should begin with the instruction of children 
in the schools, be repeated in the daily pai)ers, and 
extended to drivers and cycli.sts. Sucli instructions 
are given in German schools and newspai)ers. 
Drivers and carters shoidd not be allowed to exer- 
cise their calling unless provided with certificates of 
competence. The London method of regulating 
traffic at street inter.sections is connnended. 
By T. BKADACZEK. K.K. Baurat in the Miuistry 
of Public Works, Vienna. 

This paper is the first part of a joint report. The 
author discusses, with the aid of a coloured jilatc, 
the form of caution and other signals, and gives an 
extract from regulations issued by the Mini.ster of 
Public Works. The use of colours will make the 
signals intelligible to persons who do not under- 
stand the language of the country. The author 
describes stop signals for roads temporarily closed, 
loads permanently closed, and places where tolls or 
customs are collected; caution signals for roads 
which are being repaired across the whole width and 
across half the width, and for bridges of small 
strength. Uniform coloiir signals for all countries 
are reconnnended. 



By A. SCHJMAL-FILINS, Schriftateller, Vienna. 

The author considers that the strict observance 
of the rule of the road is the best guarantee of 

safety, and Ihat an iriciease in the muiilicr ot the 
police is desirable, both in the towns and in the 
country. All vehicles should carry a light behind 
as well as in front. To cheek excessive si)eeds 
warning signals are necessary for villages and small 
towns, and a sure way to control the siieeds of care- 
less motorists would be to provide cross gutters, 
which would cause no inconvenience except to 
vehicles travelling at higher speeds than those 
allowed. As regards the rule of the road, the author's 
view is that all traffic experts are in favour ef 
keeping to the left, but the chief object is to have 
the same rule everywhere. 

By W. P. ENO, Washington, D.C., United State:;. 
The keynote of traflic regulation is, the reporter 
considers, the education of drivers and police, and 
there should be a universal rule for keeping to the 
right or left, the balance of advantage seeming to 
be with the left. High si)eed alone is the cause of 
many accidents in the country, but not in the 
tow^ns. Penalties should Ije on a sliding scale, in 
arithmetical jnogression with excess speed, and the 
penalty for attem|)ted escaiie after an accident 
should be the repeal of the licence for all time. The 
English method of recording offences on licences is 
admirable. At street intersections the author pre- 
fers the rotary system to the block system, and ex- 
plains his views with diagrams. He is in favour of 
a development of one-way traffic. Excavations in 
streets should lie avoided by the construction of 
subways, which is the only rational method, and 
undoubtedly the cheai)est in the long run. A study 
of the public carriage service of London shows that 
the best way to obtain good service elsewhere is to 
adopt the London system first and to try to improve 
on it only after having given it a fair trial. 



By E. OHAIX, President of the Committee of Touring 

and General Traffic, of the Automobile Club 

o£ France. 

This report is of considerable length, but is strictly 
within the limits of the subject. While urging the 
advantages of international rules, the author recog- 
nises that difficulties are imposed l>y differences in 
the customs of the people, the instinct of the cattle, 
and the shapes of vehicles. On the other hand, 
driving entails movements brought about by rapid 
and instinctive reflexes, j)ractically automatic, and 
modification of these robs the driver of that prompti- 
tude which is so necessary. As regards keeping to 
the left, it is necessary to allow vehicles, or at any 
rate those which are heavily laden, to the middle 
of the road on account of the better equilibrium and 
reduced tractive effort as compared with progress 
along one side; but encroachment on the other side 
of the road need not be permitted. Definite rules 
as regards priority at forked roads and turnings 
should be established, and should be a matter 
of formal classification, since local conditions 
vary along the length of a road. Pedestrian 
traffic should be left as unfettered as pos- 
sible, but pedestrians might be obliged to give 
way at the approach of a vehicle. Precautions to 
be taken during major repair works and during 
works of maintenance are .separately considered. 
The author takes the view that snow should be 
cleared away as qiuckly as possible, Imt does not 
consider it practical to make rules as regards mea- 
sures to be carried out on country roads in times of 
frost. The authorities should, however, be allowed 
to close roads to heavy vehicles during times of 
thaw. Level crossings should be provided with 
suitable signals, including some kind of signal at 
200 or 300 metres distance. Light railways alongside 
roads are highly objectionable, and should not be 
allowed in future. 


By Col. R. V. HELLAED, O.B., London Traffic Branch, 

Board of Trade; 

F. G. CARPENTER, County .Surveyor, West Riding 

of Yorkshire ; 

E. E. MIDDLETON, London Chamber of Commerce; 

U. L. THOMSON, Mayor of the City of Westminster; aud 

T. H. WOOLEN, Society of Motor Manufacturers 

and Traders. 

The authors of this joint report point out tliat 
there is less actual blocking of traffic than there 
used to bo before the introduction of motor vehicles. 



JlLY 18. Kilo. 

I)ut tliat the economic loss is at a higher rate. The 
passenger circulation has also increased. A conipe- 
icnt and experienced engineer should be appointed 
as traflic manager in every city in which the volume 
of traflic is large, except in London, where there 
should he a traffic board. In important thorough- 
fares tlie lireaking uj) of road surfaces is perhaps 
the most irritating and constant cause of delay, and 
such work should be carried through as quickly a.- 
possible. In .some cases one-way traffic througli 
more or less i)arallcl streets might be arranged for. 
Better manners on the part of the drivers and their 
better education would facilitate the flow of traffic, 
but incom|ietence is jirobably but seldom the cause 
of accidents. To prevent the check to traffic caused 
by standing vehicles, no new premises of the class 
involved should be allowed to be erected Avithout 
internal acconnuodation for loading and unloading 
vans. The authors take the view that centre refuges 
are a source of delay, and consider that no more 
should be permitted than are needed for crossing 
in safety. Centre standard lamps and tramway 
poles, apart from refuges, .should be absolutely for- 
bidden. In some ))laces. but not in London, it 
might be possible to keep motor 'buses from routes 
already efficiently served by tramcars. The want 
of a central system of control makes it difficult to 

The author considers that, for all roads, the maxi- 
mum load during a thaw should be set at 500 kilo- 
grammes per wheel, including the weight of the 
vehicle. For unpaved roads the maximum load 
should not exceed 30 kilogrammes per centimetre of 
the widtli of tyre in contact with the road, and 
for wheels of 1 metre in diameter. Tljis loading 
sliould be increased by 1 kilogramme for each 10 
centimetres increase in diameter, and reduced b> 
2 kilogrammes for each 10 centimetres decrease in 
diameter. For a gross load of 1,000 kilogrammes two 
horses should be used. 

(To he. continued.) 


On Wednesday. July 2nd, the menil)crs of tlie con- 
■-'ress attendin}.' the Chester and Nortli Wales Excur- 
sion, owinc to an unfortunate and unauthori.sed 
detention on the way, arrived at Penmaenmawr half- 
an-hour after the appointed time, but Messrs. Beadle 
and Bristowe, the leaders of the party, were, as usual, 
equal to the occasion, and the lost time was quickly 
made up. 

The Penmaenmawr Quarries being far too large for 
the whole party to see all there was to be seen in the 
time at their disposal, half of the visitors went to the 


:E,-S VisITOR.S at PE^•ilAE^iI.i" 

make regulations for closing roads to heavy traffic 
in times of thaw after severe frost, but, with .some 
safeguard against its arbitrary exercise, such power 
might be entrusted to the surveyor or traffic 


By JHB. P. E P. SANDBERG, Engineer to the 
Wat«rstaat of the Netherlands, Gorinchern. 
In this report particulars are given of the loads 
allowed during thaw on the main roads maintained 
by the State of Waterstaat, and on the provincial 
roads maintained by six of the provinces of that 
State. In the province of Friesland there are regu- 
lations in force during the Winter, but not special 
regulations for times of thaw. In some abso- 
lute limits are set, as well as limits depending upon 
the width of the wheel. Thus, in two provinces 
loads greater than 750 kilogrannnes (about J ton) are 
forbidden. In two provinces the loads are limited 
to about 2S0 lb. per inch w^idth of tyre, not including 
the weight of the vehicle, for two-wheeled vehicle.-. 
In two provinces the limit is about 206 lb. per 
inch width of tyre. In some eases there are 
also limits to loads per wheel. There are 
various exceptions, including vehicles required 
in case of fires or floods, and military vehicles. On 
the State roads there are different regulations for 
different provinces, and limits of about 280 lb. and 
206 lb. per inch width are enforced in some provinces, 
while in other.*' absolute limits only are imposed, or 
limits to wheel loads. 

Eastern, while the other half went to the Western 

Much interest was evinced in all the details, the 
modern tar-macadam plant, the shipping arrange- 
ments and the railway quays having special atten- 

The ascent to the quarries was then made by means 
of the inclines, several of which have a gradient of 
1 in 2. The various operations of blasting the virgin 
rock, breaking it up into suitable sizes for the eight 
large stone mills, and for dressing into setts, and the 
making of the small blocks for the armouring of roads 
were critically examined and approved. 

After spending an interesting time in the quarries, 
the whole party assembled at the Grand Hotel, where 
an excellent collation— to which the members of the 
urban district council and many professional guests 
had been invited to meet and welcome the congress 
visitors— had been prepared. 

Mr. Beadle— a most exacting master of ceremonies — 
approved all the local arrangements, and the visitors, 
whoincluded professional representatives from Europe, 
America and elsewhere, expressed their interest in 
and entire satisfaction with all that was done for and 
shown them. The only regret the manadng directors 
of the quarries had was that time would not permit 
of the inspection of their Trevor quarries, some 16 
miles west of Carnarvon. 


At the last meeting of the Staines Kural Di.strict 
Council, the surveyor, Mr. G. W. Manning, stated 

Jt'LY 18, 1913. 



fliat 111' liail attoiidod the Road Cougrest-, which, in 
his opiiiiuii, was a great farce. The arrangeiiiciits 
were wretched, and [uactically no infonuation could 
lie gained, except from the exliiljits themselves. 
Tlie proeeeding.s did not approach the first congress 
in Paris, or the .second one at Brussels. 


Tlie new Town Bridge at Boston, Lines, designed 
hy Mr. .John J. Webster, m.inst.c.e.. of Westmin.ster, 
ss" to he ojjcned to-day (Friday). Tlie structure con- 
sists of si.\ parabolic steel ribs hinged at the sjaing- 
ing and at the crown, with a ver.sed sine of 6 ft. tiin., 
the width of the road and footways being increased 
liy means of cantilevers on the south side, from 
35 ft. to 43 ft. between the inside of the iiarapots. 
The ribs are of box section, con- 
structed of angles and plates, the 
angles being 6 by 6 by i average, 
with top and bottom flange plates 
24 in, wide, varying from i in. to 
11 in. in thickness; the double web 
is constructed of iilates 5 i". thick 
average, .stiffened with diaphragms 
at intervals. The ribs are 1 ft. 9in. 
deep at the centre, tapering to 
1 ft. 3 in. at the pins, the latter being 
G in. in diameter, with cast-iron bear- 
ings. The spandrel verticals, fixed 
on tlie toji of the ribs and to the longi- 
tudinal girders, are of H section 
rolled joists, 10 by 5; the flooring con- 
sists of corrugated steel plates 9 in. 
by g in., with additional plate to|i 
and bottom i in. thick, under the 
roadway, and 3 by S under the foot- 
way, tile former being paved with 
wood l)locks, and the latter with 
concrete slabs. A handsome cast-iron 
cornice and i)arai)et surmount the 
outer rib on the north side, and the 
cantilevers on the others. The brick 
and stonework abutments of the old 
bridge were in splendid condition, 
and have been retained with suitable 
modifications for the new design. 

The contractors for the work were 
Messrs. Goddard, Massey & Warner, 
Limited, of Nottingham, the resident 
engineer being Mr. H. F. Richards, 




The of concrete for paving footways and car- 
riageways has been considerably extended in tlie 
United States during the past few years. In an article 
which appeared in a recent issue of the Cimlraci Iffrord. 
Toronto, it is sugf;ested that many of the difficulties 
which are encountered in the use of plain concrete 
can be overcome by using a suitable kind of rein- 
forcement at an extra cost of 5 to 15 cents per square 
yard. Such a pavement differs materially from some 
of tliose which have been proposed or have been sub- 
jected to trials, for the amount of reinforcement is 
small, and being in the form of a wire mesh, it .gives 
tlie paving material the character of ferro-concrete, 
regarded as the material in which the concrete and 

A Blast at 


New Asylum, Whalley — The order 
for the sanitary fittings (batlis, 
clo.scts, lavatories, &c.l for Whalley, 
Lanes, Asylum, has been placed with 
ilessrs. W. R. Pickup & Co., Ltd., 
of Pearl Brook Works, Horwich, 
Lanes, who are also executing large 
orders for similar goods in connection 
with Whittingham Asylum, Lanes, 
and Upton Asylum, Cheshire. The 
Whalley order is believed to be the largest of its 
kind ever placed in this country, the total cost of 
this asylum reaching nearly half a million. A selec- 
tion of this firm's manufactures was included in the 
exhibition arranged for the inspection of theKingand 
Queen un the occasion of their recent visit to Bolton. 
Bridge Building.— Students, young engineers, and 
surveyors will find much useful information in " Pre- 
liminary Studies in Bridge Building," by Reginald 
Ryves, Assoc. m.inst.c.e. (London: St. Bride's Press, 
Limited, 24 Bride-lane, B.C. Price 2s. nett.) The 
book is described as the "first of a series of small 
volumes, each complete in itself, dealing with the 
design of ordinary highway bridges of moderate span." 
Though highway bridges alone are referred to, the 
matter contained in this volume is largely applicable 
to railway bridges, aqueducts, and similar engineering 
undertakings. The five primary types of bridges are 
described, and the conditions determining the best 
site for each of the three types of streams are discussed 
in detail ; while in connection with wandering streams 
various modes of designing abutments or approach 
spans are dealt with. Improvements of fords and the 
effect of eccentric loading of vehicles on the girder 
loads are among the numerous other items touched 
on. — Seolsman. 

Pbnmaenmawh Quarries— The Moment of Ignition 

AND After. 
000 tons of rock were displaced by this operation.) 

' the steel are intimately allied, rather than that of a 
structure in which, under wear, the steel may become 
a source of embarrassment. The kind of reinforcement 
described is a wire mesh with additional longitudinals. 
The mesh is lozenge-shaped, and in the case of a 4-in. 
mesh the loncitudinal wires cross the shorter axes, 
.so that each lozenge, or elongated diamond, has a 
part of the longitudinal as its shorter diagonal, but 
has no longer diagonal. The whole reinforcement is 
thus composed of triangles with the bases in the longi- 
tudinal axis. The longitudinals are spaced 4 in. apart, 
and if a closer pattern is required the mesh is made 
2 in. instead of 4 in. The longitudinals are either solid 
or stranded wires, and the sizes of these wires, and 
of those of the network, are varied to suit different 

New Baths at Brighouse.— The new public baths 
wliich were opened recently at Brighouse were de- 
signed by the borough survevor, Mr. S. S. Haywood, 
and built by Messrs. Lister, Brook & Co. The swim- 
mins- pond is 75 ft. by 30 ft., and fifty-five dressing 
cabins are arranged on three sides. In addition to 
the swimming bath there arc six slipper baths and 
three douche baths. 



JuLV 18. 1013. 

Royal Sanitary Institute Congress at Exeter. 


Following the address of iMr. T. Moulding, city 
engineer and surveyor of Exeter, as president of tlio 
conference of engineers and s\irve.vors at last \veck"s 
congress of the Koyal Sanitary Institute, it had 
heen arranged that Mr. John S. Brodie, liorongh 
engineer of Blackpool, should open a discussion on 

Mr. Brodie was unfortunately nnahlo to he present, 
but .sent a connnunicalion in which, by wa,\| of in- 
troduction, he ])0)nted out that the Housiiig and 
Town Planning Act. 1909. had now heen in operation 
about Sh years. According to the information 
issued by the Local Government Board the following 
results appeared U) show to what extent Part II. of 
the Actr— "Town Planning "—had been operative— 
namely: No. of schemes made and submitted to the 
board for approval. 4; number of schemes autho- 
rised to be prepared, 3(1; number of applications to 
prepare sihemes, 11; niunber of schemes under con- 
sideration. 130; total number of schemes. 165. At 
first sight it might appear that the beneficial results 
anticipated when the Act was passed had not been 
realised, but it must be evident that the many and 
varied interests involved in the simplest planning 
scheme required much time, earnest labour, tact and 
patience to bring it to a successful conclusion. It 
was proliable that many schemes would not yet have 
come under the notice of the Local Government 
Board, such as two schemes they were maturing at 
Blackpool, which would in all probability go through 
by agreement, and without the machinery of the 
Town Planning Act. It must also not be forgotten 
that the Act aimed at improved housing conditions 
primarily, often necessitating extensive and costly 
demolition of congested central areas, which, how- 
ever desirable in itself, was very properly the sub- 
ject of careful and far-.seeing consideration on eco- 
nomic grounds. It was to be regretted that discus- 
sions at meetings in connection with town planning 
loo frequently ran in the direction of impracticable 
and visionary garden cities in which, presumably, 
" the wicked cease from troubling and the weary 
are at rest," whereas much more solid and rapid 
progress would be made if, instead of soaring too 
much into the realms of imagination, they kept on 
the firm ground of hygienic and economic facte. 
He therefore suggested that the discussion at their 
conference that day shoidd start and keep on prac- 
tical lines, such as — (1) The importance of direct 
roads from centres of districts to the outskirts, 
whether the lay-out be radial or rectangular; (2) the 
iniport<ince of wide main building lines (not less 
than 120 ft.) rather than wide streets in such direct 
roads ; (3) the importance of adopting any system 
of laying-out roads to the natural configuration of 
the land, and consequently promoting good and eco- 
nomical sewerage ; (4) the importance of making the 
|ilan callable of satisfactory extension in the future 
into undeveloped sidnirhan areas; (5) the imjjort- 
ance of con.stantly bearing in mind that what was 
known as the housing problem would certainly in 
the near future press more and more for solution on 
purely economic grounds, having regard to .sound 
hygienic conditions. He suggested that the discus- 
sion take the general lines which he had indicated, 
rather than such details as road making, or the 
niuuber of houses per acre. 

^Ir. E. G. Mawbey (Leicester) said they had a 
good many papers on town planning from the 
a'sthetic point of view, and many details on road 
construction, but they had to look at the matter from 
the really jiractical point of view. They as surveyors 
should make up their minds as to what steps they 
should take. The view which he held very strongly 
was that if they were to hold their own as surveyors 
and leaders in this great movement every local sur- 
veyor .should without delay jirepare a plan showing 
a scheme of radial and main roads which, in his 
opinion, was most suitable for his district, and also 
the widths between the building lines. In doing 
this he trusted they would be able to avoid those 
vast exiienditures wliich local authorities were having 
to incur in all their big towns, and in many of the 
smaller ones, to remedy the mistakes which had been 
made in days gone by. He happened to Lave a 

copy of The Surveyor giving the lesolutions of the 
Road Congress, and the first was to the effect that, 
as a general principle, it was better that new main 
roads should be constructed to pass outside rather 
than through towns. That, he thought, could be 
carried loo far. They not only wanted to i)ass the 
enormous traffic through the country, but they 
wanted their towns to benefit from the vast traffic. 
They wanted to improve their towns so as to induce 
those travellers to call and assist them, and they 
should provide for their centres becoming important 
centres, not oidy for traffic, but of industries. .As 
surveyors they must take a broad view, and he 
believed the day was coining when they would have 
to look at the qviestion of main roads more on the 
lines of the great railways of the country, and they 
would have to see how they could increase and im- 
prove the main radial roads through the suburban 
parts of their district. He thought that no branch 
of the profession was more caiiable of working out 
this problem than that of the municipal surveyor. He 
knew there were experts in town planning, but he 
thought the foundation of the whole thing could be 
better laid out by the municipal surveyor than by 
any other branch of the profession. At Leicester 
they had not attemjited to face the very difficult 
problem of preparing a' town plan and going in for 
the powers of the Local Government Board, anl 
they were not all in a position to be able to do so. 
For if they began to do so they might put their local 
authority in for very great expense. He did not say 
that was not the right thing eventually, but he did 
say the first thing was to prepare a town plan of 
their own, so that when plans were submitted for 
the development of estates they would have some- 
thing to work on. In Leicester he had prepared a 
large cartoon plan dealing with it in this way. As 
an old Koman city they had difficulties, but their 
present idea was to induce the main through traffic 
to go through Leicester so far as they could accom- 
modate it, and so far as they were not able to do 
it then they must provide other roads. Mr. Brodie 
spoke of the importance of main roads from the 
centre of the district to the outskirts, but if as sur- 
veyors they were to come to the front they must not 
confine themselves to their own towns, but look to 
the connnunication with other tow-ns. As to the 
width of roads, 120 ft. had been suggested. He had 
in his mind one road in Leicester where twenty-five 
years ago the main building line of the villas w'as 
set back 50 ft. from the road, and he lived in one, 
and it was very nice. Those he thought were the 
lines they should develop on. He thought the.v 
must take up town jilanning for the love of it, and 
devote their best energies and ability to the work. 
At the same time there need be no jealousy about 
it, for there was plenty of scope for the specialist 
and architect to come along and design the lay-out 
of estate and buildings. The only way in wliich 
they could bring about a great success was to wel- 
come the assistance of all who could render valuable 
assistance in this important movement for the 
benefit of mankind. 

Mr. J. S. MuNCE (Belfast) thought that the ques- 
tion of radial roads was one they must take into 
consideration very earnestly, for everyone wanted 
to get about quickly at the present time. At Belfast 
the.v had one centre to the town, to which every 
tramcar came, and the roads spread out like a 
spider's web. That he considered one of the best 
ways of town planning. He thought they ought to 
look well ahead, and lay out the lines of the streets 
and of the main sewers at the same time, for every 
town was best drained by gravitation. In his town 
they had to build l.OOO houses a year to meet the 
needs of the population, and every surveyor knew 
how his di-strict was growing and the number of 
houses likely to be required. The idea of taking the 
main roads outside the town was absurd, and the 
tradespeople who would have to find the money 
would certainly object, for they liked a block in 
the traffic. 

Mr. C. Brownridge (Birkenhead) said many of 
the things touched on by Mr. Brodie were absolute 
facts which every engineer had to consider if he 
was dealing with the Town Planning Act. Every 

July 18, 1913. 



engineer was in agreement as (o the wisdnin of 
widening roads, hut not as to wliat the width of llie 
roads should be. They must renieniljer that in a 
few years many of their rural areas would he luhan, 
and provision slionld be made for that. But tliere 
was one difficulty in that connection which they face, and it was that tlie url>an districts were 
surrouiuled by rural districts which had neither the 
money nor the inclination to deal with town plan- 
ning, and if urban districts wanted to lay out .t'nod 
roads with the intention of connecting through to 
other districts tliey met witli great difficulty as soon 
as the rural area was reached. In that connection 
something would have to be done by Parliament to 
extend tlie operations of the Town Planning .\ct. 
On the question of whetlier the roads should he 
radial or rectangular, in Birkenhead they had a 
rectangular lay-out, and it was not effective — they 
w-anted a combination of tlie two to get good com- 
munication. They had to remember that workmen 
had to be hou.sed reasonably near their work, and 
consequently must consider how quickly they coidd 
get them to their work. Many people had said the 
solution was by taking workpeople three miles into 
the country, but if a man had to get to work at six 
o'clock in the morning he wanted to live nearer to 
it, and lie ventured to say the workman wanted a near enough to enable him at mid-day to go 
home to a well-cooked meal. The right way to do 
it was as was done at Port Sunl ght. What they 
found in Birkenhead was that they would have to be. 
fairly geierous in their interpretation of the Town 
Planning Act, and that in conjunction with town 
planning they would have to have considerable im- 
provements carried out. The principle generally 
was to set the building line well back from the 
centre of the street. iHe would give one word of 
warning. In the garden suburbs it w^as a common 
thing "to allow cuh-de-xar , and those who were asso- 
ciated with old towns knew the difficulties in con- 
nection with the courts allowed in days gone by, 
and how difficult they were to light and watch. 

Mr. A. J. Redfkrn (Honiton) asked to put the case 
of the rural district. In his district there was a main 
road, and now was the best opportunity for widenintr 
it; but those who would get the advantage of tlie 
widenins were the adjoining urban areas, who would 
inevitably annex the area in time to come. When 
they were inclined to speak slightingly of the rural 
areas they should bear in mind that they had their 
difficulties as well as the urban areas. Mr. Brodie 
had referred to the importance of adapting any system 
of laying out roads to the natural configuration of 
the land, and it was by the rural councils who con- 
trolled the land around towns taking it in hand that 
it could be brought about. They often found diffi- 
culties owing to the building taking place and 
the sewerage scheme coming afterwards, and in a 
town planning scheme the best thing was to lay out 
the .sewage scheme first. Unless that was done build- 
ing would take place in such a way as to render 
sewage works by gravitation impossible. When a 
Id. rate produced £20 it was impossible for a district 
to spend much on roads, and he was bound to say 
the expense of new roads ought not to be placed on 
rural authorities. 

Mr. S. iHuTTON (Exmouth) claimed that his town 
was the first to start town planning in Devon. He 
understood Mr. Munce to say that all towns could be 
drained by gravitation, but in Exmouth the problem 
w'as one which no engineer could get over unless he 
could build the town up 20 ft. 

Mr. MuNCE said he did not mean that they could 
take all their drainage to one point. 

Mr. HuTTON said he thought it wanted the hard 
sense of the municipal engineer to set against the 
artistic ideas of the architect, which often spoilt good 

Mr. H. A. Gaerett (Torquay) said he agreed that 
if they could get their town councils to come with 
them every man would prepare a scheme, but the 
difficulty was to convince the councillors that the 
engineer did not want to increase the rates. Many 
town councillors simply thought it was a fad of the 
surveyor, who w^anted to do what other jjcople were 

Mr. W. H. May (Plymouth), speaking as an archi- 
tect, said the great difficulty which faced his pro- 
fession was that as a rule they acted for the land- 
owner, and they were not called into consultation with 
the engineers connected with these town planning 
schemes. He thoucrbt it would be a good service to 

,ill pailio.s if tlic arrbitorts were ror-dcnised to some 
extent in the matter. The idea of making roads 120 ft. 
wide a|)pearcd to him to lie preposterous seeing the 
houses had to be .sot hack a tremendous distance 
nowadays to avoid the discomforts caused liy the 
noise of motors and the dust. 

Mr. W. WniTAKKK (London) said he regarded a 
house with .'iOft. of garden in front as an absolute 
waste of ground, and he would like 30 ft. of it 
thrown into the back. It was true they were kept 
back from the dusty roads, but he woiild assume that 
tliev ought not to be dusty roads. The thing which 
liad not been touched on was the relation of roads 
to housing, and if they had a good road and a good 
path they would have houses well kept, but if the road 
was bad and the path carelessly kept they would have 
the houses there careles.sly looked after. 

Mr. Mawbey, who replied on the discussion, said 
he quite agreed that traffic passing from one place to 
another should be taken through the town. If they 
could only get builders to place the houses further 
back from the road they would be able to widen roads 
if necessary in the future without being blocked as 
they were now. He hoped, however, that they would 
have land at the back of the house as well as in front. 
As to broad roads they had to remember the mag- 
nificent roads of the Continent. He hoped it would 
not be thought that he had anything but the greatest 
respect for the architect: but they did not need to 
mince the matter, for there was, no doubt, a strong 
feelinc that the municipal surveyor should not be 
the town planner, but that the specialists, who were 
mainly composed of architects, should do it, because 
the municipal engineer had not the artistic feeling. 
Criiey wanted to combine the two: but he did submit 
that the engineer, who knew the contours and lay-out 
of the land, was the man to do the fiuidamental part. 
He agreed that the architect .should then come in to 
design the lay-out, and so on. 

fTo he continued.) 

Croydon's Open Spaces.— Willi reference to the para- 
<.'rai)h which appeared under this heading in our issue 
of the tth inst.,we are informed that there are nowover 
.300 acres of recreation grounds and other open spaces 
belonging to the Corporation of Croydon. Pollards 
Hill recreation ground, the openine of which took 
place on the 2nd inst., is 3J acres in extent. 

Auckland Rural District Highways The highways 

sin-veyor to the Auckland Rural District Council, Mr. 
.John He.slop, in his annual report states that the 
working of the slag works and quarries had again been 
very successful, the output being over 25.312 tons. 
The cost per ton came out, as usual, very low. The 
year's profit on the sale of .slag and asphalt was £2-38, 
and from the beginninff it amounted to £3.905. A 
great many experiments had been tried with tar-bind- 
ing all over the county, but the results were not on 
the whole very satisfactorv. The cost for ordinary 
maintenance had been at the rate of £45 15s. Hid. per 
mile, equal to a rate of 8;;d. in the C on the rateable 
value, and including the improvements £49 2s. 6d. 
per mile, equal to a rate of 8}d. in the £. The cost 
of maintenance of the roads was very much less than 
that of any similar highway district in the county. 

Building By-laws.— Redruth Urban District Council 
recently considered certain modifications in the 
building by-laws, suggested by the General Purposes 
Committee with the object of cheapening the con- 
struction of low-rented houses. With minor altera- 
tions, they were accepted, and ordered to be for- 
warded to the Local Government Board for approval. 
The main alterations are the addition of concrete 
to all buildings; the reduction of the concrete laver 
over sites from 6 in. to 4 in., with the addition that 
this work is to be done wherever the dampness of 
the site or nature of the soil renders the precaution 
necessary; a reduction in the width of wall footings; 
a reduction of the thickness of brick walls, not more 
than 10 ft. h'igh, in domestic offices and buildings of 
a Mke character, from not less than 9 in. to not less 
than 4J in. ; the shortening of chimneys from the 
ridge of the roof to 1 ft. 6 in.; and the deletion of 
the clause stipulating 8-ft. 6-in. rooms, substituting 
another that every room for human habitation 
should be at least 8 ft, from floor to ceiling— or, if 
partly under the roof, 8 ft. at least for not less than 
two-thirds of the area of the floor, and not less than 
5 ft. from the floor to the ceiling at any point. 



July 18, 1913. 

Institution of IVIunicipai and County Engineers. 


With every promise of success attending the pro- 
ceedings, the fortieth annual general meeting and 
third town planning conference of the Institution of 
Municipal and County Engineers opened at Great 
Yarmouth on Wednesday morning, and Mr. J. W. 
Cockrill, M.iN.sT.c.E., a.r.i.b.a., the borough surveyor 
of that town, was foruially installed as president in 
.succession to Mr. R. J. Thomas, m.inst.c.e., county 
surveyor of Bucks. The morning was very fully occu- 
pied by the usual preliminary business. A brief meet- 
ing of the subscribers to the Orphan Fund was held 
shortly after nine o'clock, and, following a council 
meetinsr, the members were accorded an official wel- 
come to the town, Mr. Cockrill subsequently delivering 
his presidential address before one of the largestgather- 
ingsinthe history of the institution. The town planning 
conference commenced in the afternoon, when, after a 
brief address by the president, the consideration of 
papers was proceeded with. Appended is the list of 
acceptances for the meeting: Sir James Lemon 
(Southampton), Messrs. T. Adams (Local Government 
Board), F. AUdrill, J. Kennedy Allerton, G. Bell 
(Swansea), J. E. W. Birch (East Ham), W. Nisbet 
Blair (St. Tancras), E. W. Blanchard, H. Blewitt, H. 
Bottomley (Bingley), H. Percy Boulnois (Westminster), 
O. A. Bridges (Malvern), J. S. Brodie ^Blackpool), 
Reginald Brown (Southall-Norwood), J. G. Brown, 
F. L. Burch, S. E. Burgess (Middlesbrough), W. Burn 
(Sutton-in-Ashfield), A. Burtffn (Stoke-on-Trent), J. 
Bryce (Partick), W. B. Brvan (Metropolitan Water 
Board), T. Caink (Worcester), A. H. Campbell (Edin- 
burgh), W. L. Carr (Ruislip-Northwood), H. Alex. 
Clarke (Briton Ferry), H. J. Clarson (Tamworth), H. 
Clegg (Felixstowe), O. H. Cockrill, R. S. Cockrill, J. W. 
Coc'krill (Great Yarmouth), T. Cockrill (Biggle.swade), 
T. Cole (Westminster, secretary), T. P. Collinge (Mans- 
field), H. Collins (Norwich), A. E. Collins (Norwich), 
R. Collins (Enfield). F. C. Cook (Nuneaton), W. W. 
Cooper (Slough), J. Coupe, R. Croome (Cromer), J. W. 
Croxford (Brentford), E. H. Crump (Hinckley), C. F. 
Dawson (Barking), N. F. Dennis (West Hartlepool), 
J. Dewhirst (Chelmsford). Sholto Douglas (Kenilworth), 
R. Drummond, D. Dunl)ar, J. Dunn (Chesterton), G. 
Eaton-Shore (Crewe), J. Edey, D. Edwards (Taunton), 
H. C. J. Edwards (Lambeth), E. J. Elford (Southend- 
on-Sea), H. M. Enderby, H. J. Farmer (Christchurch), 
A. Fidler (Northampton), A. H. Forbes (Saffron 

Walden), W. Fowlds (Keighlev), J. GanTmage (Dud- 
i'ey). H. A. Garratt (Torquay), H. A. Giles (West- 
minster, assistant secretary). W. J. Goode (Clulton). 

F. T. Grant (Gravesend), A. D. Greatorex (West Broni- 
wicb), W. Gregory, W. H. Grieves (Sutton, Surrey), 
T. O. Guilhert (Giiern.sev). T. J. Guilbert (Gnern.sev), 
H. F. GuUan (Belfast), M. G. Gmnev, W. J. Hadfield 
(Sheffield), H. L. Hall. C. Hall (Drovlsden), J. C. 
Haller (Carlton), T. G. Halliday. C. L. Hamby 
(Beccles), H. E. Hargreaves, J. L. Harpur (Brierlev 
Hill), W. Harpur (Cardiff), H. L. Harrison, G. B. 
Hartfree (Alton), T. W. A. Hayward VBattersea), F. T. 
Havward, S. S. Havwuod, E. P. Hoolev (Notts). H. 
Holmes, AV. C. lies, W. Rees Jeffreys (Road Board). 
R. H. Jenkins (Ilemel Hempstead), J. H. Jevons (Hert- 
ford;, F. E. Jones (Irlam), Wentworth Jones, W. M. 
Jones, W. H. Jukes (Tipton), Julian Julian (Cam- 
bridge"), J. T. Kay, A. M. Ker (Warrington), T. Kidd 
(Swadlincote), A. F. Kidson, P. G. Killick (Finsburv). 
J. S. Killick (Road Board). F. O. Kirbv (Doneaster), 
H. Kitson, G. W. Lacey (Oswestry), F. W^ Lacey 
(Bournemouth), W. T. Lancashire (Leeds), C. 11. 
Lawton (Warminster), L. Leeper (Great Yarmouth), 

G. W. Lingwood (Stowmarket), J. W'. Liversedge 
(Leigh-on-Sea), J. W. Lobley, AV. R. Locke (Hemel 
Hempstead), C. Limd (Cleckheaton), H. Mair (Ham- 
mersmith), C. \V. Marks (Wokingham), J. Marshall 
(East Mailing), E. B. Martin (Rotherham), E. R. 
Matthews (Bridlington), E. G. Mawbey (Leicester), 
L. S. jSlcKenzie, P. McQueen, T, de Courcv Meade 
(Manchester), E. J. Messent (Southend-on-Se"a). B. A. 
Miller. P. Morris, T. Moiilding (Exeter). A. E. Nichols 
(Folkestone), T. Nisbet (Glassow). J. H. Norris 
(Godalming). J. B. Nuttrdl. S. Parrv. R. C. Parson 
J. Paton (Plymouth), R. S. W. Perldns, J. Phillips. 
F. R. Phipps (Basingstoke). J. S. Pickering (Chelten- 
ham). T. S. Pictou (Eccles). W. Plant (Stafford), S. S. 
Piatt (Rochdale), A. E. Prescott (Eastbourne), W. H. 
Prescott (Tottenham), A. J. Price (Lvtham), W. H. 

Price, O. M. Prouse (Ilfracombe), W. Ransom (Wor- 
cester), J. L. Redfern (Gillingham), F. Roberts (Worth- 
ing), F. E. Rowbottom, J. Rowbottom (Ashton-under- 
Lyne), F. R. Ryman (Stamford), E. Y. Saunders 
(Barnstaple), N. Scorgie (Hackney), N. Gibb Seorgie, 
W. Shaekleton (Nelson), H. Farr Simpson (Isle of 
Ely), J. F. Smillie (Tynemouth), J. Gould Smith 
(Beverley), H. W. Smith (Scarborough), C. Chambers- 
Smith (Westmin.ster), F. Hall Smith (Sheringham), 
J. H. Woolston-Smith (Minehead), J. P. Spencer(North 
Shields), F. W. Spurr (York). W. J. Steele (Newcastle- 
on-Tyne). D. H. Steward. R. T. Stewart (Feltham), 
H. E. Stilgoe (Birmingham), A. Stimpson, W. Stubbs 
(Blackburn), J. Sutcliffe (Deptford), D. S. Sutherland 
(Southgate), T. L. Syms, R. J. Thomas (Bucks), H. 
Tillstone, S. Turner (Ashby-de-la-Zouch), E. \\. Turner 

F. C. Uren (Alder.shot), Chas. Vawser (New Barnet), 
AV. Vincent, H. T. Wakelam (Middlesex), A. H. 
Walker (Loughborough). A. C. Wallingford, J. W. 
W^alshaw (Peterborough). J. H. Walters, A. W^ Ward 
(Stockport), J. Ward (Derby). W'. D. H. Washington, 

G. Watkevs, J. A. Webb (Hendon), W. Welburn 
(Middleton), E. Whitwell. H. G. Wlivatt (Grimsby), 
C. F. Wike (Sheffield), E. WilUs (Chiswick), J. E. 
Wilkes (Dunfermline), O. E. Winter (Hampstead), 
R. H. Winterbottom, ' J. Witton. F. J. Wood (Lewes), 
T. Wood, W. S. Woodcock, F. Woodward (Stourbridge), 
B. Worrall (Stretford). H. Y'arwood (Rochdale) and J. 
Young (Ayr). Colonel C. J. Trask, Dr. B. L. J. Bennett, 
Aldermen M. Abrahams. O. R. Anstead, .Vreher, Atkin- 
son, Dr. Blvth, Copeman, G. Green. B. Hinbridge. 
Jenkinson. D. Marlor, W. Moss. Midlins. T. Ttirubull 
and J. R. Wilson, and Councillors G. Cadbury, W. 
Chappell. H. Dow.sett. Eaton, F. C. Havers, J. F. 
Henderson. S. James, Kinniard, C. W. Lee, J. Mander, 
A. Martin, W. E. Turner and T. Woodcock. 

The M.wor. of Yarmouth (Councillor R. G. West- 
macott), on behalf of the Corporation and the Borough 
of Yarmouth, offered the members a hearty welcome 
to the town. They were delighted the institution had 
chosen Yarmoutli for their annual meeting. He knew 
they had a great deal of work to get through between 
then and Saturday, and in that work he readily 
recognised the hand of Mr. Cockrill, who was 
a perfect glutton for work, and expected every- 
body else to work as liard as he did liimself. He 
hoped the members ^\'ould take away with them 
memories of a very instructive and pleasant time. 

The Pkesident (Jlr. R. J. Thomas) returned thanks 
to the Mayor and Coinicil of Yarmoutli for the recep- 
tion they had given to the members of the institution. 
It was a jileasure to lie received by the corporations of 
important towns which they visited periodically. They 
expected in the w'ork there they would all gain know- 
ledge for the advantage of their future work. It was 
a great pleasure to come to Yarmouth because they 
held Mi. Cockrill in .such high respect. They knew 
what a great amount of work he had lone i"r the 
coimcil, and they knew that during his year of office 
he would be as great a glutton for work on behalf of 
the institution as he had been for the Corporation of 

The annual report was afterwards jircsented. 


The council have pleasure in presenting the fortieth 
annual report, recording the work of the year 191'2-1913. 


The alterations in the constitution made at the 
annual general meeting in 1911 have proved of great 
benefit to the institution, and are now working per- 
fectly smoothly. 

The rearrangement of the districts has been found 
satisfactory, and the closer touch with the members 
generally through their district officers has been of 
great utility to the council. The enhanced scope of 
the work of the institution, and the advantages gained 
by membership, were lirought to the notice of engi- 
neers and surve.Nors to local authorities generally by 
a circular letter issued by the secretary in November 
last. The gratifying nature of the response is shown 
in the large increase in membei'.ship recorded in " The 
Roll of the Institution," but the council trust that 
members will continue their efforts to induce properly 
qualified officers to apply for membership, and will 

.TrtY 18. li)13. 



bring tlie ailvantages to be gained by being attached 
to the institution, at as early an age as possible, before 
the younger members of their staffs. 


The scrutineers, having examined the ballot lists, 
report the following members elected as the council 
for the year 1913-1914: — 

Pretident.—J. W. Cockrill. 

Vict-PretiitnU.—T. W. A. Haywaxd, J. S. Pickering, and H. T. 
Wakelam. • 

Ordinary Ifembert of Council.— J. Patten Barber, W. Nisbet Blair, 
John A. Brodie, J. S. Brodie, G. F. Carter, A. E. Collins, W. Harpur, 
W. T. Lancashire, H. E. Stilgoe, andC. F. Wike. 

Honorary Secretary. — Cbas. Jones. 

Henorarif TreamrGr.—Siv James Lemon. 

Serving upon the council, in addition to the above, 
are the district vice-presidents and the district repre- 
sentatives reported by the scrutineers as having been 
elected for the year 1913-1914: — 

Vice-Preiidenffor Scotland.— 3. Bryce, Partick. 
Vice-President for Irelaiid.S. A. Cutler, Belfast. 
District. Chairman. Representative. Secretary. 


F. G. Holmes 



W. CoUen 

(Dublin Co.) 


F. Miissie 




J. S. Brodie 



H. T. Wakelam 

(Middlesex Co.) 


J. y. Barber 




H. T. Chapman 


(Somerset Co.) 


A. T. Davis 


(Salop Co.) 


R. Read 



E. G. Mawbey 




A. Dryland 


(Surrey Co.) 


J. Price Evans 




W. Harpur 



A. H. Campbell 

E. H. Dorm an 

{Armagh Co.) 
E. B. Martin 

E. R. Matthews 

C. Browuridge 

W. Stubbs 

E. J. Elford 

W. H. Prescott 

N. Scorgie 

O. E. Winter 

T. Moulding 

A. T. Davis 

(Salop Co. ) 
L. S. McKenzie 

E. P. Hooley 

(Notts Co.) 
P. H. Palmer 

E. Evans 

(Carnarvon Co.) 
G. A. Phillips 

(Glam. Co.) 

D. Ronald 

M. Sellars 

J. P. Waketord 


A. W. Bi-adliy 
(St. Helens) 

J. A. Webb 

N. Scorgie 

D. Edwards 

F. C. Cook 

F. R. Phipps 

(Basingstoke I 
H. G. Whyatt 

(Gt. Grimsby) 
H. W. Bowen 

(Sussex Co.) 
J. England 

H. Alex. Clai-ke 

(Britou Feri-y) 


Kequests for advice as to pupilage having been 
frequently received, the council invited members who 
are willing to take pupils to communicate with the 
secretary setting forth the period of articles, amount 
of premium required, and works in hand. A large 
number of replies were received and tabulated, and 
valuable assistance has l>een accorded to some thirty 
applicants for advice. 


The council are gratified to record the completion 
of the affiliation of the County Surveyors of Ireland 
Association with this institution, resulting in au ac- 
cession of nineteen members. 


The council are also gratified to report that negotia- 
tions are proceeding with a view to the affiliation of 
the above association with this institution. 


The council draw attention to by-law 22: "The fol- 
lowing, and no other, abbreviations may be used to 
denote connection with the institution: Hon.Mem. 
Inst.M.&Cy.E., M.Inst.M. & Cy.E., A.M.Inst.M.& 
Cy.E., Stud. Inst. M. & Cy.E. As this by-law forms an 
agreement entered into by the council on behalf of 
the institution, the council trust that members will 
assist them by using the exact form of abbreviation 
as shown." 


Meetings of the institution have been held in the — 

Eastern District at Grays, September 21, 1912; 

East Midland District at Ilkeston, September 28, 

North Wales District at Wrexham, October, 19, 1912; 

Metropolitan District at Westminster, December 6, 

South Wales District at Swansea, January 11, 1913 ; 

Eastern District at Gerrards Cross, April 26, 1913; 

North-Eastern District at Newcastle-on-Tyne, May 
2 and 3, 1913; 

Scottish District at Dundee, June 6 and 7, 1913 ; 
North-Western District at Rochdale, June 14, 1913; 
West Midland District at Leek, July 5, 1913; 
And at Aiusterdam, May 8 to 14, 1913. 


These will be found under the heading of " District 
Secretaries' Reports." 


During the financial year ending April 30th last, 
269 new members, consisting of 145 ordinary members. 
62 associate-members, 41 students and 21 affiliated 
members, have been elected. Thirteen members, 6 
associate-members, and 1 affiliated member have re- 
signed. Ten members and 3 associate-members have 
been written off. 

The council record with regret the deaths of T. T. 
Allen, J. T. Eayrs (past-president), J. A. Hoyle, P. J. 
Lynam, J. G. O'Sullivan, W. J. Press, J. Proctor, 
F. W. Richard.son, W. P. Robinson, W. T. Shell, Jas. 
Smith and W. Weaver (past-president) ; also of J. 
Robb (affiliated member). 

The roll now stands: — 





































































Affiliated members 













Six associate-members, eight affiliated members, and 
one student have been transferred to the class of 


At Whitsuntide a visit was paid to Amsterdam and 
The Hague. The members were received and wel- 
comed at Amsterdam in the town hall by the burgo- 
master. Baron Roell, the acting burgomaster, Mr. 
Delpratt, and a number of the city officials, the party 
being introduced by Mr. W. A. Churchill, the Britisli 
Consul. At the Exchange Mr. A. W. Bos, the director 
of public works of the city, together with Messrs. F. S. 
Jacob and P. Lohr, the city engineers, gave detailed 
descriptions of the engineering works of the city, 
several of which were afterwards visited, including 
the sevi'age outfall, the pumping works, and the tram- 
way garage, in course of construction. The new gas- 
works, an installation which, when completed, will 
1)0 up to date in every respect, was inspected with 
creat interest. Excursions were made to Broeck, 
Volendam. the Isle of Marken. and Leyden. The 
party next proceeded to The Hague, where they were 
received and welcomed by Mr. Lindo, the director of 
iniblic works, and the splendidly equipped abattoirs 
were then inspected with special interest. The party 
drove to Scheveningen, visiting the " House in the 
Wood," and afterwards inspected some of the world- 
famed picture galleries of The Hague. 


In view of the great interest shown, and in return 
for the services kindly rendered, by Mr. Bos and 
Mr. Lindo, the council have elected these gentlemen 
as honorary members of the institution. 


The accounts which accompany this report for the 
financial year ending April 30, 1913, have been duly 
audited by the official auditors, Messrs. Wood, Drew 
& Co., and are presented with this report. It will be 
seen from the figures that the institution is in an 
exceedingly satisfactory financial position. During 
the year abnormal expenditure amounting to over £200 
has been met out of revenue for furnishing the new 
offices. The arrears this year are unduly high, despite 
repeated applications for payment. Exceptional cir- 
cumstances, which will in due course right them- 
selves, have tended to swell the total. The ccv.ncil 
earnestly trust that members will give immediate 
attention to applications for payment, as it is evident 
from the amount of arrears recovered during the past 
year that forgetfulness is the chief cause of this un- 
desirable item in the accounts. 


The council have acquired a lease of a large and 
well-li"hted suite of offices at 92 Victoria-street, West- 



JtTLT 18, 191'^. 

minster. Better ivcooiniiiodation i.s now jriven for the 
increased work of the institution, and for holding the 
council, committee, etc., nioeting.s, and the rooms have 
heen used for the puriiosc of district meetings during 
the year, and for reeeivins deputations. By the adop- 
tion of movable i)artitioiis an area of nearly 1,000 
ijq. ft. uninterrupted floor space is available aT any 
time it may be required. The dimensions of the rooms 
are as follows: Council chamber, 25 ft. by 19 ft.; two 
rooms, each 20 ft. by 12 ft. G in., and a smaller room. 
13 ft. 6 in. by Jl ft. 6 in. 


The co\mcil wore approached by the Royal Institute 
of British .Vrcliitect.s with reference to participation 
in a deputation of various interested bodies to i.he 
Prime Minister to urge upon him the necessity of 
lef.'islation to deal with the consistent, disinified and 
practical develo])ment of greater London by co-ordina- 
tintr existin? bodies for the special pnr|)Ose of creatine 

ties and certain societies interested in town planning. 
The pre.-ident, Mr. R. J. Thomas, spoke on behalf of 
this institution, the other speakers being Sir A.ston 
Webb for the Royal Institute of British Architects. 
Mr. Leslie Vigers for the Surveyors' In.ititnlion, and 
Mr. Raymond Unwin for the London Society. Mr. 
.\squith stated in his reply that he would suggest that 
tlie local authorities should come into conference v ith 
the President of the Local Government Board, who 
was quite willing to lend his services, ind. if they 
were willing, ^ take Mr. Burns as their chairman 
with regard to the matter, and see if they could 
lianuner out by agreement a plan which woul.l meet 
the two sets of interests. He further suggested that 
the deputation should put themselves into comnmni- 
cation with Mr. Burns without any unavoidable delay, 
and that the various interests should be heard in 
mutual conference. Mr. Asquith agreed that there 
.should be some central authority, but as to the 
character and precise functions of any such authority. 




£ ."■. <1. 

£ .^. .1. 

£ s. ci. 

£ .■>. (i. 

To Eeports of meetings 



By Subscriptions 

2,068 7 G 

„ Esammei-s' fees and exj>eiises 


SO 7 8 

,, Entrance fees 

267 8 

„ Printing, litliograpliy, and stationery 

„ Examination fees 

268 IG 

(including postage) ... 


631 6 5 

,, Sale of Proceedins-s 

3G 12 7 

„ Expenses of meetings 


77 7 7 

„ Interest on investments and on deposit 


83 16 3 

„ Rent of rffice and coals 


9^ 8 9 

„ Bankers" charges 


11 3 

„ Telegraphic address and telephone ... 


18 18 9 

„ Expenses of delegates and affiliation 


IS 10 

„ Donation to International Road Con- 



,, Premiums 


8 S 

t,. Law reports and Parh. mentary papers 


9 5 4 

,, Salaries ... 



„ Office expenses (mchiding typist and 

expenses of removal to new offices) 


„ Petty cash— 





6 8 2 

„ .Lesral charges 


92 4 

,,'. Audit fee 


,,»Aniounts written oif - 


r; 14 


91 K 2 

Office furniture 

111 isi n 

2,379 12 7 

„ Slirplus for cairied to nccumu. 



.345 7 9 

£2,725 4 

£2,725 4 


To Simdry creditors 

,, Premiums in respect of Volume i xsviii. 

,, Subscriptions in advance 

,, Accumulated fund — 

Balance at April 30, 1912 
Add surplus for year ending April 
30, 1913 

Kifjwrt fo the Memhers of the Institution if Mmiicij^al 

and County Ergint'C) Si. 
In accordance with the provisions of section 113 of the 
Companies (Consolidatiou) Act, 190S, we report that we 
have examined the above Income and Esi>enditiire 
Account and Balance Sheet with the books and vouchers 
and have obtainel all the information and explanations 
we have required. The Balance Sheet in our opinion is 
properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct 
view of the state of the Institution's affair* according to 
tfce best of oiir information and the explanations given 
to us, and as shown by the books. 

(Signed) Wood,Dbew,&, Co. (Chartered Accountants), 
Auditors to the Instituticn, i:^ Cannon-street, London. 

£-2,9r4 1 1 

r Cash — 

at bank 

in band 

, Investments — 

£ltO Southampton Corporation 3^ 
per cent Stock ot 92 

£553 2s. Pd. India 2^ per cent Stock 

£650 Os. 3d. London County 2^ per 
cent Stock at 65 

£200 STetiopoUtan 2.J per cent Con- 
solidated Stock at 74 

£m lis. 9d. New South Wales 3t 
per cent Stock at 9 4 

£600Iudia3i per centttock at 90.. 


, Amount due for sale of Proceedings.. 
Stock of Proceedings — estimated value 
Office furniture 

219 15 11 

174 IG 

351 4 10 

422 10 2 


383 2 8 

2.019 13 S 

a system of main roads. The council informed the 
Royal Institute of their hearty agreement with the 
object of the petition, and the president accordingly 
became a signatory on behalf of the institution. The 
Prime Minister consented to receive the deputation 
on July 3, 1913. 


Mr. Asquith. who was accompanied by Mr. Jolin 
Burns, the President of the Local Government Board, 
and Sir George Gibb, chairman of the Road Board, 
at the House of Commons, on July 3rd. received two 
deputations, who urged upon him the importance of 
having some central body to assist local authorities 
around London in town planning schemes, particu- 
larly with referenre to main roads. One deputation 
represented the Institution of Municipal and Countv 
Kneineers, the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
the Surveyors" Institution and the London Society, 
and the other was representative of the local authori- 

that was a matter he would like to reserve for further 


The Third International Road Congress was held in 
London in June Inasmuch as the construction 
and maintenance of highways form so large and im- 
portant a part of the work of the nuuiicipal and county 
engineer, tlie council felt it their duty to take their 
full share in the work of this congress. Mtmy mem- 
bers of the institution have served upon the various 
committees of the congress, a large numlier of the 
papers read and discussed were contributed by niem- 
l)ers, and the council made a donation of 100 guineas 
towards the expenses of the work ot the congress. 
The condensation of the various papers, in order to 
comply with the requirements of the Permanent Com- 
mittee, was so severe that the reports and recom- 
mendations to the congress had necessarily to be in 
general terms, while the time at the disposal of the 

JtiLi IS, 1913. 


a per 


r on 

i. to 

finii-'re^.- was so brief, after llio delay necessitated by 
translating into three languages, that it was impvac- 
ticable to discuss details. Unfortunately, a large 
nunilier of the delegates did not receive tlie papers 
or tlie general reports, and were therefore unalilo to 
follow all the reconmiendations made in the latter. 
The opportunity afforded for personal and 
friendly discussion has, however, done much to ad- 
vance the science of road making and to cement friendships. 


The council have given careful consideration to this 
matter, but the from the members has been 
di.sappointing. The subject is still occupying the 
attention of the council. 

pre.sident's prize. 

The pre.sident and council regret tlial as no p 
lia.s been contributed liy a student during the 
year this prize cannot be awarded. 


The council have awarded an institution preii 
of £^ 5s. to Mr. E. R. Matthews for his pape 
■'Bridlington Municipal Works," and of £3 3: 
Mr. H. \V. Barker for his paper on 'Cemetery 
.-t ruction and Sub.soil Drainage." 


Tlie attention of the council was drawn by a mem- 
ber to the unfair treatment to which he had been 
subjected by a portion of the council of the authority 
he served. 


As stated in the last annual report, the council 
have given furtlier consideration to repre.^oatations 
from the National Federation of Building Trades Em- 
ployers, and have had tlie advantage of receiving a 
deputation from their l>ody. The Arbitration 
Sub-committee finally recommended that tlie 
as set forth in the last annual report (vide " Proeeed- 
iugs," Vol. xxxviii., pp. 462, 463, 464) be adhered to, 
with the exception of item n " as to the issuing of 
certificates relating to payments to the contractor." 
This item the sub-committee recommended should not 
be withheld from arbitration. The council adopted 
the report, and resolved accordingly. 


A deputation from the Confederated National 
Association of Master PIa.sterers, Plumbers, and 
Slaters was received by the council in supjjort of 
proposed clauses dealing with the relationship 
bet.veen main and sub contractors, for in.sertion in 
contracts. On the report of the Arbitration Clause 
Sub-Committee, to whom the matter was referred. 
the council resolved that the clauses were not siicli 
as could be recommended for adoption by the mem- 
bers generally, as the principle of sub-cont;acting 
does not apply to the London and Soutli and West 
of England- districts. The clauses w'ere, however, 
referred to tlie Executive Committees of the Nortli- 
Eastern, North-Western, Midland, and West 
Midland Districts, and arc at present receiving con- 
sideration. The secretary was instructed to inter- 
view' certain members of the local authority, and 
the council are glad to report that matters were 
subsequently sat-sfaclorily adjusted. 


The attention of the Local Government Board was 
called by the council to the undesirability of the 
appointment of persons lacking the requisite engi- 
neering training and experience to the post of engi- 
neer and surveyor to local authorities, and a similar 
letter was sent to an authority which had made 
such an appointment. 


During the year three examinations have been 
held, for which eighty-three candidates entered 
(.seventy-four presented themselves) for examination. 
Forty-two candidates satisfied the examiners and 
have been granted the testamur of the in.stitution. 
The council trust that members, in fairness to the 
candidates who expend both time and money in 
preparing for the examination, will accord the fullest 
possible recognition to possession of the testamur 
when making appointments to their .staffs. 


It is hoped to hold a South African examination 
in October next, and arrangements arc also lieing 
made for the holding of an examination in India. 

Hong Kong, Colombo, and Singapore are also re- 
ceiving attention as possible examination centres. 


The Association des Hygienistes et des Techni- 
ciens Municiiiau.x visited London in October. Mr. 
VV. B. Bryan, chief engineer to the Metropolitan 
Water Board, assisted by your secretary, made the 
ne(;essary arrangements and acted as guides to 
various engineering works. The association paid 
the institution tlie graceful compliment of electing 
your secretary as an honorary member of their body. 


The question of limiting and controlling hoardings 
has received the attention of the council, by whom 
it was referred to a sub-committee tor consideration 
and report. The council considered the report pre- 
pared by Mr. J. S. Brodic of sufficient value to war- 
rant its printing and circulation to the nieuibership, 
and it was accordingly issued to all on the roll of 
the institution. 


Pursuant to the wish generally expressed at the 
last annual general meeting, arising out of a sugges- 
tion contained in a paper by Mr. A. H. Campbell, 
the question of the publication of the " Proceedings " 
of the Institution in the form of a "journal" has 
occupied the attention of the council during the past 
year. It has been felt that the yearly issue of the 
volume in its present form, appearing of necessity 
at a considerable period after the close of the pre- 
sidential year, no longer efficiently meets the re- 
quirements of the members for close touch with the 
work of the institution. It has been therefore de- 
cided to discontinue the yearly issue and to 
a "Journal" to be issued in monthly numbers, and 
ill April, May, .June and July twice monthly. In 
this will appear papers and discussions, and all 
not ces which can conveniently and usefully be in- 
cluded. Special articles will appear from time to 
time, and it is intended to afford a means whereby 
the members generally will be able to discuss 
matters of professional interest. By the aeceijtance 
of selected advertisements, which will appear at the 
beginning and end only of each issue, the council 
trust materially to reduce the present lieavy total 
cost of printing. No advertisements will be included 
in the text, and binding cases will be obtainable 
from the printers on the completion of the year's 
issues by those who desire to bind the numbers in 
the form of a volume. The first issue will be in the 
hands of the members as soon as possible after the 
conclusion of the annual meeting. 


A cross reference index to volumes 31 to 38 is in 
course of preparation, and it is hoped it will he 
ready for issue shortly. 



Dislrkl i'/tairnian—A. T. Davis, m.inst.c.b. 
JMstrict Jfe2)rese/ilalivi' — A. T. Davis, m.inst.c.e. 
District i'eort'tory — F. C. Cook, A.ssoc. m.inst.c.e. 

Tw'o meetings of the members of this district have 
been held during the year under review. The first 
was held at Birmingham on November 21, 1912, at 
w'hich Mr. H. E. Stilgoe, m.inst.c.e., city engineer, 
Birmingham, gave a very interesting address on the 
town planning schemes adopted by the city corijora- 
tion. At this meeting an Executive Committee for 
the district was elected, and the members received, 
with very great regret, the resignation of Mr. H. 
Richardson, who had for many years filled the office 
of district secretary. The second meeting was also 
held at Birmingham on January 23, 1913, at which 
an interesting discussion on the report of the De- 
partmental Committee of the Local Goveinmeiit 
Board on intercepting traps in house drains was 
opened by Mr. E. B. Savage, Assoc. m.inst.c.e., city 
engineer's department. Birmingham, and Mr. A. J. 
Dickinson, surveyor to the Redditeh Urban District 
Council. In addition to the above, two meetings 
of the Executive Committee have been held in con- 
nection with matters of moment to the district. 

SOUTHERN district. 

Dislriit Chairman — R. Read, Assoc. m.inst.c.e. 
District Ifepresenlaliic — L. S. McKenzie. A. m.inst.c.e. 
District Homtrary Si<rclari/—F. R. Phipps, A. m.inst.c.e. 
A Southern District meeting was held at South- 



JDLT 18, 1913. 

ampton on Saturday, February 22, 1913. The mem- 
bers assembled at the town hall, where they were 
received by his worship the mayor. Councillor H. 
Bowyer, r.n.r. Entering conveyances, the mem- 
bers proceeded to visit the works of the Trinidad 
Lake Asphalte Paving Company, inspecting en ruuh 
roads constructed and in course of construction by 
the company. A visit wa.s then paid to the Northam 
swimming bath. After luncheon the member.* re- 
turned to the town liall. An Executive Committee 
lor the Southern District was elected. An interest- 
ing paper, descriptive of the Northam open-air 
swimming bath, constructed in ferro-concrete, by 
Air. J. A. Crowther, borough engineer, Southampton, 
was then read and discussed. 

District Chairman — A. Fidler, m.inst.c.e. 
District Re'prescntatives — W. H. Prescott, m.inst.c.e. ; 

H. T. Wakelam, m.inst.c.e. 
District Honorary Secretary — E. J. Elford. 

Two meetings of the institution and four district 
meetings have Ijeen held in the Eastern District 
during this session. The institution meetings were 
held at Grays and Gerrards Cross respectively, and 
were both well attended. At the former a paper 
entitled "Municipal Works at Grays" was read by 
Mr. A. C. James, Assoc. m.inst.c.e., and an interest- 
ing series of visits followed, including the Grays 
open-air swimming bath and recreation gromid, the 
Wouldham Cement Company's works, and the works 
of Messrs. Siegwart, Limited. 

At the Gerrards Cross meeting a paper descriptive 
of the new sewage disposal works, Gerrards Cross, 
was read by Mr. A. Gladwell, engineer and surveyor 
to the Eton Rural District Council. The works were 
formally opened in the presence of the members by 
Colonel the Hon. W. Le Poer Trench, c.v.c, r.e. 

The district meetings were held in London, and 
were well attended. In addition to the transaction 
of district business, discussions took place on papers 
upon the following subjects — viz., "The Report of the 
Departmental Committee of the Local Government 
Board in Reference to the Use of Intercepting Traps 
in House Drains," introduced by Mr. H. Percy 
Boulnois, M.INST.C.E.; "Modern Methods of Water 
Pi»-ificatiou," by Dr. J. C. ^Thresh; "Widths, 
Diameters, and Weights of Road Wheels," by Mr. 
A. E. Collins, m.inst.c.e.; the advantage or other- 
wise of the publication by the Press of papers read 
at meetings of the institution, by Air. C. Vawser, and 
the proposed Mutual Defence Fund, by Mr. H. T. 
Wakelam, m.inst.c.e. 

A District Executive Committee was elected at the 
Grays meeting in September, and two meetings were 
held during the session. 


District Chairman — F. Massie, m.inst.c.e. 

District Sepresentatives — E. B. Martin, m.inst.c.e.: 

E. R. Matthews, Assoc. m.inst.c.e. 
District Honorary Secretary — J. P. Wakeford, Assoc. M. 


Since the last annual meeting one meeting of the 
institution has been held in this district at New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, on May 2 and 3, 1913. Papers were 
read by Mr. W. J. Steele, m.inst.c.e., city engineer, 
and three members of his staff, Messrs. Hubert Laws, 
F. I. Alorgan, a. m.inst.c.e., and J. McKellar, the respec- 
tive subjects being " Notes on Municipal Works in 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne," " Newcastle Quayside Exten- 
sions," " Ouseburn Valley Works, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne," and " Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tramway Exten- 
sions." The members were kindly received by the 
Lord Mayor and the Sheriff, who extended to the 
institution a cordial official welcome. On the after- 
noon of the Friday the members were afforded an 
opportunity of a cruise down the river Tyne, in a 
steamer kindly placed at the disposal of the institu- 
tion by the River Tyne Commissioners, and on the 
afternoon of Saturday exceedingly interesting and 
instructive visits were made to the Quayside, Ouse- 
burn Valley works, Benton Bank Bridge widening 
and tramway, and Jesmond Dene. 

During the year two district meetings was held— 
viz., at York on November 30, 1912. and at Leeds on 
March 8, 1913. At the former meeting a paper was 
contributed by Mr. F. W. Spurr, city engineer, on 
"Works in Hand at York." At the meeting held 
in Leeds a paper was contributed by Air. W. T. 
Lancashire, m.inst.c.e., city engineer, on " Some 
Alunicipal Works and Practice in Leeds." The ses- 
sion of 1912-13 may be regarded as a most success- 

ful one, both from the point of view of meetings 
and increase in membership, the numbers on the 
roll in this district now being 115 members, 28 
associate members, and 7 students. 

north-western district. 
District Chairman — J. A. Brodie, m.inst.c.e. 
DislriH Bepresentativrs^C. Brownridge, m.inst.c.e. ; 

W. Stubbs, ASSOC.M. INST.C.E. 
DiMrirl Honorary Secretary— A. W. Bradley, M.INST.C.E. 

A district meeting was b.eld at Blackpool on 
November 16, 1912. The business was of a formal 
and preliminary character. Mr. J. S. Brodie, the 
borough engineer and surveyor of Blackpool, gave 
a hrlei description of the Princess Promenade works, 
v.hich were inspected. 

On March Ist a district meeting was held at Stret- 
ford, at which an Executive District Committee was 
elected. Air. E. Worrall, the surveyor to the Stret- 
foid Urban District Council, read a short paper on 
" Asphalt Street Pavements," which was fully dis- 
cussed. Afterwards several streets illustrating that 
type of street construction were inspected, as well 
as the Old Ti-afford baths. Seymour Park schools, 
and technical institute. Promises of future meetings 
to be held at Blackburn, Colne, Darwen, Leigh, 
Lythain and Rochdale have been given, and it is 
hoped that meetings will be held in Bolton and 
Alanchester also during the coming year. 


Chairman — J. Patten Barber, m.inst.c.e. 

District lleprcKiildtiris — Norman Scorgie, m.inst.c.e.; 

O. E. Winter, assoc. m.inst.c.e. 
Hon. District Seivelary — Norman Scorgie, m.inst.c.e. 

As and from Alarch 18, 1912, to April 2. 1913 (inclusive), 
four meetings were held, the fiist at Caxton Hall, 
and the others at the ottiees of the institution. It 
was lioped that more could have been arranged, but 
owing to the large number of other district meetings 
held in the Aletropolis it was imi>ossible to fix con- 
venient dates, and for this reason it was found im- 
practicable to call meetings monthly, with an occa- 
sional social evening, as was suggested at the com- 
mencement of the year. It is, however, hoped that 
these may be arranged for in the future. 

The matters dealt with at the various meetings 
have included, among others : The question of a con- 
ference with the superintending architect respecting 
Part VII. of the London Building Act, 1894, in rela- 
tion to temporary buildings and wooden structures ; 
the draft by-laws of the London County Council as 
to overhanging lamps, signs, &c. ; the influence of 
motor traffic on Aletropolitan roads; a Mutual De- 
fence Fund, and a suggestion from the North- 
Eastern District that the meetings of the council of 
the institution should be held in various parts of the 
country, instead of always in London, as at present. 

When the question of the formation of a Alutual 
Defence Fund came before the members present at 
the meeting it was favourably entertained, and the 
hope expressed that the whole of the members of 
the district would cordially support its adoption. 
The suggestion of the North-Easteru District was 
carefully considered, but, in the opinion of the 
meeting, the question was entirely one for the mem- 
bers of the council to determine, and not one on 
which a district meeting could express any decision. 

A very instructive and interesting discussion took 
place on the question of the influence of motor trafiic 
on AletroiJolitan roads, and among other subjects 
touched upon by the members were the regrouting 
of granite sett paving, the requirements under the 
Locomotive Acts and the Heavy Alotor Car Order, 
limitation of routes, &c. 

At the conclusion of the meeting held on December 
13, 1912, members and friends adjourned to Lyons' 
Victoria Alansions restaurant, Victoria-street, where 
a most enjoyable and musical evening was spent; 
so much so, in fact, that all i:)resent expressed the 
hope that many more such gatherings might be 
arranged in the future. 


District Chairman — ^W. Jones, Assoc. m.inst.c.e. 
District Representative — J. Price Evans. 
District Honorary Secretary — J. England. 

Owing to the great distance apart of the towns, it 
is found to be very difficult to arrange meetings 
w'ithin the district convenient to all. and this, com- 
bined with the chairman being indisposed during 
the greater part of the winter months, has prevented 
a series of half-day meetings being arranged as was 

JuLV IS. 1913. 



Diirins; the year tliree meetings have been held, 
two ut Bay and one at Wrexham, the two 
first named i)eing informal for the purjiose of iiom.!- 
natins the chairman, repre.sentative and lion, secre- 
tarv for the district. A paper entitled "Wrexham 
and its Municipal Works." prepared by Mr. England, 
borough engineer, was discussed, a visit afterwards 
being made to various municipal works. 


DIsirin Vir(-}'nsi<leiif—J. Bryce, M.iNST.c.K. 
Dislrui Chairmnii—i. Bryce, M.lNST.C.B. 
DlMricI Hifpn'M-itlalive—J. Young. 
Dl.ilrii-1 Iliinorarji Secretanj—'D. Ronald. 

X Scottish District meeting was held in Falkirk 
on December 21, 1912, for the purpose of considering 
the formation of three committees— viz., a Roads 
Committ^^e, Housing and Town Planning Committee, 
and a General Purposes Committee. These com- 
mittees were formed, and consist of nine, eight and 
thirteen members respectively. It was also agreed 
to circularise the local authorities, pointing out that 
these conmiittees had been formed and asking 
their co-operation in the work of the institution. 
It was stated by the chairman that the Roads Com- 
uiittee was being formed primarily to collect and 
tabulate scientific data as to improved methods of 
road construction, and particularly the effect of 
climatic conditions in conjunction with traffic re- 
turns on experimental road lengths to be laid down 
in Scotland having distinctive climatological con- 

Joint Mcilinij of Euad-s, Ilousiiuj and Town Planning 
Commitleef. January 10, 1913.— The hon. district secre- 
tary read a letter from the Secretary of the Local 
Government Board intimating that they had dis- 
posed of the Model By-laws drawn up l>y the institu- 
tion, and that the Secretary for Scotland had them 
now under consideration. 

It was agreed that Mr. A. Horsburgh Campbell and 
Mr. J. E. Wilkes be put forward as nominees for elec- 
tion to the council. 

lioads Committee Meeting, January 10, 1913. — Mr. J. 
Walker Smith was elected chairman of the Roads 
Committee, and Mr. W. H. Wainwright was elected 
committee secretary. 

(leneral Purposes Committee Meeting, Januar.y 10, 1913. 
— Mr. A. Horsburgh Campbell was elected chairman, 
and Mr. D. A. Donald was elected committee secre- 

The following were appointed correspondents to 
collect, itc, information of the following matters: — 

Main di*aiua^e 

Tramways and tn^nsit 


HoBpitals and sanatoria 
Statistical returns 

W. Forbes. 

J. Young. 

C. Massie and W. WatS' 

A. Stereuson. 

J. Young and A. Forbes 

J. Bryce. 

The information to be sent to the committee secre- 
tary by March 31st, and to be submitted to a com- 
mittee meeting to be held for that purpose; the infor- 
mation so collected to be kept by the hon. district 
secretary for the use of Scottish members, a copy to 
be sent to the general secretary in London for the 
use of the in.stitution. 

Tmon Planning Meeting, January 10, 1913. — Mr. John 
Bryce was elected chairman, and Messrs. W. A. 
Macartney and J. K. Wilkes committee secretaries. 
Mr. Wilkes was instructed to see the Local Govern- 
ment Board, and to olifer to jjlace at their disposal the 
experience of the committee in framing further regu- 
lations relative to town planning. 

It was agreed to visit Dunfermline on Saturday, 
February 1, 1913, to inspect the town planning schemes 
in connection with Rosyth development. 

A meeting of the Scottish District was held on 
March 6, 1913. Mr. J. Bryce, vice-president, occupied 
the chair. The meeting was called to consider nomina- 
tions for district officers, and it was agreed to recom- 
mend the following ; Vice-president, Mr. John Bryce ; 
district chairman, Mr. F. G. Holmes; district repre- 
sentative, (o) Mr. A. Horsburgh Campbell, (6) jNIr. John 
Young; district secretary, Mr. David Ronald. 

\ letter was read by the district secretary from the 
Convention of Royal Burghs asking for suggestions to 
the amending Schedule IV. of the Burgh Police Act, 
1892, in connection with the Police Amendment Bill. 
The letter was remitted to the By-laws Committee. 

In addition to the work undertaken at the above 
meetings", evidence on behalf of the institution is being 
given before the Royal Commission on Housing by 
Messrs. A. Horsburgh Campbell, John Young, A. 
Stevenson, J. E. Wilkes and James Thomson. 

A meeting of the By-laws Committee and the Con- 
vention of Royal Burghs was held on March 14th, 
and the question of amending Schedule IV. and other 
clauses of the Police Acts was discussed. It was 
agreed that the B.v-laws Conunittee draw up an 
amended schedule in place of Schedule IV., and for- 
ward same to the convention for inclusion in the 
Police ,\mendment Bill. The meeting was held on 
.Vjiril 4th, and the new schedule has been forwarded. 

The district secretary is putting himself into com- 
munication with engineers, surveyors and assistants 
who are not in the institution, and who are qualified for 
election, with a view to enlisting them into the insti- 
t\ition. The district secretary is endeavouring, along 
with the general secretary, to form a students' section 
of the Scottish District, and is prepared to give his 
assistance to the secretary of this branch when formed. 

The annual summer meeting was held at Dundee. 

From the hon. district secretary's office 1,109 letters 
and circulars have been .-^ent out, and 203 letters have 
been received. 


District Chairman — W. Harpur, m.inst.c.e. 

/liMrirt Uepresentntive—ii. A. Phillips, Assoc. m.inst.c.e. 

Distriet Honorary Secretanj — H. Alex. Clarke. 

On March 23, 1912, a meeting of the South Wales 
District was held at Cardiff, when the following nomi- 
nations were made: District chairman, Mr. W. Harpur, 
city engineer, Cardiff; disti'ict representative, Mr. 
Geo. A. Phillips, county surveyor, Bridgend; district 
secretary, Mr. H. Ales. Clarke, surveyor. Urban Dis- 
trict Council, Briton Ferry. 

Much correspondence has passed between the dis- 
trict secretary and the members during the year. The 
first district meeting was held at Sw ansea on January 
II, 1913, to elect an executive conunittee. The Mayor 
of Swansea offered the members of the institution a 
hearty welcome, and the president, Mr. R. J. Thomas, 
thanked the mayor for tlie cordial welcome which he 
had given the members of the institution. Various 
works completed and in course of construction were 
visited, and the deputy borough surveyor, Mr. Geo. 
Swarbrick, presented a paper on the " Swansea Tram- 
ways," and the assistant borough surveyor, Mr. G. H. 
Bell, presented a paper on " The Development of the 
Ventre Valley in Relation to the Destructor." These 
liapers resulted in considerable discussion, and, not- 
withstanding the unfavourable weather, the meeting 
was a successful one. 

The Executive Committee have met and discussed 
questions for furthering the interests of the institu- 
tion, and with the object of placing before gentlemen 
eligible the benefit of becoming members of the in- 

Arrangements are being made for district meetings 
to be held at Cardiff and Neath during the summer 


District Chairman — A. Dryland, m.inst.c.e. 

District Representative — J. L. Redfern. 

District Honorary Secretary — F. Roberts, a.m.inst.c.b. 

September 20, 1912.— District meeting at No. 11 Vic- 

An Executive Committee was formed, consisting of 
four representatives from each county — viz., Kent, 
Surrey and Sussex. A paper was read by Mr. J. L. 
Redfern, borough surveyor, Gilliugham, on " Super- 
annuation, Security of Tenure and Mutual Protection." 
Mr. Redfern was thanked by the chairman for his 
paper, and a discussion followed, in which Mr. R. J. 
Thomas, Mr. H. P. Maybury and others took part. 
Mr. Redfern was requested to send a summary of the 
paper to the professional journals. 

October 2G, 1912. — Executive Committee, when it was 
resolved to hold a meeting at Sidcup, to be followed 
by a dinner in London. 

December 7, 1912. — Executive Committee meeting, 
when various details of the meeting to be held at 
Sidcup were arranged. 

January 8, 1913. — A most successful district meet- 
ing was held at Sidcup, to examine the experimental 
lengths of road laid down for the Road Board by the 
Kent County Council. 

The members traversed the sections, commencing 
at the New Eltham end, examining them with much 
minuteness, while Mr. Maybury gave many valued 
explanations. On arriving at the Sidcup end the 
members held a meeting under the chairmanship of 
Mr. A. Dryland, where Mr. Maybury gave interesting 
particulars of the cost of construction, reconstruction, 
scavenging and repairs, and the total expenditure as 
returned to him bv the manufacturers. The members 



JlLY IS. 11113 

were aiteiwanlri ontcrlaiiied to tea by Mr. Maybury, 
and at tlie couclusioii of the luecting hearty thauUt; 
were accorded him for contributing in .-^o many 
ways to the .success of tlie arrangements. In the 
evening the ineii)f)ers dined together at Frascati's 
Kestaurant, Oxford-street, the cliair being occuijicd 
by Air. Dryland, who was supported liy the president, 
the general secretary, Mr. Maybury and some twenty- 
live members. A musical progrannne and variou.-* 
toasts followed the dinner, and a most successful 
evening terminated about 10 o'clock. 


Viflr'ul Chairiiiaii — E. G. Mawbey, m.insi.c.e. 
DUlrict I/cprisciitaiiue—E. I'urnell Hooley, m.inst.c.e. 
DUlrkl Hon. iSecretari/ — E. A. MacBrair, m.inst.c.e. 

Tlie following meetings have been held during the 
year: — 

A meeting at Ilkeston, held September 28, 1912; 
papers were read on the municipal works at Ilkeston, 
tlie siiecial sewage disposal works, and their tram- 
way and electricity works. All these were inspected 
and a District Executive Committee formed. 

A committee meeting was held in the Shire Hall, 
Nottingham, on November IG, 1912, when various 
matters of business were discussed. 

A meeting of the District Committee was lield at 
Newark on February 15, 1913. Various matters of 
business were discussed. 

A general meeting of the district was held at 
Newark on February 15, 1913. A paper was read on 
■■ Rural Housing," and a discussion ensued thereon. 


iJlilrkl Chairman — H. T. Chapman. 

VUlrul Meprcsentaiivc — T. Moulding, m.inst.c.e. 

Dislrkt Honurary iSecretarij — T. Moulding, m.inst.c.e. 

There have been three meetings of the district held 
during the year; the lirst one at Taunton on 
November 16th last was very well attended, con- 
sidering the area of the district, and a very useful 
discussion on " The Advantages and Disadvantages 
of Tar-macadam Koads," led by the borough sur- 
veyor of Taunton, took place. The second meeting 
was held on Apr.l 5th at Exeter, and was also w-ell 
attended. There was no paper or discuss. on at this 
meeting, as it had been called for the purpose of 
deciding whom to nominate as chairman, represen- 
tative and secretary. 

The third meeting was held at Truro on May 30th. 
The chairman stated that he had promised the 
Association of Somenset Surveyors to support the 
following resolution; — 

" That this association, having regard to the fact 
that surveyors are now compelled to use mechani- 
cally propelled vehicles in order to adequately in- 
spect the roads under their supervision, are of 
opinion that the same facilities in the matter of 
taxation on vehicles, and rebate on ^letrol consumed, 
that are at present allowed the medical profession 
should be granted to them." 

He exijlained that a copy of the resuUition iiad 
been sent to the Chancellor of the Exchequer and 
the secretary of the institution. After some discus- 
sion, it was propotjfd by Mr. Brookes, and seconded 
by Mr. Garrett, ^hat the resokition be supported by 
the South-Western District members; this was 
passed ncni. con., and the secretary was instructed 
to forward the resolution to the secretary of the 

Mr. Brookes, the county surveyor of Cornwall, 
then read a few notes on '" Points in Connection with 
Road Maintenance, with Particular Reference to 
Bituminous Roads." A good discussion followed. 
Mr. Brookes having replied, it was unanimou.sly re- 
solved that he be asked to supplement the notes, 
and submit them in the form of a paper, to be read 
either at a district meeting or the forthcoming 
annual meeting. This Mr. Brookes promised to do. 
The members and visitors were afterwards enter- 
tained to supper by Mr. Brookes at the County Hall. 

On Saturday, the 31st, the party paid a visit to 
the Bath and West Show in the morning, and were 
the guests of the West of England Stone Company 
and the St. Keverne Stone Company in a trip dowii 
the river Fal in the afternoon. On arriving at Fal- 
mouth, the party were met by the deputy mayor and 
the borough surveyor of Falmouth, and were driven 
round the Castle Drive, after which the party were 
jiermittfid to inspect the semi-tropical gardensowned 
by Howard Fox, Esq. Tea, provided by the Mavor 
of Falmouth, was then i>artaken of. After a vote" of 
thanks to the Mayor of Falmouth, which was replied 

to by the deputy mayor, owing to the absence of the 
mayor, the party broke up, having sijcnt a very eii- 
joyalile day. A digest of the meetings was .-^ent to 
the professional papers. 



Mr. E. J. Elford: This committee lias held a 
number of meet ngs during the year, and has had 
under consideration many matters relating to 
standardisation, in addition to which members of 
the committee have been actively engaged upon a 
number of sectional committees of the Engineering 
Standards Committee. 

C'oncretr Flags, — The first edLtion of the standard 
sijecification published by the in.stitution was 
rapidly disposed of, and early in the year the com- 
mittee found it necessary to publish a second edi- 
tion. Before doing this conferences were lield with 
the Concrete Institute, and certain revisions agreed 
upon. Tlie specification is on sale by Messrs. E. & 
F. N. Spon, Limited, 57 Haymarket, price 2s. 6d. per 

The committee has from time to time considered 
matters relating to questions brought before them 
by the delegates to other committees, and has de- 
cided upon the course which should be adopted by 
the representatives of this institution. 


Mr. W. Harpur : But little practical work has been 
done by this committee during the past year. At 
the beginning of the year other kindred institutions 
were given an increased number of representatives 
on the committee, making their numbers three from 
each institutcon, the number of representatives from 
this institution being two. An application for 
further repre.sentat:on from this institution at first 
met with refusal, and for a long time no meeting of 
the committee was held. At the meeting of the com- 
mittee held recently, however, it was decided to 
accede to the request of this institution for another 
representative, and Mr. E. J. Elford was nominated 
by this institution, and has accepted a seat on the 
committee. Two manufacturers of manganese steel 
points and crossings have also been added to the 
committee in the iiersons of INIr. Brown, of Messrs. 
Hadfields, Limited, and Mr. Bland, of Messrs. Edgar 
Allen & Co. The election of these two gentlemen 
became necessary owing to the decision of the com- 
mittee to standardise points and crossings. During 
the past year there has been shown a desire on the 
part of some members of the committee representing 
other institutions to commence de novo in the matter 
of the rail standards and practically to scrap the 
present standards. Inquiries made hy Mr. Elford 
from the members of this institution who have the 
control of tramway track work elicited the fact that 
there was no desire for any such change, except 
from a very small percentage of track engineers, and 
that to conimeuce changing the standards would be 
a fatal error in British standardisation. At the last 
meeting of the committee the proposals were de- 
feated, but it was decided to make certain amend- 
ments in the standards, the details of which will be 
gone into at an early meeting of the committ'ee. 
During the year a very valuable addition to the 
information upon rail corrugation has been the con- 
tribution of the invaluable paper on the subject of 
this institution by Mr. Wakelam. The committee 
is desirous of making exhaustive inquiries into the 
question of rail oorrugation, and of making recom- 
mendations for their reduction or prevention if the 
inquiries should result in the securing of any defi- 
nite information on the subject, but before entering 
upon the matter in detail it has first to come before 
the main Standardisation Committee to ascertain 
whether the question properly comes within the 
scope of standardisation, and, if so, whether any 
funds are available for prosecuting the inquiries. 



Mr. R. J. Thomas U'lesident): The Engineering 
Standards Committee having appointed a committee 
to consider and report upon the standardisation of 
road materials, the latter, which included the presi- 
dent, and Messrs. E. J. Elford and H. T. Wakelam, 
decided to consider first the question of road stone, 
and appointed a sub-committee composed of road 
engineers and stone merchants to discuss the sub- 
ject. After several meetings such sub-committee 

.Iii.v 18. 1913. 



arrived at an agruuiiiunt uiion Ihu deliiiiliun of 
gauges and size.<, and tlie iietinlogical olassifiiatiun 
of road stone n.sed in tlie United Kingdom. Tlie'r 
recommendations were submitted to and approved 
liy tlie General Connnittee on -Road Materials, and 
will shortly he considered hy the Engineering 
Standards Connnittee. Should these roconunonda- 
tions he adoi)ted it is confidently helieved that an 
impoitanl step will have been taken in the direction 
of uniformity and .simplicity in dealing with road 

Mr. E. J. Elford: Considerable time and labour has 
been e.vpended in obtaining reliable information upon 
which to liase a .standard specification dealing with 
the ^'aiige and size of road stone, and draft clauses 
have now been agreed. The subject of nomenclature 
of road stones, and clauses for a specification of bitu- 
minous, tar and pitch road materials are next to be 


Mr. E. J. Elford : A number of meetings of the Sec- 
tional Committee have been held under the chair- 
manship of Sir Maurice Fitzmaurice. Considerable 
difficulty has been experienced in arriving at agree- 
ment with the manufacturers' representatives on some 
important points, but at the date of this report a draft 
specification has been practically agreed upon. 


Mr. T. \V. iHayward : In 1910 the council were in- 
vited to send five representatives to a conference to 
take into consideration the preparation and issue of 
a standard specification for street lighting. The fol- 
lowing institutions were represented upon the Joint 
Committee : Institution of iElectrical Engineers (nine 
members); Institution of Gas Engineers (five mem- 
bers) : In.stitution of Municipal and County Engineers 
(five members); Illuminating Engineering Society (five 
members). The council, on the recommendation of 
the Standardisation Committee, appointed the follow- 
ing as their representatives: Messrs. G. F. Carter, 
E.^J. Elford, T. W. A. Hayward, E. B. B. Newton and 
N. Scorgie. 

A great many meetings have been held, and your 
representatives have been in attendance at every meet- 
ing. The standard clauses were agreed upon by the 
committee and were submitted to the councils of the 
several institutions for approval. Your council con- 
sidered the same, and amended some of the details 
slightly. The amendments .suggested were accepted 
by the Joint Committee. Ultimately a paper was pre- 
pared and read by iMr. A. P. Trotter, one of the mem- 
bers of the committee. This was thoroughly discussed, 
and as a result the committee are now (June, 1913) 
considering slight amendments to the draft clauses at 
first submitted. It is hoped the standard clauses w-ill 
be issued in the near future. 


Mr. iNorman Scorgie : During the past year meetings 
of the National Council have been held in London 
and at Birmingham. At each meeting very gratifying 
reports were received respecting increase of member- 
ship. The activities of the association have been 
maintained during the past twelve months. The 
examination scheme inaugurated last year has been 
much appreciated by the younger members engaged 
in municipal work, and it is felt that anything which 
tends to improve the efSciency and status of the 
clerical side of an engineer's staff must be beneficial 
to the department. The superannuation question con- 
tinues to maintain the premier position in the work 
of the association, and every possible effort has been 
made during the past year to further the matter. 
Additional efforts have been made to enlist the sym- 
pathy of other associations, to secure the support of 
Members of Parliament, and to persuade municipal 
corporations of the mutual advantages which would 
be derived by a national scheme. At the several meet- 
ings of the General Purposes Committee the .subject 
has always been in the forefront; further figures 
prepared by the actuary of the association have been 
carefully considered, and at the meeting recently held 
at Birmingham a new Draft Bill submitted by the 
committee was considered by the National Council, 
attended by over 160 delegates from all parts of the 
United Kingdom and Ireland, at which a general and 
most interesting discussion ensued. After dealing 
with several clauses, the further consideration wa.^ 
adjourned to a special meeting to be held in London 
at a date to be fixed previous to the next annual meet- 

ini;-. .Vs foreshadowed in the rciH>rl, an approved 
.society under the National Insurance .Vet has been 
formed, and it is very gratifying to place upon record 
that over ii,70;) nuinicipal officers have embraced the 
opportunity of joining. This is a matter in wliich 
your delegate has taken a very keen interest, and he- 
is pleased to report that the financial result to date 
has been beyond expectation, while the approved 
.societies in general have been loud in their com- 
plaints in respect of the severe drain on their funds, 
necessitated by the percentage of members receiving 
benefit. The sickness among municipal officers who 
are members of this society has averaged oidy about 
1 per cent, and if the pre.sent low rate of sickness con- 
tinues the time will not be far distant ere the for- 
tunate members will be receiving additional benefits 
such as were anticipated when the society was formed. 
As a further instance of the usefulness of the associa- 
tion, the members of the institution will note with 
satisfaction that financial assistance to the extent of 
£25 has been given to Mr. Wm. Jones, surveyor of 
Colwyn Bay, towards the heavy expenditure he was- 
compelled to incur in connection wdth the proceedings 
taken in vindication of his character. 


Mr. Charles Jones (hon. secretary); This board is 
.still doing good work. Three examinations have been 
held during the past year, two in London and one in 
Birmingham; and although the number of candidates 
was not quite so high as in the previous 'year, the 
standard arrived at was exceptionally good, and shows 
a very high degree of efficiency. The total number of 
"" was thirty-eight, strangely enough, the 
same number of each sex — viz., nineteen males and 
nineteen' females. 


Mr. G. F. Carter: The sub-committee engaged in 
the preparation of a standard specification for cast- 
iron pipes for water, gas and sewage has issiied a 
draft specification which is being considered by the 
Sectional Committee. The specification includes, in 
addition to the straight pipes, complete tables of 
standard dimensions for special castings. 

The President remarked that as they had copies 
of the report in their hands he would formally move 
its adoption. 

Mr. T. W. A. Hayward (Battersea), who seconded, 
explained that there had been abnormal expenditure 
during the year of over £200 for furnishing the new- 
offices. The auditors had treated that not as current 
expenditure, as they had full value for the money in 
the furniture, which was the property of the institu- 

THE institution "PROCEEDINGS." 

Mr. H. Gilbert Whyatt (Great Grimsby) said he 
did not object to the publication of the " Proceed- 
ings " of the institution in journal form, but he 
noticed that the papers which were to be read were 
nearly an inch larger, and when liound they would 
have two sizes of volumes in the bookcases. 

Mr. A. J. Price (Lythani) said he had always 
looked upon the " Proceedings " as the valu- 
able part of his membership of the institution, and 
he thought it was a nity that they had abandoned 
the annual volume. It was most useful to them as 
municipal engineers to have these books as works 
of reference. He asked if anything could be done 
to give them the " Proceedings " in a permanent 
form at the end of the year. 

Mr. G. W. Lacey (Oswestry) said he was not sure 
that the journal form was going to be so valuable 
to them as the annual volume. The departiwe from 
the jiresent form of the annual volume .seemed 
somewhat unfortunate. (Hear, hear.) Their meet- 
ings were so well reported in the professional Press 
that they had the papers and discussions practically 
immediately after the holding of the meeting, and 
the value of the journal was considerably reduced 
by this fact 

Mr. A. E. Prescott (Eastbourne) said lie noticed 
that the of printing year was £831. lie 
would like to aiji whether the cost of publishing 
this monthly journal would be in excess of the 
present annual volume. It was rather important to 
know that. 

The President : It will not be as expensive. 

iMr. Prescott: I take it the council have given 
tiiis matter consideration. He would like to con- 
gratulate the council on presenting a very interest- 
ing and valuable report. The formation of the 



July 18. 191:5. 

district committees had undoubtedly justified their 

Mr. Whyatt said he did not object to tlie jomnal 
form, or to the binding at the end of the year, Init 
he did object to tlie difference in size. 

Mr. CoCKSiLL expressed the view that forty volumes 
of one size were quite sufficient. 

Mr. J. E. Wilkes (Dunfermline) thought the council 
should consider the reproduction of the plates in the 
press: he felt the size of the journal would have 
to be larger than that mentioned. They had been 
admirably served by The StiRVEYOR, and it had always 
been an incentive to him to read its reports and its 
temperate comments. The council were followinc the 
lead of all the principal technical institutions in tlic 
world in issuing a monthly journal. It would he a 
very great help to them to have the " Proceedings " 
more frequently than at present. 

Mr. E. Ckoome (Cromer) said he considered the idea 
of the new journal was an excellent one, and it would 
keep them more in touch with the institution to have 
the " Proceedings " monthly instead of having to wait 
a year for them. 


Mr. O. A. Bridges (Bognor) said he wanted to know 
how they stood with regard to supei-annuation. Was 
the institution doing anything ? He was speaking 
on behalf of surveyors to small authorities with salaries 
up to £400 a year. AVlien they got beyond that 
salai-y they could save something for their old age. 
It was a matter of great importance to the men with 
the smaller salaries, and he hoped the institution 
would not let it drop. 

Mr. A. D. GRE.A.TOREX (West Bvomwich) replied that 
the interests of the members of the institution were 
being carefully watched by their delegates on the 
National Association of Local Government Officers. 
Mr. Blair. Mr. Scorgie. and himself represented this 
institution on the council. Tlie question of super- 
annuation had been gone into very carefully by the 
council, and at Birmingham the Superannuation Bill 
was gone through very carefully. 

Mr. Hayward said if they would refer to the report 
they would see that a good deal was said about super- 
annuation being undertaken by the National Asso- 
ciation of Local Government Officers. The council 
had taken into consideration the question of the cost 
of printing, and that was one of the reasons for 
adopting the journal form in jilace of the volume. He 
agreed that in the past the institution had been w^ell 
served by The Surveyor and other technical news- 
papers, and he felt that they would be well served 
in the future. 

Mr. Whyatt said he would not press any amend- 

The PRRsinENT assured the meeting that the council 
were doing what they thought was right in the interest 
of the members. He asked the members to put faith 
in the council, and trust them. Their journal was 
not intended to interfere in any way w-ith the technical 
Press. No institution owed more to the technical 
Press than they did. and they did not intend in any 
way to interfere with the Press. It was to him a 
matter of very great gratification that the discussion 
had been amicalile. They were all agreed in the en- 
deavour to do what was best for the institution, and 
so long as they did that they were going to flourish — 
journal or no journal. 


The President announced that the scrutineers had 
been re-elected as follows: Messrs. E. J. Angel (Ber- 
mondsev). C. F. Davison (Barkinc). F. Harris (Ton- 
hridgeV T. Henry (Retford), P. G. Killick (Fin.sbury). 
W. F. Loveday (Stoke Newingtonl, A. E. Prescott 
(Tottenham). W. B. Pur.ser (Kesteven County). The 
name of Mr. H. A. Webb (Hendon) was added as an 
additional scrutineer. 


The President then presented the premiums for 
the best papers— the first, of five guineas, to Mr. E. E. 
Matthews, Bridlington, for his paper at Bridlington on 
sea defence works, and the second, of three cuineas. 
to Mr. H. W. Barker for his paper at the West Brom- 
wich annual meeting. 


The Retiring President said it was his next 
duty to introduce his sviccessor. In Mr. Cockrill 
they had an ideal president, and he knew thev would 
accord him the sympathy and support lie (Mr. 
Thomas) had received at their hands. 

Mr. J. W. Cockrill, having taken the presidential 
chair, amid cheers, said: "I accept the badge ><i 
office, the badge of servitude on your behalf and 
for you, and I promise that anything I can do will 
be done in your service." (Cheers.) 


Mr. J. S. Brodie (Blackpool! moved that the best 
tlianks of the meeting be given to the retiring presi- 
dent, jNfr. E. J. Thomas, for his management of the 
affairs of the institution during the past year. The 
year, he said, had been one of great activity. There 
had been the visit to Amsterdam and The Hague : 
tliere was the reception of the French and Belgian 
delegates under the lead of the president and their 
secretary (Mr. Cole); and there was the International 
Eoad Congress, which was an enormous business. 
With regard to the organisation of that congress the 
least said the better. Then Mr. Thomas headed a 
deputation to Mr. Asquith and Mr. Burns with re- 
ference to town planning in London, and did great 
service in urging the adoption of a clear policy. 
Then there was also the removal of the headquarters 
(if the council and the institution to new premises. 
j\[r. Brodie also referred in graceful terms to the 
marriage of Mr. Thomas during his year of office, 
and added that it was the heartfelt desire of every 
member of the institution that the lives of Mr. and 
Mrs. Thomas would be spent happily together, and 
that nothing but good w-ould follow them all the days 
of their life. 

Mr. G. W. Lacey (Oswestry), who seconded, said 
tliey must all recognise the great assiduity that Mr. 
Thomas had shown during the past year in attend- 
ing the meetings of tlie institution, and also the 
keen interest he had taken in all the affairs of the 
institution. It was a matter of gratification tliat his 
year of office had been so successful. They all hoped 
that Jlr. and Mrs. Thomas would be spared for 
many years to enjoy a happy and prosperous life. 
The vote of thanks was accorded by acclamation. 
Sir. R. J. Thomas, who was received with applause, 
said he did not know how to thank them sufficiently 
for the vote of thanks. He had the interest of the 
institution close at heart, and anything he had been 
able to do — and he had done his best — had been done 
witli the entire object of benefiting the institution. 
They had had a busy year in more resjiects than one. 
He hoped that the happy event which had made the 
year certainly the happiest year in his life had not 
prevented him doing his duty to the institution. He 
thanked them for their kindly references to his wife. 
In most of the matters referred to Mr. Cole had done 
the greater part of the work, especially in receiving 
the French and Belgian engineers, and he was pleased 
to say tliat, courteous as they always were, they recog- 
nised Mr. Cole's service by electing him an honoran" 
member of their institution. He thanked the members 
for the valuable token of their esteem and regard on 
the occasion of his recent marriage, and he assured 
them it would always be a memento of the time when 
he had the opportunity and the honour to serve the 

Mr. CocxniLL then rose and delivered the fol- 


The orthodox way for a president to Ijegin his 
address is to thank those who have placed him in 
the position for the great honour done him. I wish 
to be orthodox, and in a most heartfelt manner. As 
I look back over the list of men you have placed in 
this position I feel that I .shall have .some difficulty 
in worthily performing the duties. Since my con- 
nection with the institution thirty ju-esidents have 
passed through tlieir year of office, and I have seen 
the loyal way in which the council and all the mem- 
bers have supported them. It is upon this loyalty 
and support that I am relying, and by which I 
hope to succeed in making the term in any way 
com]>are with those which liave gone before. One 
other Yarmouth man has held this position — viz.. 
Mr. A. W. jNlorant, in 1880-81. He was then at 
Leeds, having left Yarmouth some twelve years 
before. During his surveyorship Yarmouth made 
very great progress, and as he was allowed private 
practice many of the buildings of the period are 
liis work. 

Perusal of the thirt.v-eight which your 
|iast-presidents have delivered leaves one with very 
little to say, and I advise future jiresidents not to 
attempt it. In looking back through the vohnnes 
one is struck with the feeling that the idea exists 

July 18, 1913. 



that iiiily ill recent times, and certainly witliin (he 
last I'oiitiiiy or so, has anytliing been done wliicli 
can claim to be of any importance in tlie civil engi- 
neering profession; but 'is it so? We are informed 
on our certificate of membership of tlie Institution 
of Civil Engineers that — " The institution is a 
society established for the general advancement of 
mechanical science, and more particularly, for pro- 
moting that species of knowledge which constitutes 
the profession of a civil engineer, being the art of 
directing the great sources of power in Nature for 
the use and convenience of man." If such a 
descriiUion entitles a man to be called a civil engi- 
neer, then Hercules can claim the title, for, in 
cleansing the .Augean stables, be turned two rivers 
out of their courses, and, using the power so 
obtained, swept out the stables in the allotted time. 
Like many of us, he did not get the due reward of 
his labour. Tliere the likeness must end. for in 
these i)rosaic and civilised times we should not be 
allowed to satisfy ourselves in the way he did. 

To follow the progress from mythological times to 
written history and descriptions, to visit the sites 
and note the care and science expended in the exe- 
cution of various works, provides 


Many of them executed two thousand and more 
years ago are still standing and performing the 
duties they were designed for, and but for the ruth- 
less destruction of men a larger number of useful 
and lieautiful buildings and works would exist to- 
day. In three years' time the Cloaca Maxinui. drain- 
ing the valleys between the hills on which Rome was 
built, will have performed twenty-five centuries of 
useful work. From what can be seen of its outfall 
it looks capable of another twenty-five centuries. 
We hear of work done twenty-five years ago being 
obsolete. In England wc have Roman roads, and 
actual paved surfaces are passable to-day on the 
Continent which were laid 2,000 years ago. Their 
traffic conditions were different to ours, but their 
endurance renders them worthy of notice. And then 
their directness is remarkable. A Roman road was 
nearly always the shortest line between two points. 
They went stra'.ght over hill and dale in the line 
dear to engineers. Classic allusions do not lead us 
to believe that they had either compass or telescope, 
and how tliey secured the result we do not know. 

Wlio among us would not like to see as jilentiful 
and pure a supply of water in our towns and cities 
as that which Rome pos.sessed in Imperial times, 
brought in by the stupendous aqueducts, the remains 
of which are to be seen not only in Rome and Italy, 
but in Spain and France ? Constantinople to-day 
still receives a portion of its water supply through 
the aqueduct construct^ed in the t'me of the Roman 
domination. Compare the dome of the Pantheon, 
still one of the largest in the world, with one of oiu- 
modern buildings, say our last and grandest railway 
station. The Pantheon, after twenty centuries, is 
in good condition. Leave the railway .station with- 
out ijaint and [Uitty for twenty years, and how far 
would it be from being a ruinous and dangerous 
structure ? Will the endurance of our nmch- 
vaunted and nuich-advertised reinforced concrete be 
anything approaching that of Roman times? In 
harbour works, bridges, and all the conveniences of 
a nation's life, remains exist from which much may 
be learnt, and which nnist fdl us with respect for 
the men of many nationaUties who have gone before 
us. But in all the grandeur of Rome and its large 
provincial towns, with their palaces, temples, 
amr>hitheatres, forums, baths, and basilicas, the 
homes of the people were, to say the best for them, 
not sumptuous. The majority must have existed in 
great squalor and misery, or would have done if the 
climate had prevented them from living in the open 

At one of our district meetings at Battersea the 
Right Honourable John Bin-ns stated that, after 
visits to the Continent, he came back to London 
and saw with pride the way in which work was done 
in this country. Abroad he found the main streets 
everything which could be de.sired, but that at home 
not only the main but back streets were laid and 
kept in good condition. It is in this way that I 
think our English work is proving its excellence, 
and in advance of any time and any people. 
Although much remains, a great deal has been done 
to make the conditions of life under which all of the comminiity exist endinable, and it will 
be here that our opportunity comes in, and, if the 

means are provided, the members of this institution 
will be able to complete the good work. Thirty 
years ago a death-rate of 22 per 1,000 was not con- 
sidered excessive, and did not seem to worry any- 
one. To-day the greatest alarm would be experienced 
if the deatli-rate should much exceed 13 per 1,000. 
This reduction has been brought about by improved 
sanitation, and the works necessary to secure it have 
been largely carried out by members of this institu- 
tion. By this I do not mean to imply that we alone 
can take the credit for this improvement, but we 
have borne our full share. The local authorities 
have had the matter forced upon them by Acts of 
Parliament, to which in many they readily 
responded, and then the loyal help of all the services 
employed by them have produced results of which 
the whole nation shoxdd be proud. 

Of course, this work has not been done without 
cost. .The total loans outstanding for which the 
various authorities are responsible is in excess of 
£500,000,000, involving large sums to be set aside 
yearly for repayment of capital and interest. In the 
part of this expenditure which the members of this 
institution have taken the residts have been worth 
the expenditure, although the overburdened rate- 
payer will not always admit this, and vents his dis- 
pleasure in abuse of the official. In connection with 
this there is great need for the 


by the Local Government Board, who in all their 
Acts of Parliament have omitted him, giving security 
of tenure to other officials, who certainly deserve 
their support; but surely we, in carrying out the 
duties involved by compliance with Acts of Parlia- 
ment as frequently as any other official, find our 
duties clashing with the interests of the people em- 
ploying us. In my opinion the road to this recog- 
nition is a standard of qualificafjion which has been 
attained by the majority of members of this institu- 
tion. Tliis standard should be insisted upon through 
all ranks Ijy the Local Government Board, who 
should allow no authority responsible for the work- 
ing of the building by-laws, carrying out the Acts 
of Parliament, and spending the public money, to 
appoint unqualified men. Union among all the 
societies and institutions interested would soon 
secure the attainment of these objects. 

To the younger members of the profession I would 
say, do not wait until registration is an accom- 
plished fact before taking steps to qualify. The 
time spent in acquiring such qualifications will in 
after years be looked upon with pleasure. The 
knowledge obtained with the new fields of informa- 
tion opened up by proper systematic courses of 
study will yield interest undreamt of by the man 
who has not submitted himself to the training in- 
volved in making oneself proficient in all the various 
subjects necessary efficiently to carry on the duties 
he is called upon to perform. 

The examinations of this institution .should receive 
recognition from the Local Government Board, as 
giving evidence of practical knowledge in a large 
number of the necessary subjects. I had almost 
said all ; but when one has had a few years' experi- 
ence he will find that there are many more matters 
to be dealt with by the engineer and surveyor to a 
local authority than are contained in the curriculum 
of all the societies, technical, scientific, or artistic, 
which have yet been published. Membership of this 
institution gives invaluable oppoi-tunities of keeping 
oneself up to date and informed as to the works in 
progress throughout the country. Attendance at the 
district meetings will assist in putting work on 
right lines, both by the works to be seen and the 
criticisms which one hears. If it is a large city, 
we men of the smaller towns may sometimes come 
away discouraged when we remember how cramped 
our own efforts have been. 

The ever-growing 


is a great bar to work being done in a proper manner. 
Ill-feeling is engendered for which we, as the chief 
spendim; department, come in for our full share as 
soon as work is proposed to be undertaken which 
neces.sitates money being spent. A less irk.some 
method of raisinjr the funds for public works than by 
the present rating method has still to be found. How 
often, as I have watched the octroi being collected at 
the entrance to a Continental town, have I thought it 
would be a much easier way of producing the means 
of carrying on the work of the municipality than that 
adopted in England. At any rate, it would make the 



July 18, 1913. 

sunouiKliiig country folk, who derive tlieir income 
from the towns, pay towards tlicir upkeep. Or, say, 
a tax on advertisements, .so that bills now more often 
littering our streets than serving a useful purpose 
paid their share of the necessary taxation ; or the 
posters disli.L'uring our towns had, before being ex- 
liibited, to bear a stamp in value according to their 
size. Adding to the revenue in ways would 
tend to render life in towns more endurable by their 
cleanliness, and the absence of disfiguring hoardings. 

One source of revenue has l)een overlooked in 
Kngland, or, if .seen, lias l)een neglected. In German 
and other towns on the Continent the ownership of 
the surrounding land by the local authority jn-ovides 
the means for carrying out the municipal and public 
works in that town, fliere are long lists of townships 
in which no rates are collected, but all the works of 
pulilic utility and improvements are paid for out of 
funds derii-ed from pui)lic lands. 

A recent issue of the Tmon, Planning h'evuw con- 
tained, among others, the following examples: — 

" In Bavaria, in 1898, the number of districts which 
had no need to levy local rates was no fewer than 

" Fraudenstadt (VVurtemburg) consists of 1,300 
households, and possesses about 6,000 acres of wood 
and 32 acres of meadow ; the revenue was thus spent : 
£5,300 for local taxes, £75 for common needs, and 
£1,650 divided among the burghers." 

" In Baden, in 1899, the rent received for the yearly 
use of the public land was £345,000, and 121 districts 
were absolutely free of rates and taxes owing to the 
income from this source." 

Those of us whose councils have attempted the pur- 
chase of land will know the storm which has been 
raised and the opposition which has been provoked. 
When the authorities require land the price becomes 
inflated. The public manner in which councils have 
to conduct their business makes it impossible to pur- 
chase anything before it is known for whom the pro- 
perty is required. To remedy this state of affairs 
further liberty of action should be accorded to the 
local authorities, and easier means of raising loans 
should be provided than those now existing. Full 
returns for expenditure in this direction would be 
certain. Tlie opportunities of providing open spaces, 
and the ease with which the municipality could secure 
the proper development of the town would be worth 
"paying for, if even a little cost should be incurred. 

The town in which you are met, under a Charter 
of King John, obtained the whole of the "waste" 
lands of the borough — nearly 2,000 acres in extent. 
Very little of this land had been built on before 1800, 
but in eighty years from that date more than 70J acres 
had been brought into use, and the majority covered 
with buildings. A large quantity had been disposed 
of as freehold at perpetual ground rents, the yield 
being about £3 per acre per annum. Recent lettings 
are realising altogether different prices, and A'ary 
from £50 to £500 per annum per acre. The income of 
the corporation from property now closely approaches 
£20,000 per anniun, and is equivalent to a rate ol 20d. 
in the £. Of other sources of revenue — such as gas, 
water, electricity and tramways — many towns do make 
a profit, and devote some portion to the relief of 
rates; it is, however, held by the Local Government 
Board, or, at least, their inspectors express in public 
the opinion that profits from these sources should not 
be so used, but rather applied to increase the stability 
of the undertaking. 

In highway matters the advent of the bicycle a 
quarter of a century ago demonstrated that the old 
methods of 


would have to be abandoned. Stones, especially of 
the flint variety, could not he left to be consolidated 
by the traffic, as had been the custom, and a much 
smoother road than those then provided for the public 
became a necessity. The cycle is now followed bv 
the motor, which proves still further that haphazard 
ways of road making must lie supplanted by more 
scientific methods, and that not only smooth, liut 
dustless roads must be provided, both for the users 
and the dwellers by the road-side. 

During the last two years great strides have been 
made. A debt of gratitude is due to the orcanisers of 
and those carrying out the road trials at Sidcup. 
The reliable information now available as to materials 
and metliods of road making in the twenty-three sec- 
tions laid down will be of inmiense advai'itace to all 
persons concerned in this work. The conclusion 
which must be arrived at from a visit, and the litera- 
ture as far as published, proves that,, leavinff alone 

all questions of inconvenience occasioned l)y frequent 
repairs, the dust in summer and the mud in winter, 
t!ie water-bound macadam road is the most expensive 
method of road making in use, and that some form of 
liituminous-bound road surface w^ill be found the most 
economical and cleanest for general use where paving 
cannot be afforded. A sugeestion made by Colonel 
CroinptoiMhat annual reports of the surveyors should 
set forth full particulars as miiformly as possible, with 
the details as to materials, methods and costs, with 
summaries of practical results classified according to 
amount and character of traffic. It is hoped that if 
this is done the Road Board will publish them, thus 
placing valua))le information in the hands of the sur- 
veyors throughout the country. The Sidcup trials are 
not the only ones which have been made. Other ex- 
periments are being carried out which will have their 
value in various localities. After the Road Congress, 
uhich has recently l)een held, I can add nothing to 
the sum of knowledge which our members who have 
attended it have collected. The very valuable papers 
to be read and discussed during the next tw-o days 
will show that the members of this institution are 
fully capable of dealing with the problems in all 
phases of road traffic, and give us the final word in 
this question. In 


matters the position taken by this institution has 
been acknowledged by the Local Government Board 
in Part II. of their 1911-12 Report recently issued. 
Reference is Ihere made to the conference held at our 
annual meeting at \\'est Bromwich tw-o years ago, and 
it is my fervent hope that this meeting w'ill have a 
similar place in the good opinion of the board. 

Many towns are av'ailing themselves of the Act of 
1909. No town with any concern for its future can 
afford to leave clauses in Part II. alone. There is 
very little doubt that the very useful first part of the 
Act is rendering the whole unpopular with owners 
of property owing to the very effective way in which 
insanitary dwellings can be dealt with. They dread 
that its adoption may curtail their property in value, 
and quite overlook the great advantages conferred in 
the opportunities offered for making agreements on 
liy-laws and costs of work between themselves and 
tlie local authorities. These opportunities compensate 
them to an extent which is not realised, while their 
estates are enhanced in value by the provision of care- 
fully designed means of access as the result of proper 
consideration given to planning at an early stage of 
a town's develoiiment. The intention of the Act being 
more equally to distribute the popidation without 
overcrowding, and the provision of sufficient air 
spaces, brings into earlier use outlying estates which 
w'ould, under the old conditions, have laid dormant 
for many years. The saving to the local authorities 
and through them to the ratepayers in future years 
will be enormous in preventing large sums being 
spent for widening thoroughfares which to-day are 
sufficient for the traffic, but with the growth of the 
town will be too narrow and have to be w'idened. 
when the value of the necessary land will have in- 
creased to an alarming extent. This has been the 
case in every prosperous town in the country. Enor- 
mous sums have been spent in making good the want 
of forethought, and a settled town planning sclien'ie 
which should have been adopted a few years before. 
On these grounds should not the second part of the 
Act have been compulsory ? The community would 
in this way have been compensated for the necessary 
cost in carrying out the very essential first portion. 
Tn old towns, and the older parts of other towns 
where now built over, great difficulty will be ex- 
perienced in carrying out the Act. Vested interests 
will suffer if traffic is diverted by the foundation of 
a new street, which, if a public improvement, would 
lead to enormous losses on the part of jirivate owners 
of business premises who might thereby have the 
traffic entirely taken aw-ay from their property. 

The vexed question of who are tlie proper persons 
to prepare a "scheme " will meet with but one answer 
in this room. The first requisite is the town map 
correctly made up to date, and the second is a 
thorough knowledge of the district. In every well- 
governed town the engineer is responsible for keeping 
the maps up to date, and he has the largest amount 
of knowledge necessary for the work, of such details 
as levels, drainage, traffic conditions, and the general 
direction in which increase of building is likely to 
take place. Of course, I do not say that there is no 
need sometimes for outside artistic advice and assist- 
ance from a in this particular branch, but 
the great niajority of cases which will have to be 

July 18, I'JVi. 



dealt witli are surh that piactical tecluiit'al qiiostioiis 
witli whicli the eiifrineer and surveyor is deaUiip every 
day must take the first place, and form (he finincl.itidii 
of every scheme. 


we have to administer are very severely criticised, and 
more elasticity is demanded. How tliis is to he oh- 
tained without utterly ruining the objects they were 
framed for is never clearly stated. Taking the air 
spaces round buildings, the by-laws permit sixty 
houses being squeezed on to an acre of ground; surely 
if any alteration is made to this by-law it should be 
in greater stringency, so that no acre of land should 
be allowed in any case to have half that number of 
dwellings of any type. It has been clearly shown by 
Mr. Kaymond Unwin and others that there is no profit 
in overcrowding, and in my own experience lo.^ses 
have been made, entirely due to more houses being 
attempted to be packed on the ground than there 
should have been. This seems likely to be the case 
until the persons laying out estates realise that there 
are other models for a plan than a gridiron. 

The regulation that each house shall liave a separate 
drain is al.'so taken exception to. This should only be 
altered when legislation has been amended so as to 
relieve local authorities from their responsibilities in 
the matter. Planning of houses at street corners is 
also considered to need amending. The abuse of 
liberty before a by-law was framed to control this was 
very great — some plans of what was done in this town 
are on the walls. The cases given were houses planned 
by architects, some of whom were eminent London 

In the administration of the by-laws the chances 
of friction would be very considerably reduced if both 
architect and official were qualified and registered. 
Each would have more respect for the other's judg- 
ment, and thus en.'^ure the fair working of the by-laws, 
the aim of both being the production of good work. 

The year lias no great municipal work to show. It 
should, however, be noted that in it the suggestion 
to embank the south .shore of the Thames has been 
made. This would be a work worth doing, and would 
provide noble frontages for public bin'ldings, a begin- 
ning having been w'ell made in St. Thomas's Hospital 
and the New County Hall. 

But if no startling w'ork has been connneneed or 
completed in the year, the trade boom throughout the 
country, wliich has now run a fairly even course for 
some time, must leave its mark in many towns by 
adding to the wealth of its population, and so pro- 
viding the funds for future public works. 

In matters of a strictly dome.^tic nature 


requires assistance from the members of this institu- 
tion, and all ranks should lend a hand in placing this 
very valuable and much needed fiuid on a more 
secure footing. Tip to the present the attempt to form 
a Defence Fund has not met witli the response which 
the originators of the scheme had hoped; it now re- 
mains for the members to move in the matter in such 
a way as to ensure its success. This institution is 
now to have its own journal, in my opinion not before 
it was needed. It replaces the annual volume, and 

will report papers and di.scussions immediately after 
they have taken place, giving opportunities for written 
criticism on the papers while the matter is fresh. 
This journal is not intended to take the place of our 
old friends the various technical papers who have so 
ably and sympathetically helped us in the past, but 
to form a means of intercommunication between our 
own members, especially the younger ones, who, it 
is hoped, will avail themselves of its coUmiiis to the The annual report presented this morning 
must be considered an eminently satisfactory one to 
the president who has just retired, in that his year 
of office has seen such healthy progress made, and I 
hope that when the next annual meeting takes place 
the displeasure of this institution will not be vented 
too deeply on the poor retiring president wlio now sees 
no hope of anything like the advance of the year 
taking place in the twelve months ahead of him. 

Mr. T. W. A. Hayward (Battersea) proposed a vote 
of thanks to the president for his addi-ess. There 
were two points in the address he would like to refer 
to. The first was the orphan fund. They as an 
institution knew that many of their members during 
their lifetime were unable to provide any large amount 
of money to set aside in the event of an untimely 
death or illness, and therefore many of their dependents 
were left unprovided for. He did hope that those in 
health and strength and the full vigour of manhood 
would put their hands in their pockets and see that 
the Orphan Fund was well supported. He hoped that 
the appeal of the president would not fall on unwilling 
ears. He agreed with what the president had said 
about the Mutual Defence Fund. The council were 
sorry that this fund had not been taken up with 
more unanimity among the members. It was a fund 
they should have, and which should be largely 
supported by the members. The president had served 
the institution in many capacities — as district sec- 
retary, member of louncil, and vice-president, and was 
now president. He fully deserved every honour they 
could give hLin, and they hoped he would have a very 
successful yea'i.' of office as their president. 

ilr. S. S. Plait (Rochdale), who seconded, remarked 
that the president's membership of the institution 
dated back to 1882. The address was an admirable 
one, showing much learning and erudition. 

Mr. G. E. Mawbey (Leicester) supported the vote of 
thanks, and said Yarmouth had been fortunate in 
setting the services of such an excellent, able and 
practical man. 

Mr. U. J. Thomas, in putting the vote of thanks, 
assured the president that he was in for a busy year 
of office. He would have an admirable council to 
work with, men who would support him right and left, 
and hard-working officials who would carry out his 
instructions. He felt sure that during his year of 
office Mr. Cockrill would advance the value of the 
institution and increase its membership. 

The vote of thanks having been accorded by accla- 

The President said he was extremely obliged to 
them for their kind a])preciation. 

The meeting then adjourned for luncheon. 

(To be continued.) 


The annual meeting of subscribers to the Orplian 
Fund of the institution was held in a committee- 
room of the town hall on Wednesday morning. 
Mr. R. J. Thomas was in the chair, and there 
were present Messrs. W. Nisbet Blair (St. Pancras). 
W. Harpur (Cardiff), J. S. Brodie (Blackpool), G. W. 
Lacey (Oswestry), and W. Killick (Finsbury). 

Mr. THOMAS said he was sorry to say that Mr. 
Eobson, their esteemed honorary secretary, was 
unable to be present. He had a letter from Mr. 
Robson to the effect that there' was a meeting of 
his council on Tuesday evening, and it was quite 
impossible for him to reach Yarmouth for the 

Mr. T. Cole, secretary, read the report of the 
committee, as follows: — 


To the Sub.^cribers to the OrpJian Fund of the Inslilulion 

of Municipal and County Engineers. 

Gentlemen, — Your committee are pleased to report 
that the interest in the fund as evinced by the mem- 
bers of the institution in previous years has been more 
than maintained during the year 1912, the number of 

sub.scribers being 201 as compared to 140 during the 
preceding year, while the income derivable from sub- 
scriptions and donations has been £157 5s. 9d., or 
£29 Us. 9d. in excess of the subscriptions and dona- 
tions received during the year 1911. Although the 
proportion of increased income is less than the pro- 
portionate increase in the number of subscribers, it 
is most gratifying to find that a larger number of 
the members of the institution are taking an interest 
in the work of the fund. 

This addition to the muster roll of subscriptions is 
largely due to the energy which Mr. Hooley, the 
county surveyor of Nottingham, has characteristically 
thrown into the work of the fund by appeal to his 
colleagues in the East ilidland District, the result 
being that the subscription list of that particular dis- 
trict has been four times that of previous years. Your 
committee are of opinion that the thanks of this meet- 
ing are due to ilr. Hooley for the assistance he has 
rendered, and is always willing to render, to the fund 
for the benefit of the orphans of deceased members. 

The amount of grants made during the year has 
been £120, the number of children benefited being 
twenty, while one child in addition is being educated 



July 18. 1913 

at the British Orphan Asylum by means of a presenta- 
'r, ^'Jrttihrng^rbe^alle'o^^cord that in no single 


'^tr 'rSSi'vUh regret to record the death 

linc^tt" inauguration in ldi.9. The vacancy upon the 
eormittee"thus caused vvas fiUed h,- the elec • on o 
Arr M Rifhard=on, a gentleman who ha= at an ume. 
gj^en great a^^lstaAcefn furthering the objects of the 

*"The balance sheet for the year may be considered 
ar"atisfactorv in every respect, the subscnptlon^ 
Mvfnfbeen Thoroughly maintained in aniount a. 
iXe stated, and a balance of £180 10s. 3d. appear, 
afthe end of the vear 1912. This balance would, ho^^- 
e ver have been reduced had it been possible o inve.t 

1 Dortion of it as instrucied during the year to which 
thfrreport refers, but. owing to the transfer of secun- 
t es oc^casioned by the death of Mr Eayrs it wa= 

oiLd impossible to effect the investment of any of 
the "^urph s monies of the fund until February 1913. 
TheTotal amount invested in Trustee Stock on 

December 31, 1912, was. according to the market value 

at that date, .£993 I5s. lOd., the income derivable from 

it having been £33 18s. , .v i „a 

Detail! in connection with the accounts of the fund 

are shown upon balance-sheet herewith appended. 

wliieh has been duly certified as correct by the auditor. 

of the institution, Messrs. Wood, Drew & Co., of 139 

Cannon-street, E.C. 


The list of subscribers to the fund is herewith 
appended, and it will be not^d that a departure ha> 
l4en made from the usual custom of recording the 
iuwiie."of the subscribers in one list ". alphabetical 
order the subscril.ers and donors now being separated 
aocordimr to the various districts ^epresentmg the 
administrative areas in connection with the Institu- 
(ion of Municipal and County Engineers. 

List of Dosatioxs and Sobsceiptioss tob the Teak Esded 

F.asl Jfidlnnd district. 





Balance brvught for- 
ward, Jan. 1st, 19I-* 



Interest on £HS Ports- 
mouth CorporatioQ 
3i per cent Stock ... 

Interest on £"232 L.. & 
N.W. Bly. 3 percent 
Debenture Stock 

Interest on £100 West 
Ham Corporation 3> 
per cent Stock 

Interest on £264 15s *d. 
Consols, ii per cent 

Interest on £465 14s. 
lOd. London Connt.v 
3 per cent Stock 


Grants to Orphans ... 

Printing rales and 
regulation*, Ac., 
postages & sundries 



Baldwin, L. L., Coalrille 

Baxter. J. G. B., Grimsby 

Bennett. E. H., Derby 

Brown, A. Nijttingham 

Brown. C. F., Gainsborough ... 
Bum, W., Sutton-in-Ashfield . 

Clare, J., Sleaford 

Clare, S.F.,Sleaford 

Clark, W. G. J., Wigston Ma^a 

Clarke, G. E. Boston 

Clarke, K. E., Arnold 

Clews, C. A., Derby 

Coales, B. G., Market Harborough 
ColUnae, T. P., Mansfield 
Cook.'F. P., Mansfield Woo-lhouse 

Cordon, B. C. Belper 

C.'urt, W. H. A,, Leicester 

Crump, E. H., Hinckley 

Elliott, A. H., Sottingham 

Fenn, T.. Btlper 

Frank, 1. Pierson, Newark 
Gsxratt, C. T., Leicester 
Goidon. T. W., Nottingham ... 

Gray, C. C. Scunthorpe 

Haller, J. C, Carlton 

Harrison, W. A., Lone Eaton ... 
Haseldine, W. S, T., Answorth 
Hawlev G. W., Nottingham 
Heap, H., Great Grimsby 

Henry T. , East Betf ord 

Hodson, C. F., Lincobi 

Hoolev, E. Pumell, Nottingham 
Hopkinson, F., Worksop 

Horton, J. W., Derby 

Jaffrey, W., Matlock 

Kennedy. J. D.. Betford 

Lake, T., Bonme 

MacBrair, B. A., Lincoln 

Mason, S., Grimsby 

Mawbev, E. 6., Leicester 

Marian, S.. Basford 

Oakden, K. (junr. I, Newark 
Parker, S. W., Gainsborough ... 

Peacock, T. J., Spalding 

Pick, S. P., Leicester 

Purser, W. B.. Grantham 

Kawson. G., Worksop 

Byman. F. K.. Stamlord 

Silcock. H., Mansfield 

Thomas, W. N., Nottingham ... 

Tonge, J . A., Mansfield 

Ward, J., Derby 

WhT.att, H. G.. Grimsby 

Wright, F. W., Ilkeston 

Wright, W., Grantham 

(1 10 10 
2 6 2 6 

110 110 

10 10 


10 6 

10 6 

1 1 


_ 10 6 10 6 

2 6 
10 6 
2 6 

5 5 

110 110 

110 110 

10 6 10 6 

5 5 

5 5 

5 5 



5 5 

10 - 110 

_ 10 10 

10 fi 10 6 110 

_ 10 6 10 6 

_ 10 6 10 6 

_ 2 6 2 6 

_ 5 5 

_ 110 110 

- 5 



£ t. il. 

Balance on Current Account ... \^^0 I 

London and North Western Bailway Stock 1^ 1 ' 

Portsmouth Corporuuon Stock tn ., n 

West Ham Corporation Stock «" " " 

Consols ... ^ ^ ™ 1° J 

London County Stock ^" " " 

Total £1.179 6 1 

Examined and approved. 


Ciarlered Aeeotixlaxtt. 
London: 139 Cannon-street, EC. 
30th Ifay, 1913. 

The question as to the desirability of securing the 
rieht to an additional presentation from an orphan 
asxluin has been duly considered by your committee, 
and your hon. secretary has been instrueted to make 
enquiries of various institutions as to the cost and 
advisability of purcha.-e of this form of entrance into 
a recognised institution of repute. The advantage or 
otherwise of dispensing the funds in this direction 
will be duly considered, but from opinions received 
from some of the grantees of the fund it appears to 
your committee that the annual amounts now paid to 
the widows on behalf of the orphans of deceased uieni- 
liers is more appreciated than the possible schooling 
and consequent separation of one child from the 
family, k further report will, however, be made to 
the committee upon tliis matter upon receipt of addi- 
tional information from the hon. secretary. 

Collection at Ilkeston Meetini 

Mr. B. A. MacBrair ■» 

Ea!.trrn DislHc*. 

Barrett, E. J., Stiiines 

Blackwall, J. E., Cambridge 

Brown, B., SouthaU- Norwood 

Coales, H. F., Simbury-on-Tbames ... 
CockriU, J. W.. Great Tarmouth 

Collins, A. E., Norwich 

Collis-Adamson. A. C, Highgate 

Cooper. L. A, Chis»ick 

Crorford, C. H., Wocd Green 

Croxford, J. W., Brentford 

Dtmn, J., Cambridge 

Elford, E. J., Souihend-ou-Sea 

Farringtou, W.. Woodford 

Gladw 11, A., felough 

Goodyear, H., Colchester 

James, A. C, Grays 

Jenkin, C. .T., Finchley 

Jones, C, Ealing 

Julian, J., Cambridge 

Leete, W. H., Bedford 

Lovegrove, E. J., Homsey 

Bobson, O. C, WiUesden 

Savage, W. H., Cookfosters 

Smith, F. Hall. Sheringbam 

Thomas, B. J.. Aylesbury 

Webb, J. A., Great Stanmore 

Willis, E., Chiswick 

Collection at Lowestoft Meeting : per 
Mr. E.J. Elford 1 

Butt, E. E. W., Birmingham 

Clarrr, W. A. H., Sutton Coldfield ... 

Clarsbn, H. J., Tamworth 

Coleby. H. J., Aiherstone 

Cook. F. C, Nuneaton 

Currall, A. E.. Solihull 

Davis, A. T., Shrewsbury 

Douslas. S., Kenilworth 

Fiddian, W., Stourbridge 

Gettings, C. F., Worcester 

Greatores, A. D., West Bromwicb ... 

Green, G., Wolverhampton 

Jack, G. H., Hereford 

Lacey, G. W., Oswestry 

Perkins, J., Btrmingham 

Bansom, W., Worcester 

Richardson, H., Birmingham 

Sogers. W. E., Bngely 

Shipton, T. H., Oldbury 

Stilgoe, H. E., Birmingham 

Watson, J. D., Birmingham 

10 6 10 6 

110 110 

10 6 10 6 

5 5 

110 110 

110 113 

5 5 

10 6 10 6 

5 5 

5 5 

_ 10 6 

110 110 

110 110 

110 110 

5 5 

_ 110 

10 6 10 6 

110 110 

5 5 

110 110 

110 110 

110 110 

110 110 

5 5 

110 110 

10 6 10 6 

110 110 

6 10 6 10 6 

— 5 
_ 10 6 

— 10 6 
_ 110 



10 6 

10 6 

1 1 
10 6 

110 110 
10 6 C 10 6 

110 110 

2 6 2 6 

in 6 10 6 

(I 10 6 10 6 

5 5 

110 110 

110 110 

JiLV 18. 1913. 



Aniiunl Total 
Njiine. Douatiuii. Subscrip- Contri- 
tion. I'ution. 
n'ett Uiillaud Ditli-icI (continued) .— 

-f «. il. £ ». d. C I (I. 

WiUcox, J. E., Birmintham — 1 1 (l 110 

WiUmot, J., Birmiugbam — 1 1 fl 110 

WoodwarJ, F., Stourbridge — " 10 i: (i 10 6 

Coliectiou at Stourbridge Meeting ... :;!»:• — L' 9 !* 

Balance of expenses^ ditto S — d s 

Per Mr. F. Woodward ... 

M.trojjjiila.i Distiict. 

Barber, J. P., Islington — 1 I " 1 I ii 

Blair, W. N., St. Paucras — 1 I (i 1 1 

Boulnois, U. Percy, Westminster ... — 1 I n 1 i o 

Cole, T., Westminster — 1 1 (J 1 1 

Fincli, A. B., Kensington — 110 110 

Giles, H. A., Westminster — .'> o 3 

Hayward, T. W. A., Battcrsea — 1 I 1 1 

Higgens, T. W. E., Chelsea 

Humphreys. G. W., London C.C. ... 110 

Killick, P. G., Finsbury — 1 1 o 1 1 

Moss.Flower, T. J., Westminster ... — 1 1 o 1 1 

Silcock, E. J., Westminster — :i li 2 2 

Sumner, F., City Corporation — 110 110 

Van Putten, E., Catford — 110 11 

Weaver, W., Putney Hill - 10 i; 10 6 

Willcocks, G. Waller, Eoehampton ... — 110 110 

Winter, O. E., Hampstead — i; 10 Ii 

World Eastern VUUicl. 

Beaumont, A., Beverley — 110 110 

Beaumont, G. E., Grenoside — 1 1 o 110 

Dennis, N. F., West Hartlepool ... — lo 10 (! 

Dickiufon, K., Berwick-on-Tweed ... - .5 (i 5 

Drew, J. U., Wathon-Dearne — 10 li o 10 6 

Hadlield, W. J., ShetHeld — 110 110 

Halt, G. A., Leeds — 10 G ii 10 il 

Lamashire, W. T., Leeds — 11 1 1 (i 

Massie, F., Wakefield — 1 1 o 1 1 o 

Wike. C. F., Sheffield — 1 1 ii 1 1 

Wrigley, G. E., Sowerby Bridge ... — ."i o « 5 
Coliectiou at Bridlingt.on Meetin.g: per 

Mr. J. P. Wakelord 3 S 6 :i 8 

iVorld TtVsl.N-u Jlrsfri, (. 

Brodie, J. A., Liverpool — 1 1 (i 110 

Brodie, J. S., Blackpool — 1 1 1 1 

Diver, D. J.. Marple — 10 C, o 10 6 

Heath, J., Urmston — 5 o .5 

Hellawell, O., Withington — 10 10 

Meade, T. de Courcy, Manchester ... — 110 11 

Piatt. S. S., Bochdale — 110 11 

Price, A. J., Lytham — o 10 r. o 10 

Stubbs, W., Blackburn — 10 G OKI li 

leavers, W. H., Wallasey ... . — 10 li 10 I! 

Wilding, J., Buncom — 10 6 o 10 G 

Wiles, J. W., Manchester — 10 fi In li 

Wolfendea, B. ,1., Bootle — 10 li 10 

WoiTall,E., Manchester — 1 1 o 1 1 ii 

ScuDu-ru histrict. 

Frost, H., Gosport — 10 i! o 10 li 

Guilbort, T. J., Guernsey — 1 o li 1 G 

Hawkins, J. F., Heading — 1 1 I 1 

Jones, Lt.-Col. A. S.,Finchampstead... — 110 110 

Lemon, Sir J., Southamptoo — 1 1 o 1 1 

Phipps, F. E., Basingstoke — oil li 10 G 

Pickering, J. S., Cheltenham — o 10 G o 10 G 

Bead, E., Gloucester — 1 1 li 1 1 

Stallard, S. , Oxford — 1 i 110 

White, W. H., Oxford — 1 1 o 1 1 o 

Yabbicom, T. H., Bristol — 1 1 1 I o 

Soulli Eas^lcin Dhtrlcl. 

Busbridge, T. A., Maidstone ... — . 10 G ii lo G 

Card, H., Lewes — 10 G 10 li 

Grant. F. T., Gravcsend — lo G o 10 G 

Howard, D.,Littlehamptoii 10 R li 10 G 

Jones H. O.. Folkestone .i .5 o o 10 G 

Killick, J. .s., Westminster ... ~ o 10 G 10 fi 

Maybury, H. P.. Maidstoiio -- 110 110 

Norris, J. H., Godalming — lo li o 10 G 

Palmer, P. H., Hastings! — 110 110 

Prescott, A. E., E,-.stbourne o 10 G — ii In 6 

Scott, H, H., Hove — 1 1 o 1 1 

Wilkinson, F., Wimbledon — r, 5 

Wood, F. J., Lewes — lo G 10 G 

Sotitli Western Dintfict. 

Chapman. H. T., Wells — 1 1 o 1 1 o 

Chowins, W. H., Bumham — 10 o 10 

Hnttou, .S.. Exmouth — o lo G o 10 

Kidler, W ., Tewkesbury o 10 G — o 10 G 

WehhDUMct {Xoflli} 

England, J., Wreshan 

Hell, G., Swansea .. 
Harpur, W., Cardiff 


ll%-;!<)i i>is(,-irf (.StiiiKi). 

/iKlinii Distnit. 


110 11 

1 1 

1 1 

Salkield, T., Delhi... 

Bush, W. E., Auckland, N.Z 


Collection at Annual Meeting of Insti- 
tution, July 11th, 1912: per Mr, T. 

Cole lo 15 

Balance from Silver Cradle Fund: per 

Mr. E. J. Thomas li 

Lower Thames Valley District Sur- 
veyors' Association — 

Non-Members of histilnlio 

Biggs, Mrs.. Bicbmond — 

Carpenter, F. G., Wakefield — 

Cooper, C. H., Wimbledon — 

Gunuis, J. W., Longford, Ireland ,„ — 

Humphreys, H. H.. Westminster ... — 

Mansergh & Sons, Westminster ... — 

Eenwick, E., Horsham .5 

Editor "Surveyor" — 5 5 5 5 o 

The outgoing members of the committee during the 
year were Me.ssr.s. Cockrill, Hooley, Jone.s and Willi.s, 
who were duly re-elected at the general meeting held 
at the C'axton Hall. Westminster, on July 11, 1912. 

Before concluding this report your committee would 

10 G 10 6 

10 G 10 6 

110 110 

110 110 

110 110 

110 110 

like to express tlieir great thank.s to many of the 
various district ropre.sentatives of tlie institution who 
have intere-sted themselves in the welfare of the fund 
by endeavouring to secure subscriptions during the 
year 1912. It is sincerely hoped that the additional 
interest thus shown by the district representatives will 
result in a very consideralile addition to the roll of 
sub.scribers in the ensuing year. 

Mr. TnoMAs moved the adoption of the report, 
which lie considered highly satisfactory, and he con- 
gratulated Mr. Hooley upon the work he had done 
in his district. In some of the districts the sub- 
scriptions were small in proportion to the menibei- 
.ship. He was more keen in getting a larger number 
of subscribers than getting a large amount from a 
sin;ill number of sub.scribers. 

Mr. H. Gilbert Whyatt (Great Grimsby) seconded 
the report. He was pleased to see his own district 
come out at the heail of the list, and exceedingly 
disappointed to see how small was the amount giveii 
by the Metropolitan and North-Eastern and North- 
western districts. 

Mr. W. Haupur (Cardiff) said, so far as the South 
^Vrtles district was concerned, he hojied to see a 
considerable improvement in the list for the present 
year. There was no doubt the more names they 
could get on the list the better. 

Mr. J. S. Brodie (Blackpool) suggested that a suni- 
inarj- should be giveii of the amount subscribed by 
each district. 

Tiie report was adopted. 

Air. T. Cole, secretary, reported that the four re- 
tiring members of the committee, Messrs. Blair. 
Cooper, Richardson and Thomas, had lieen unani- 
mously re-elected. 

Mr. Thomas i)ropo.sed the re-election of Mr. O. 
Claude Robson as hon. secretary and treasurer of 
the fund, and paid a high tribute to his work. But 
for Air. Robson the fund would not have been started. 

Mr. G. W. Lacev (Oswestry) seconded, and expressed 
a ho|ie that Mr.-Robson's services would be available 
for the fund for many years. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

Mr. E. B. JIartin (Rotherhani) proposed that one 
uieniber in each district devote his special attention 
to obtaining subscriptions for the fund. 

Mr. G. W. Lacev (Oswestry) seconded, and the sug- 
srestion was agreed to. 


Air. .1. \V. Cockrill, m.inst.c.e., a.r.i.b.a.. borough 
surveyor and corporation architect of Great 
Yarniouth, the newly installed president of the 
Institution of Alunicipal and County Engineers, was 
appointed surveyor to Gorleston and Southtown 
Local Board of Health in December. 1869. This 
board was dissolved in 1872 under the Act of Parlia- 
ment which made borough councils responsible for 
the sanitary condition of the whole area of their 
boroughs. Air. Cockrill's services being retained. 
On the death nf Mr. H. H. Bilker, town surveyor of 
Yarmouth, in January, 1882, Air. Cockrill was ap- 
pointed to his piesent position. Since then he has 
been responsible for the construction or reconstruc- 
tion of upwards of GO miles of sewers, the construc- 
tion of a supplemental water sujiply system for sewer 
flushing and street watering with sea water, an 
electrical tramway system, a destructor, an isola- 
tion ho.spital, recreation grounds, beacli gardens, 
the Gorleston cliffs, and foreshore work at Gorles- 
ton and Yarniouth, Wellington Pier, gardens 
pavilion and winter gardens, and extensive quay 
head works at Fish Wharf; over and above all the 
general works of improvement carried out in the 
l)orougli during iin exceptionidly Imsy term of office. 

Bitumen Sheeting — Messrs. George AI. Callender & 
Co., Limited, of 2j Victoria-street, London, S.W., have 
just secured an interesting contract. The bitumen 
sheeting which has gained for them a world-wide repu- 
tation has been chosen as the waterproofing medium 
in lining the new canal and dock for Alessrs. Otto 
AIon.sted, Limited, at their extensive works, Southall. 
Middlesex. Messrs. Callenders' experience in this 
class of work— as shown by a previous application of 
the material in the Tring Canal— stands them in good 
.stead, and the forty years which have passed since 
they originated this form of waterproofing have wit- 
nessed many adaptations of their bitumen sheeting to 
all kinds of engineering work. 



July 18, 1913. 

Assistants' and Students' Section. 

CoNDocTED bt SYDNEY G. TURNER, assoc.mjnst.c*. 

illl eommunieoKoTU <n regard to this page musi be oddrMsed to The 
Editor, St. Bride's House, 'U Bride-lane, Fleet-street, E.C. Eniido-pes 
mtMl be marked " JssistauU' Siclion " in the to../ Ufi-hani corner. 
Carrufimi—U ar< invited to lutnut «iU3ti»n> /»r coiuideratton and 


Mr. E. D. Alexander, of Siflcup, h<as selected the 
following books in respect of the moiety of the pre- 
niinm for June which was awarded to him: — 

" ^Munieiiial Engineering— Model Answer.^ to Ques- 
tions" (St. Bride's Press, Limited). 

"Practical Surveying," by G. W. Usill (Crosby 
Lockwood). have been duly forwarded to him. 


This week answers are invited to the following 
questions : — 

330. Sewage Disposal. — Design a small sewage dis- 
posal system for a gentleman's residence, capable of 
dealing with 500 gallons per day. The sewage is 
fairly strong on account of the drainage from a small 
cowshed. The available fall can be neglected, and 
the earth is of a sandy-clay nature. State approximate 
cost. The effluent should discharge into a soakaway. 

336. Foundations. — Draw plan and section of a 
ferro-concrete foundation 7 ft. square, on light soil, 
to carry a load of 25 tons from a stanchion with a 
base 2 ft. 3 in. square. 

337. Strength of Chain. — Assuming the strength of 
a chain to be double that of the bar from whicli 
the links are made, find the proper size of chain for 
a 20-ton crane, using 3-sheaved blocks; allowing f = 
G.OOO lb. 

338. Steam Engine — The governor and flywheel of 
an engine have both the purpose of regulating its 
speed. Explain how their actions in this respect 

339. Plotting a Surwey Describe and explain the 

method of plotting a traverse .survey by means of co- 

[The Editor is at all times glad to hear from 
readers who desire to submit questions regarding 
matters of general interest, points of daily practice, 
&c., for insertion in the " Assistants' and Students* 
Section," Questions w/htch are published arc taken 
into consideration, as well as other matter, in 
awarding the Monthly Pren^ium,] 


334. Sewerage.— What would be the flattest 
gradient allowable for 6-in., 7-in. and 8-in. sewers 
respectively, to give a self-cleansing velocity ? What 
is a good modern book on sewerage and sewage dis- 
posal, giving tables of velocity and discharge ? 
(" Urban.") 

Assuming that 3 ft. per second will be a sufficient 
velocity to be considered self-cleansing, the follow- 
ing gradients will be required: — 

Kutter's formula (« = -013) 

G-in. diameter pii>e, 1 in 60. 

7-in. ,, „ 1 in 85. 

8-in. ,, „ 1 in 105. ' 

To give a velocity of 4 ft. per second the rate of 
inclination will have to be: — 

6 in. diameter pipe, 1 in 33. 

7-in. „ ,, 1 in 48. 

8-in. „ „ 1 in GO. 

Moore's " Sanitary Engineering " contains a very 
complete set of tables of velocity and discharge, 
l):ised on Kutter's formula. The "Easyr" hydraulic 
slide rule is a very luuuly instrument for obtaining 
velocities and discluuLies of both circular and oval 
sewers. It is published liy the Kasyr Slide Eule 
Company, 39 Corporatiim-street, Birmingham. I 
have no doubt they will lie i)leased to supply par- 
ticulars as to price, &c., on ajiplication. (W. J. K., 

Tlie usually accepted minimum self-cleansing 
velocity of flow in sewers is 3 ft. per second for small 
sewers up to 9-in. diameter, 2Ht. per second for 

answers to the questions which appear. For the contributtona con«idero4 
to be the most meritorious^ one or more j>reinium3 in books will be 
aicarded monthly, IHagrams mutt le drawn to scaU on separate fHe«U, 
ready for rejproductum. 

.■euers from 12-in. to 24-in. diameter, and 2ft. per 
second for sewers above 24 in. diameter. 

For a velocity of 3 ft. per second, using Kutter's 
formula, n = -013, the approximate falls required are 
1 in 70 for 6-in. sewers, 1 in 90 for 7-in., and 1 in 
1 10 for 8-in. sewers. 

In practice, however, it is found that with the 
ordinary flushing given to sewers in every town a 
fall of 1 in 175 for 8-in. sewers (velocity 2-391 ft. 
per second), 1 in 250 for 9-in. sewers (velocity 291 ft. 
per second), and 1 in 600 for 12-in. sewers (velocity 
175 ft. per second) is sufficient to keep them clean 
and free. 

Probably the best book upon sewerage and sewage 
disposal is Moore & Silcock's " Sanitary Engineer- 
ing" (Batsford, £2 2s.), which also gives very use- 
ful tables based upon Kutter's formula, n = '013, for 
circular and egg-shaped sewers. The tables, I be- 
lieve, are also published in a separate book in an 
enla'rged form, the price being 15s., also published 
liy Batsford. (J. A. R., Favcrsftam.) 

A velocity of 3 ft. per second in a .sewer may be 
regarded as a self-cleansing velocity. 

In the case of an ordinary sewer one must presume 
that the average flow at any time of the day is one- 
quarter full. 

The proportion of the velocity when flowing 5 bore 
is that wdien flowing full is approximately '7, and 
therefore the sewer must be laid to discharge at a 
velocity of 4 ft. per second running full. 

By Crimp's formula V = 124 \/r" \/s ; this velocity 
may be obtained with the following gradients (for 
circular sewers) : — 





1 111 60 

40ft. per second 


1 in 70 

4-1 ft 


1 in 80 

4-2 ft. ., 

The above is "Maguire's" rule, and one that may 
lie easily remembered. 

Two good handbooks on sewerage are : " Drainage 
Work," "by W. H. Maxwell, and "Circular Sewer 
Discharges," by A Municipal Engineer, both 
published by the St. Bride's Press, Limited. 
(R. J. M.. llamplnn.) 

335. Surveying.— Describe a method of ascertain- 
ing true north, with sufficient accuracy for a small 

One of tlie most simple and ready methods of 
ol)taining the direction of the true north is as fol- 
lows; — 

Draw on a perfectly smooth and level plane, open 
to the morning and afternoon sun, thr^e or four 
concentric circles. In the centre of these circles fix 

IlLY IS. lOKl 



The Surveyor 

Bnb flBunlcipal anb Counti; Enolnecr. 

Aeration as au Aid iu Sewage Purification 

Appoiutmeuts Vacant 

Assistants' and Students' Section 

Association of Consulting- Engineers ... 1^ 

Association of Managers of Sewage Disposal Works : Notices ... 

A Workman's Cottage for £150 

Boston, Lines, Town Bridge 

Cleansing Sui^erintendents at Surbiton 


Highway Developments in Illinois 

Institution of Mauicii>al and County Engineers : 

Annual Meeting at Yai-mouth 

Leek Meeting ^ 


Orphan Fund Meeting 

Institution of Municipal Engineers : Notices 

Law Xotes 

Leek and its Municipal Works 

Local Government Board Inquiries 


Municipal Competitions Open 

Municipal Contracts Open 

Mimicipal Work in Progress and Projected 

Otlice Conversations 


Profits from Municipal Undertakings 

Recent Developments in Street Watering 

Reinforced Concrete Pavements 

Ehj-mney Valley Sewerage 

Boad Board Grants 

Koyal Sanitary Institute Congress at Exeier : Conference of 

Municipal Engineers and Surveyors 

Tenders for Municipal Works or Supplies 

Third International Road Congress : 

Regulations for Fast and Slow Traffic on Reads 

Staines Siurveyor and the Congress 

Visit to Penmaenmawr and Welsh Granite Quarries 

Unsealed Contracts with Uiban Autho 


Iieipendieuhuly a itiaiglit piece of wire of .*ueb a 
iieiirht that the whole of its shadow will fall upon 
all the circles at equal times before and after mid- 

Then, commencing about 8 o'clock in the morning, 
and continuing until 4 o'clock in the afternoon 
(about which time tiie extremity of the shadow of 
the wire will fall outside the circles) take note of 
the time in the morning when the end of the point 
of the shadow touches the different circles, and mark 

Tlie same afternoon, and the same distance of 
time from mid-day, watch the shadow (which by 
this time will be growing longer), marking on the 
circles where it falls, as before. 

Lastly, find the middle point exactly between two 
of the points on one of the circles, and draw a line 
from that point through the centre of the circles, 
which line will give the direction of true north. 

Facing of River Banks — Mr. A. S. Peckhani, Com- 
mission of Sewers for the Rape of Arundel, Sussex, 
writes: "Can any of your readers tell me of any in- 
stances where hard-pressed bricks have been used for 
the facing of the sloi>ing banks of a tidal river, and 
if .so where .^ Also, wliether tlie work has given satis- 
faction, and if not, what were the defects ?" 

Essex Roads.— The county surveyor, Mr. P. J. 
Slieldon, in his annual report, states that the total 
mileage of main roads in Essex is 800 miles 3* furlongs. 
The amount paid to urban authorities under contract 
for the upkeep of their main roads (119 miles 2J fur- 
longs) was £50,570; paid for imiirovement works, 
£0,26-3; average cost per mile for upkeep, exclusive of 
irnprovements, £424. Upon 61 miles 5 furlongs of 
roads in urban districts directly controlled the ex- 
penditure on maintenance was £25,287. The other 
main roads, 619i miles, for upkeep and minor 
improvements (allowing for sundry receipts), £104,054. 
One of the principal items in the bill is for tar- 
painting— £13,004. The surveyor thinks it probable 
that, despite the outcry for decreased expenditure, the 
public demands under this head will increase, and 
entail higher expenditure. Owing more particularly 
to motor-'bus traffic, an entire alteration of methods 
is being adopted, and bituminous surfaces will, in the 
future, so far as financial matters allow, replace the 
old water-bound macadam and tar-sprayed construc- 


The newly constituted Khymney Valley Sewerage 
Board have instructed their engineers to proceed 
with the preparation of the plans for the works 
sanctioned by Parliament last Session. 

The board is a combination of representatives of 
the urban district councils of Rhynniey, Gelligaer, 
Bedwellty, Caerphilly, Mynyddislwyn and Bedwas 
and Machen. Only a small portion of Mynyddislwyn 
is included in the area of the board, while portions 
of Caerphilly and Bedwas and Machen are excluded. 
The board consists of twenty-one representatives, 
and has been formed for the purpose of constructing 
a main outfall sewer to collect the whole of the 
sewage of the Rhyniney Valley and discharge into 
the Bristol Channel. 

The drainage of the valley has been a much- 
debated subject for several years past. In the early 
stages there was a want of agreement between Gelli- 
gaer on the one hand and the IMonmoiithshire autho- 
rities on the other as to the best means of disposing 
of the sewage, while Caerphilly stood aloof. Gelli- 
gaer favoured a scheme wliich proposed to establish 
bacterial purification w'orks a short distance below 
the south end of their district, while the Monmouth- 
shire authorities favoured either a sea outfall scheme 
or combination with the Western Valleys Sewerage 
Board with a view to utilising the existing works 
of that board. 

The first definite step was taken by Gelligaer, who. 
in 1910, applied to the Local Government Board for 
sanction to a loan for the construction of a sewer 
from near the upper end of their district down the 
valley of the Rhyniney to Tynycoed (which is a 
short distance below Ysfrad i^Iynach), and with 
purification works there. The .scheme was designed 
to take in Rhymney and the portion of Bedwellty 
and Mynyddislwyn which is in the Rhyniney Valley. 
The Monmouthshire authorities, however, were nol 
willing to become partners in that scheme, adhering 
to their view that another course was preferable. 

Without going into the early history of the matter 
in detail, it may be stated that a conference was 
held at Hengoed in October, 1910, at which an in- 
spector of the Local Government Board iiresided. 
and the authorities so far came into line as to agree 
to the formation of a Joint Provisional Committee, 
consisting of representatives of Gelligaer, Rhymney, 
Bedwellty, Mynyddislwyn and Bedwas and Machen. 
who were to meet and jointly determine upon the 
scheme which should be carried out. The Joint 
Committee instructed Messrs. Willcox & Raikes and 
Mr. John S. Alford. their engineers, to prepare the 
details of a scheme having an outfall into the Bristol 
Channel in order that it miglit be compared with the 
scheme put forward by Gelligaer. Upon the report 
being presented, the committee resolved to adopt 
the sea outfall scheme and to ajiply to Parliament 
for the necessary powers to carry it out. The com- 
mittee felt that as the new outfall sewer would 
necessarily have to pass the .sewage works of the 
Caerphilly urban district it would be an anomaly if 
these were allowed to continue wlien the sewage 
could be connected without difficulty to the new 
sewer. It was therefore decided to include Caer- 
philly in the Bill, giving them [iroportionate repre- 
.sentation upon the board. The estimated cost of 
the scheme as laid before Parliaiient is £222,000. 

At the time when the Bill was deposited the Caer- 
philly urban district claimed to l)e the only autho- 
rity in the valley that had sewage works in anything 
approaching a reasonable state of efficiency, and 
they resisted the proposal that they should become 
a constituent authority, and opposed the Bill. Some 
of the other authorities in the valley had made 
attempts to deal with their sewage by local purifi- 
cation works, but either owing to mining subsidence 
affecting the work, or to the rapid increase of popu- 
lation their works had become practically useless 
or inadequate. The result of the hearing before the 
committee of the House of Lords (presided over by 
Lord Ribblesdale) was that the Bill was passed, 
Caerphilly being offered by the committee certain 
concessions in regard to the works which they had 
previously carried out. These concessions were 
accepted, and when the scheme comes into operation 
the whole of the sewage disposal works in the 
Rhymney Valley will be abandoned. An agreement 
was also made with the Llandaff and Dinas Powis 
rural district in respect to the jjarishes of Van, 



July 18, 1913. 

Rudry. Rhydygwern and Llanvedw, wliifh ciui-ii- 
lute that part of the rural district which is in liu- 
Rhymney Valley. In that agreement the rural di- 
trict has the riglit tn discliarge tlie sewage of Ihc 
parishes in question into the main sewer upon terms to 
lie agreed upon. or. failing agrppnient, to be decided 
hy arbitration. Tlic St. Mellons Rural District 
Council in effect, although not technically, assisted 
in the promotion of the Bill on behalf of the ]>.irisli(s 
of Bedwas and .Mnchen, which at the time the Bill 
was introduced were part of the rural district, Imt 
which have now become .in independent urban 

In regard to the portion of St. Mellon.s district 
which remains rural. Parliament gave the right t.i 
drain into the ,sewer upon terms fixed by the Act. 
The .scheme therefore |)rovides for disjiosing of tlic 
sewage of the whole of the catchment area of the 
river Rhymney, with the exce])tion of that portion 
below Llanderyn, and which is already provided 
with an outf.dl by the Rhondda main sewer. 

The joint board will t.ake over and work as part of 
their system the existing sewer which belongs to 
the Rhymney urban district, extending from near 
Pontlottyn to about 1* miles north of that jioint. 
The works to be con^tructed by the board will com- 
mence at a junction with the sewer last described 
near Pontlottyn, and will follow down the valley 
approximately parallel with the river to a point 
situated about a mile north of the village of St. 
Mellons. Thence it will pass in a south-east#rly 
direction by means of a tunnel under the hill on 
which the village of St. Mellons .stands to storage 
tanks situated at Faemlre Fawr farm, a .short distance 
to the east of St. i\[ellons village, where the sewage 
will be stored for about 8i hours each tide. From 
the tanks a discharge jiiyie will be laid acioss the 
marshes, terminating at low-water mark, and through 
this pipe the sewage will be delivered into the .sea 
for four hours each tide. 

The size of the sewer to be constructed is 12 in. in 
diameter at its upper end ; as it down the 
valley its size increases by .small increments, calcu- 
lated in proportion to the accession of population 
on the line of route, until the diameter when it 
reaches the tanks is 4 ft. 

Owing to the narrowness of the valley and the 
large number of works and buildings that have been 
erected close to the river, the construction of the 
sewer will in many places be one of some difficulty. 
In order to avoid interference with existing works 
a considerable length of the sewer will have to be 
laid in the bed of the river with steel or cast-iron 
pipes, care having been taken in laying out the 
sewer to interfere as little as jjossible with the in- 
dustries upon which the prosperity of the valley 
depends. The sewer is designed to take in a con- 
,si<ierable volume of storm water in addition to the 
sewage proper, and when the scheme is completed no 
sewage will pass into the river except at times of 
heavy rainfall, when it will be very much diluted. 
The degree of dilution required in this scheme before 
the storm overflows come into action corre.s]>onds 
with that laid down by Parliament for the western 
valleys .scheme in the adjoining district. The capa- 
city of the .storage tanks is to be 2,!)(M),()ilO gallons. 
iBefore asking Parliament to sanction the scben:e 
the board caused a very elaborate series of tidal 
float experiments to be carried out, which extended 
tover several w-eeks. These experiments ]>roved 
lieyond doubt that no nuisance or injury will be 
cau.-ed by the discharge of the sewage into the 
Bristol Channel. 

The chairman of the Joint Committee was Mr. 
\V. S. Nash, of Fleur-de-Lis, and he has been elected 
the chairman of the new board. Mr. T. J. Thomas, 
.solicitor, Bargoed, is the clerk to the new board. 
The engineers for the works above Tyncoed are 
Messrs. v.\V.iIlcox & Ratkes, while the engineers for 
the works south of Tyncoed are iMessrs. Willcox & 
Raikes and iMr. John S. Alford, acting jointly. 

It may be mentioned that in the last Session of 
Parliament three authorities in South Wales de- 
posited Bills relating to sewage matters— nann-ly. 
Swan-sea, the Rhymney Valley and the Eastern 
Valleys of Monu)Outh.shire. The Swansea scheme 
was rejected after nineteen days' hearing. Tlie 
Eastern Valleys Order was so amended as to make 
it necessary for tlie board to come to Parlianie'it 
again, while Rhymney Valley was the only one of 
the three which obtained a clean Bill, and that after 
a hearing only lasting six days. Thus has been in- 
augurated a scheme which reflects the greatest 

credit on the publie bodies who, in spite of past 
differences, have now combined with admirable 
jiublic spirit to do what is best for the conununity 

at lareo. 



The memlieis nl the I.'inilou and .Siaithern Centre 
of the Institute of Clean.-inj.' Superintendents paid a 
visit of in.speetion to the Suriiiton sewajre disposal and 
destructor works on Sat\nday, which were described 
by Mr. H. T. Mather, entrineer to the urban district 
council and for the scheme. 

iMr. ifather explained that before the works came 
into operation about a month ago the sewage of the 
district was treated at two different works — Kingston 
and Tolworth. The latter being out of date, and the 
agreement with Kingston having nearly expired, the 
district council decided to establish entirely new works 
for the treatment of the sewage of the whole district 
on one site. A provisional order was obtained, and 
21 acres of land in Lower Marsh-lane purchased, and 
on his advice a refuse destructor was established on 
the .site, the steam generated by the tmnaces being 
utili.sed for the jiumping and other machinery con- 
nected with the sewage works. The jiopidation at the 
last census was 17,717, and the death-rate for the last 
five years averaged 104 per 1,(XHJ. The dry-weather 
flow of sewage was 640,0IIU gallons a day, and the works 
had been designed to treat the sewage from a poi)U- 
lation of 30,D(K), which, it was estimated, would be 
reached, under nominal conditions of development, in 
1932. The character of the sewage was jHirely domestic, 
and it flowed to the works tlirough two new inter- 
cepting sewers constructed of granite concrete tubes, 
much of the northern sewer being in tunnel. The 
pump well had a capacity of 2,i,(K»0 gallons, and it was 
intended that pumping should be continuous, so that 
no storage was provided. There were two sets of 
pumps in duplicate, two steam-driven electric gene- 
rator.s for ligliting and for driving variois motors. 
The detritus tanks were in duplicate and each had a 
cai)aeity of 12,lM)0 gallons, while the sewage tanks had 
a total capacity of 54t.l,tJO0 gallons, the storm-water 
tanks a capacity of 180.IKX) gallons, the filters a capa- 
city of 7,740 cub. yds., and the hunuis tanks a capa- 
city of 9(i),(K»0 gallons. After treatment the effluent 
was conveyed direct to the Thames. He congratulated 
them on lieing the society of nninicipal officials 
to visit the works. 

A lantern lecture, "Stray Notes on Sewage Works 
Engineering." by Mr. Stanley W^ilkinson, the resi- 
dent engineer, followed, and the jiroceedings closed 
with some agreeable musical items. The arrange- 
ments for them were efficientl}- carried out by Mr. 
T. H. Whitewick, of Surbiton, as hon. secretary. 

Road Maintenance in Stirlingshire Mr. W. Ballan- 

tyne, road surveyor, Stirling.shire, in his annual re- 
port to the Eastern District Committee, states that 
one of the most important parts of last year's work 
was in connection with the road surface improvement 
.scheme. The scheme carried through in 1912 con- 
sisted in pitch-grouting and tar-spraying certain parts 
of the throughgoing sclieduled roads. The wet summer 
greatly hindered the operations, but the whole work 
was finally completed, and certification made to tlie 
Road Board for the balance of the grant applicable 
thereto. The area treated ext<?nded to 57,375 sq. yds., 
and cost t.">,.'>8t>, of which i;i,l.~j3 was received, against 
i;i,57.'i, the nett cost ol the special treatment. 

British Fire Prevention Committee's Tests The 

British Fire Prevention Committee have devoted 
several days this month to fire tests with fire ex- 
tinguishers, and last week certain of the tests were 
conducted in the presence of representatives of the 
various Government departments and other public 
authorities concerned. The tests were conducted by 
a strong sub-committee under the direction of Mr. 
Percy Collins, j.p., with Mr. D. W. Wood as deputy, 
the general arrangements of the testing station being 
in the hands of Mr. Ellis Marsland (general hon. secre- 
taryV Mr. E. Boyee Podmore and Superintendent 
Stanley Thorpe. The official reports of the various 
extinguisher tests will be issued later. The British 
Fire Prevention Committee <innoinice that the next 
tests with fire extinguishers will be on Wednesday, 
the 23rd inst. 

jrLY 18, 1913. 



Law Notes. 

Kdited bt J. B. RETGNTER COKDER, 11 Old Jewry Chambers, E.G., Solicitor of the Supreme Court. 

Tlu Editor vnll be pleased to ansvwr atlv qiksIiotis affecting tht 
mractic, of enjinwrs and inrveyor, to local authoritws. Q.ienes (,vh,ch 
KouM b.' wittm l^jiMy on fooUcap j»r»r, 01.8 std» only! should 6« 
addrMsed to " TU Lav> i'd.tor." at !).« oiSc6 0/ The Sdetetoe. 
occomBonMd bv tlw «iri(«r's nanM ond address, but correspondents 
uHo do ««t mk tlwiT nomM t* U ptbUihtd should also /uniwh o 

Building Line: New Building Erected on Site 
OF Old Buildimg: Public He.4lth Act. 1875, sec. 
155.— An important iioint under sec. 1.55 of tlie Pulilic 
Health Act 1875, was decided liy the Court of 
Appeal in Aflirriiii/-tia)eral v. J'arisl, (June 20th). It 
will be remembered that this .section provides that 
when a house in a street in an url)an district has 
been taken down in order to be rebuilt or altered, tlie 
urban authority may prescribe a building line for 
the new or altered house. It is also provided tliat 
the authority shall pay or render compensation to 
the owner for any or damage he may sustain 
in consequence of his house being set back or for- 
ward. In this case tlie defendant proposed to re- 
build an old bouse in the Lye and Wolleseote 
urban di.strict, and deposited plans for the new 
buildins on January 19. 1912. Tlie jilans were con- 
sidered by the council on January 22nd, and on tlie 
26th the demolition of the old house was begun. 
On February 5th the council pas.sed a resolution 
])rescribing a building line G ft. or 7 ft. back from 
that of the old l)uilding. and on February 1.5th 
notice of disapproval of the defendant's jjlans was 
given to his architect. On February 26th the archi- 
tect wrote to the clerk of the council that tlie house 
woidd be built in accordance with the by-laws, but 
that the could not agree to the building 
line; and the new house was begun on the same 
day. On iMarcli 12th the council's surveyor gave 
the defendant notice not to luoceed with the work. 
On iMarch ]5th the defendant's solicitor applied to 
the council's clerk for compensation, if the line were 
complied with, but this was refused. The defendant 
coni])leted the liuild'iiig on .April 27tli. The council 
asked the court for a mandatory order for the re- 
moval of the building, but Mr. Ju.^^tice Joyce dis- 
missed the action, with co.^ts. on the grounds (a) 
that it was doubtful whether the council had duly 
preseriljed the building line, or given proper notice 
of such prescription, (Ji) that the conduct of tlie 
council was unrea.sonable, and (<■) that the defendant 
was entitled to compensation before there was any 
order to pull down. The Court of .Appeal reversed 
this decision and granted a mandatory order to 
pull down, but, having regard to the attitude of the 
local authority, no costs of the ca.«* in the Court 
below were given them, the defendant, however, 
being ordered to pay the costs of the appeal. The 
Master of the Rolls, in the course of his judgment, 
.said that it was impossible to say that a building 
line had not been prescribed for the defendant's 
house. The plan signed by the chairman showed 
the line passing through the site of the house, and 
it was none the less prescribed it showed a 
line extending down the whole lane, where it could 
have no operation at the present time. The council 
were not required by the Act t-o prescribe it in any 
particular way. As to the point that no compen- 
sation had been paid or rendered, his lordship 
observed that there was nothing in the .section to 
require compensation to be rendered liefore a par- 
ticular date. In any case, it was very doubtful 
whether the defendant had not by his own conduct 
waived any objection on that ground. Both sides 
had acted foolishly and unreasonably, but thtre 
had never been any demand for comjiensation made 
by the defendant and refused by the local authority. 
The case was a trivial one, it was true, and it 
diflBcult to see what public benefit could be obtained 
by insisting on a building line in this lane: but 
when a defendant acted as he had done here, and 
absolutely challenged the authority of the district 
council, the court, if they thought he was wrong in 
doing so, as they did here, ought not to allow him 
to escape from the consequences of his actions. 


In order to avoid confusion querists are requested to use 

distinctive wordi as noma de plume. The letter X. com- 

hinations surh as X.Y.Z., and words such as "engineer" 

and " surveyor," should never be used. 

PIousE Drainage. — " Hundred " writes: It is 
necessary that adequate drainage should be provided 

"n«m dt plumo." Where necessary, coriea of -•Icl.i or docunKrtits 
referred to should be enclosed. All explanatory diagrams must be 
::rawn and lettered In BLACK Ink only, and in such eiyle as 
to be fit for direct reproduction — i.e.. without re-drawlng or 
amendment. Lvil.s.< these condition* ore comi'litd voith wa oannot 
wndirtakt to reply to <tuer\ei, 

to twenty-eight cottages owned by live different 
owners in a certain locality on the sea coast where 
at present there is no system of drainage. The dis- 
trict council have refused to lay a sewer into which cottages could drain, but have served notices 
on the several owners to provide drains sufficient 
for effectual drainage, emptying into covered cess- 
pools, under sec 23 of the Public Health Act, 1875. 
In the case of eleven of these cottages there is insuf- 
ficient land immediately around on which to provide 
cesspool drainage in accordance with the local by- 
laws, but they have garden land away from the 
cottages. The district council prepared a scheme 
of combined drainage, and asked the several owners 
to join in with it, the cost to be borne liy them, and 
the work to be carried out by the council. Four 
owners have provisionally agreed to the scheme 
being carried out, but the filth, rejjresenting half 
the number of cottages, refuses to have anything to 
do W'ith it. I should be glad to know — (1) Whether 
the district council can coinijei all, or any, of the 
owners to join in with the proposed sclienie and pay 
the cost? If so, under what .section of the Public 
Health Act? (.2) If it is not in their power to do 
this, can they compel owners of houses having insuf- 
licient land immediately around on which to pro- 
vide cesspool drainage in accordance with the by- 
laws, to lay drains to cesspools on their detached 
garden land, say, from 250 ft. to 350 ft. distant from 
such houses ? If so, under what section of the 
Public Health Act.' 

(1) In my opiuiou the district coiuicil cannot compel all 
or any of the owners to contribute to the cost of carrying 
out tlie proposed scheme, which is, in fact, a scheme for 
the construction of a " sewer." The effect of sec. 2:3. as 
1 read it, is as follows: (<i) Wliere there is an existing 
sewer within lUOft., the owner must bear the cost of the 
connecting drain; (Ij) wliere there is no such sewer the 
owner must bear the cost of connecting with a cesspool 
■ or other place " (but not the cost of constructing such 
cesspool or other place); (d where there is au existing 
sewer within IWJtt., but the cost of connecting two or more 
liouses with such sewer would exceed the cost of making 
and connecting with a. new sewer, such new sewer may be 
constructed at the expense of the house-owners. This case 
is not within (■ ). because there is no existing sewer within 
lOU ft. 1-2) If tlie b.v-laws are similar to the model by-laws, 
there is nothing therein to compel an owner to construct 
a cesspool. They merely provide that a person who does 
construct a cesspool shall construct it in a certain way. 
In my opinion the council cannot compel an owner to 
construct a cesspool in the absence of by-laws giving them 
this power. It is the duty of the council, under sec. 15, to 
provide their district with sewers. 

KoAD CoNSTKUCTioN. — " Cyiuio " writes: Council A 
iiiitiiined powers under an Act of Parliament in 1908 
tn construct roads within their district. It was found 
:it tb.e time that they could not connect up with the 
adjoining authority (council B), that council B not 
being prepared to extend the road in our direction. 
Council A has now come to an arrangement to con- 
tribute £750 towards council B in constructing this 
road. Of course, the work will be in the area of 
council B. I desire to know- under what powers you 
would advise the work In be carried out. Council A 
lias about £2,000 unexpended under the powers of their 
Act of Parliament, but the Act did not include this 
particular work. If application is to be made to the 
Local Government Board, have they on any occasion 
given a decision in giving powers to a local authority 
to expend money on roads in another district ? If so, 
I s)iou!d be glad if you will kindly quote the case. 

Unless the proposed arrangement is authorised by the 
Act of 1908. I do not see how it can be carried out. except 
bv obtaining a further Act. There does not seem to be 
anything in the Development and Roads Improvement Fund 
Act. 1909. whicli meets the case, and the matter does not 
appear to be one in respect of which the Local Government 
Board have jurisdiction. 

We have to draw the attention of querists to the 
directions laid down for their guidance in regard 
to the preparation of diagrams. Rough sketches 
obviously cannot be made use of, and wa should be 
obliged if correspondents would therefore send only 
carefully- prepared drawings, preferably about 6 in. 
in width, and without colouring or wash of any 
description. Failure to observe these rules v'ill 
involve the risk of queries remaining unanswered. 



July IS, lOia. 

Office Conversations. 



XIX.— Wie Ubiciuitous Deputy. 
Contented with my lot ? Graciou.-;, no ! Think I 
ought to have a better post by now ? Yes, a lot 
better. I feel— everyone does, I — that the 
biggest position in the country's the one I should 
grace the best. Am I a believer then in the glorious 
gospel of discontent ? Within reason, yes. None 
except the consuiumate ass can ever be satisfied 
with him.self, to commence with. The more one 
learns the less one seems to know, and a man 
doesn't begin to clanb the ladder of knowledge tnit 1 
he's taken a quick run to the top (in his mind) and 
come down with a bumj) to the ground. Oh, I knew 
a lot more before I was out of my pupilage than I 
do now ! And I've been acquiring experience ever 
since, and liave read and swotted until my brain's 
reeled. Even now I'm a fool when pitted against 
some of my council. Why, we've a grocer whom the 
rest of the members regard with absolute veneration 
as an expert on sanitary matters, and what our 
Prudential agent doesn't know about roads and road 
making — I'm giving you the opinion of the com- 
mittee he's on, not my own opinion — never will be 
known bv mortal man. 

That's the unfortunate thing about the work of a 
municipal engineer. Everyone knows more about it 
than he. With the clerk it's quite different, espe- 
cially if he's a solicitor. No one presumes upon his 
legal knowledge, and his every utterance is received 
with respect. Wish I'd never taken up the line ? 
No, I can't go so far as that. It's jolly interesting 
work, taking it all round; but it hit^s one on the raw 

sometimes to have a lot of There, I'm getting 

heated again. I always do when I think of it, an! 
it's a job not to let my tongue outrun my discretion. 
Sjieaking between four walls ? Yes, I know we are, 
l)ut there's a door and there're two windows, and 
I'm not quite alone either. Needn't mind you ? It 
goes in at one ear and out at the other ? Then it 'd 
be waste of time to inflict it upon you, so I'll say 
no more. You didn't quite mean that ? I don't 
suppose you did, but it's your own fault if you will 
interlard your conversation with the weary old fags 
and saws and sayings that everyone uses. I like 
to coin my own phrases, and if there's one thing I 
hate more than another it's the man who trots out 
proverbs and potted wisdom on every j)0ssible occa- 
sion. No, I'm not being iiersonal now, although I 
must confess that you're a bit fond of doing it at 

* * « • 

Don't I ever try for a bigger appointment? You 
may bet I never miss an o])portunity. Every Friday 
morning, never mind how busy I am. I go solemnly 
through the "Appointments Vacant" column of the 
journal which represents the profession, and if 
there's anything worth answering I'm on it. No, I 
don't believe in stopping too long in any place. All 
the talk about rolling stones— I can see the proverb 
on your lips— is rot. I've no desire to become moss- 
gro\vn. I know too well the usual result of long 
.service. It's all right while a man's in his prime, 
b\it when he gets about five-and-forty, and is fast 
verging on the half-century, his council begins to 
look a.skance at him. He's becoming old, while the 
council's being reborn every three years. Sooner or 
later the inevitable happens, and if he isn't called 
upon to resign he finds his job the very reverse of a 
bed of roses. Not in every Vase ? Of course not, 
but rules aren't founded oni exceptions. Look at 
Wiscons— thirty-five years' sciid service, and three 
months' notice to go. Look at Charlkin— vou re- 
member him surely ? Over thirty years again, and 
within six months he found himself bereft of' two- 
thirds of his offices, with a corresponding reduction 
in salary. Oh, I could mention a score or more of 
cases that I know of i)ersonally— not hearsay, mind 
you, but cases in which I knew the man and the 
circumstances. Want protection ? Oh, for heaven's 
sake, keep off that tojiic. I'm absolutelv sick of 
hearing it talked about, and nothing of "any kind 
whatsoever being done. 

No. I'll make a change as Soon as ever I get any- 
thing good enough. It's not worth going for the 
sake of a paltry rise. I prefer the frying-pan to the 

fire Yes, you had me there. It seems I'm a» 

fallible as the rest of them, but really it's not often 
that I descend to the level of the proverbialists. Big 
jobs hard to get ? Well, there's a rush after them, 
of course, and the more that apply the less each 
individual chance. Highest attainments ? Not in 
the least necessary — that's quite a fallacy. I don't 
mean for one moment to say that the men holding 
the premier positions aren't men of ability. But 
they aren't necessarily so. The biggest duffer could 
run a town of half a million, because he'd have a 
competent staff — ill-paid, but competent — to do the 
work for him. It's just the same in other lines. 
Take the newspaper world — I've a brother that's sub- 
editor on a daily, by the by — almost anyone could 
edit one of the great dailies, but it takes a thunder- 
ing good man to sub-edit one. The editor neces- 
sary ? Really, I'm almost inclined to doubt it, for, 
as the sub-editor attends to everything, he's really 
the editor after all. Only he gets a fifth of the big 
man's money. The loss of the editor would mean a 
decline possibly in the number of ponderous politi- 
cal articles (which no one ever reads), and that's 
about all. There must be a head ? Of course there 
must, and the sub-editor's that. Wliere does the 
editor come in then ? Oh, he's the tail, more often 
than not, that wags responsive to the work that the 
head and the organs of the body do. He .settles the 
policy of the paper ? My dear fellow, you're really 
remarkably green. Can you tell me of any daily 
paper that has any policy at all except to black- 
guard the other side ? 

<f » * * 

No, you're quite right. The cases are not analo- 
govis. I've run past myself. What we were discuss- 
ing was the question of highest attainments for big 
chiefships. And I repeat they're not necessary. 
Organising ability is the great thing. The mere 
technical part of the work can be left to subordi- 
nates, presided over l>y the ubiquitous deputy. 
Why, even in this little town I'm in danger of losing 
touch with the technical side. I never get time to 
have a turn at the drawing-board. It's all prepara- 
tion for committees, and drafting reports based u))on 
facts and figures prepared for me by my staff. Pre- 
sided over by my deputy? Precisely; only don't 
forget that I'm in intimate touch with every mem- 
ber of my staff, down to the meanest roadman. 
Everything is done practically under my immediate 
supervision, whereas in a big office departments are 
run almost independent of the chief so far as their 
inner working goes. It must be so, and it's not too 
much to say that three months' absence of the chief 
would not affect their working one bit. Nonsense ? 
Well, as you like, only I could quote you more cases 
than one where matters have been left entirely in 
the hands of the deputy for longer periods than 

Running the big men down ? Sonr grapes ? 
Nothing of the sort. I've nothing but admiration 
for them. They've all been through the mill, and 
if I've luck I'll emerge some day from the grinding 
process myself. But it won't be any special tech- 
nical attainments that'll pull me through, either 
before I get the job or after I've got it. What I'm 
looking for is a vacancy in a huge town where I can 
pull the strings. Canvassing not allowed ? Of 
course it isn't. It's against every Britis'n notion of 
fair play. Why, if canvassing were allowed the best 
man might get the job! That 'd never do. Too, it 
might spoil the chance of the man with one or two 
friends to give him a push. I know a town — a fine, 
bustling, manufacturing town, too — where I'd 
be bound to be first in the running. I don't wish 
the present surveyor any harm, but I do wish he'd 
get another post. No, it 'd be all the same if I 
didn't know a dumpy level from a theodolite. I've 
the influence. And the training ? Oh. yes, I bIIdw 
that. I must have had .some training; but it 
wouldn't make the least difference if I'd profited 

July IS, 1913. 



iiotliiiis; liy it. It won't he .-superior .■ittaiiiineiii - 
tliat '11 get me that post, if over I do get it. I 
won't confess it afterwards though ? Certainly I 
.-shan't. That post '11 have been won by sheer merit, 
l)y' the possession of attainments second to none ;ti 

the country, by But there, you've only to read 

what other men say about themselves to know 
exactly what I shall say. Humanity runs about on 
a level in most things. 


rh« Editor invitst tht co-operation of SuBTBTOR r«ad«rf with a vitv 
» maJv'iny tht in/ormation given under thU head as complete ani 


Berwick T.C. (June 27th. Major J. Stewart),— 
£1,200 for street improvement in Walkergate, Chapel- 
.street, Castlegat« and Northumberland-avenue. — In 
the course of the proceedings the inspector said : 
" There is hope that some day or other after you have 
si)ent the money on widening Chapel-street you 
will go further. On looking round your interesting 
town I found a great many streets that were narrow. 
I suppose that is agreed. Of course there is the 
expense of widening, and it is sometimes not desirable 
to tell people which street you propose taking next 
because values have a remarkable way of increasing." 

Brighton T.C. (July 10th. Mr. M. K. North),— 
£4,iat and £1,650 for purposes of street improvement 
in St. James's-street and at the corner of Grand- 
parade and Edward-street respectively, under the 
Public Health Act, 1875. — It was stated that the 
land to be purchased in St. James's-street consisted 
of 492 sq. yds., and that the price agreed upon was 
£3,600. The £1,650 required for the Grand-parade 
improvement was the purchase price of 83 Grand- 
parade, which it was proposed to demol'sh, using 
part of the site to round oft the at present very 
dangerous corner at Edward-street. The . Improve- 
ments Committee had not yet decided what to do 
with the surplus area. 

Burton-on-Trent T.C. (July 8th, Mr. T. C. Ekin). 
—£4,000 for the duplication of half the rising mam 
near the sewage pumping station. — Recently an ex- 
amination showed that the pipes were so corroded 
with lime that the diameter was considerably re- 
duced, and, additional pressure being in conse- 
quence placed upon the engines, a serious break- 
down appeared immine